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    • Figure 3.1 The Diversity of Cells in the Human Body
      Figure 3.1
    • The Anatomy of a Representative Cell
      Label:
      Cilia
      Centