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  1. 1. Figure 3.1 Figure 3.1 The Diversity of Cells in the Human Body
  2. 2. The Anatomy of a Representative Cell Figure 3.2 Label: 1. Cilia 2. Centriole 3. Mitochondrion 4. Rough ER 5. Smooth ER 6. Cytosol 7. Ribosomes 8. Golgi 9. Chromatin 10. Lysosome
  3. 3. • A cell is surrounded by extracellular fluid. This fluid is called interstitial fluid. • A cell contains intracellular fluid. This fluid is called cytosol (not cytoplasm; cytoplasm = cytosol + organelles). • The solute contents and concentrations of interstitial fluids differ from those of cytosol. • The concentration differences are due primarily to the cell membrane, which acts as a barrier and transporter. • Name three molecules or atoms that you think would differ between the cytosol and interstitial fluid. In which solution do you think they would be more concentrated? Why? Inside and Outside are not the same
  4. 4. The Cell Membrane
  5. 5. • Physical isolation • Regulation of exchange with the environment • Structural support Cell membrane functions include:
  6. 6. • The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Figure 3.3 The Cell Membrane Figure 3.3
  7. 7. • Integral proteins • Peripheral proteins • Anchoring proteins • Recognition proteins • Receptor proteins • Carrier proteins • Channels Membrane proteins include:
  8. 8. Figure 3.2 The Anatomy of a Representative Cell Figure 3.2
  9. 9. • Microfilaments • Intermediate filaments • Microtubules • Thick filaments Microvilli increase surface area Cytoskeleton provides strength and flexibility
  10. 10. Figure 3.5 The Cytoskeleton Figure 3.5
  11. 11. • Direct the movement of chromosomes during cell division • Organize the cytoskeleton • Cytoplasm surrounding the centrioles is the centrosome Centrioles
  12. 12. • Is anchored by a basal body • Beats rhythmically to move fluids across cell surface Cilia
  13. 13. Figure 3.6 Centrioles and Cilia Figure 3.6
  14. 14. Figure 3.7 Ribosomes Figure 3.7
  15. 15. • Are responsible for manufacturing proteins • Are composed of a large and a small ribosomal subunit • Contain ribosomal RNA (rRNA) • Can be free or fixed ribosomes Ribosomes
  16. 16. Figure 3.8 The Endoplasmic Reticulum Figure 3.8
  17. 17. • Intracellular membranes involved in synthesis, storage, transportation and detoxification • Forms cisternae • Rough ER (RER) contains ribosomes • Forms transport vesicles • Smooth ER (SER) • Involved in lipid synthesis Endoplasmic reticulum
  18. 18. Figure 3.9 The Golgi Apparatus Figure 3.9
  19. 19. • Forms secretory vesicles • Discharged by exocytosis • Forms new membrane components • Packages lysosomes Golgi Apparatus
  20. 20. Figure 3.10 Functions of the Golgi Apparatus Figure 3.10
  21. 21. • Lysosomes are • Filled with digestive enzymes • Responsible for autolysis of injured cells • Peroxisomes • Carry enzymes that neutralize toxins Lysosomes and Peroxisomes
  22. 22. Figure 3.11 Lysosome Functions Figure 3.11
  23. 23. • Continuous movement and recycling of membranes • ER • Vesicles • Golgi apparatus • Cell membrane Membrane flow
  24. 24. • Responsible for ATP production through aerobic respiration • Matrix = fluid contents of mitochondria • Cristae = folds in inner membrane Mitochondria
  25. 25. Figure 3.13 The Nucleus Figure 3.13
  26. 26. Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed,ear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Slide 26 • Chapter 02: Neurons and Glia
  27. 27. Slide 27 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Introduction • “Neurophilosophy” • Brain is the origin of mental abilities • Glia and Neurons • Glia: Insulates, supports, and nourishes neurons • Neurons • Process information • Sense environmental changes • Communicate changes to other neurons • Command body response
  28. 28. Slide 28 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Neuron Doctrine • Histology • Study of tissue structure • The Nissl Stain • Facilitates the study of cytoarchitecture in the CNS
  29. 29. Slide 29 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso
  30. 30. Slide 30 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Neuron Doctrine • Golgi-stain shows two parts of neurons: • Soma and perikaryon • Neurites: Axons and dendrites
  31. 31. Slide 31 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso
  32. 32. Slide 32 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso
  33. 33. Slide 33 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Neuron Doctrine • Cajal’s Contribution • Neural circuitry • Neurons communicate by contact, not continuity • Neuron doctrine • Neurons adhere to cell theory
  34. 34. Slide 34 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Prototypical Neuron • Neuronal membrane • The Soma • Cytosol: Watery fluid inside the cell • Organelles: Membrane-enclosed structures within the soma • Cytoplasm: Contents within a cell membrane (e.g., organelles, excluding the nucleus)
  35. 35. Slide 35 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Prototypical Neuron • The Soma • Gene expression • Protein synthesis • RNA splicing • Molecular biology
  36. 36. Slide 36 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Prototypical Neuron • The Soma • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) • Major site for protein synthesis • Free ribosomes • Polyribosomes
  37. 37. Slide 37 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso
  38. 38. Slide 38 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Prototypical Neuron • The Soma • Rough ER • Protein synthesis in neurons
  39. 39. Slide 39 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Prototypical Neuron • The Soma • Smooth ER and Golgi Apparatus • Sites for preparing/sorting proteins for delivery to different cell regions (trafficking) and regulating substances
  40. 40. Slide 40 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso
  41. 41. Slide 41 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso
  42. 42. Slide 42 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Prototypical Neuron • The Soma • Mitochondrion • Site of cellular respiration (inhale and exhale) • Krebs cycle • ATP- cell’s energy source
  43. 43. Slide 43 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Prototypical Neuron • The Neuronal Membrane • Barrier that encloses cytoplasm • ~5 nm thick • Protein concentration in membrane varies • Structure of discrete membrane regions influences neuronal function
  44. 44. Slide 44 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso
  45. 45. Slide 45 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso
  46. 46. Slide 46 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso
  47. 47. Slide 47 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso
  48. 48. Slide 48 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Prototypical Neuron • The Cytoskeleton • Not static • Internal scaffolding of neuronal membrane • Three “bones” • Microtubules • Microfilaments • Neurofilaments
  49. 49. Slide 49 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso
  50. 50. Slide 50 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Prototypical Neuron • The Axon • Axon hillock (beginning) • Axon proper (middle) • Axon terminal (end) • Differences between axon and soma • ER does not extend into axon • Protein composition: Unique
  51. 51. Slide 51 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Prototypical Neuron • The Axon • The Axon Terminal • Differences between the cytoplasm of axon terminal and axon • No microtubules in terminal • Presence of synaptic vesicles • Abundance of membrane proteins • Large number of mitochondria
  52. 52. Slide 52 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Prototypical Neuron • The Axon • Synapse • Synaptic transmission • Electrical-to- chemical-to-electrical transformation • Synaptic transmission dysfunction • Mental disorders
  53. 53. Slide 53 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Prototypical Neuron • The Axon • Axoplasmic transport • Anterograde (soma to terminal) vs. Retrograde (terminal to soma) transport
  54. 54. Slide 54 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso The Prototypical Neuron • Dendrites • “Antennae” of neurons • Dendritic tree • Synapse - receptors • Dendritic spines • Postsynaptic (receives signals from axon terminal)
  55. 55. Slide 55 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Classifying Neurons • Classification Based on the Number of Neurites • Single neurite • Unipolar • Two or more neurites • Bipolar- two • Multipolar- more than two
  56. 56. Slide 56 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Classifying Neurons • Classification Based on Dendritic and Somatic Morphologies • Stellate cells (star- shaped) and pyramidal cells (pyramid-shaped) • Spiny or aspinous
  57. 57. Slide 57 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Classifying Neurons • Further Classification • By connections within the CNS • Primary sensory neurons, motor neurons, interneurons • Based on axonal length • Golgi Type I • Golgi Type II • Based on neurotransmitter type • e.g., – Cholinergic = Acetycholine at synapses
  58. 58. Slide 58 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Glia • Function of Glia • Supports neuronal functions • Astrocytes • Most numerous glia in the brain • Fill spaces between neurons • Influence neurite growth
  59. 59. Slide 59 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Glia • Myelinating Glia • Oligodendroglia (in CNS) and Schwann cells (in PNS) • Insulate axons • Node of Ranvier • Region where the axonal membrane is exposed
  60. 60. Slide 60 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Glia • Myelinating Glia (Cont’d) • Oligodendroglia l cells • Node of Ranvier • Other Non- Neuronal Cells • Microglia as phagocytes (immune)
  61. 61. Slide 61 Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Concluding Remarks Structural characteristics of a neuron tell us about its function NEURONS Soma Axons Dendrites Synapse Elaborate structure of dendritic tree = receiver e.g., Dense Nissl stain = protein; suggests specialization Structure Correlates with Function

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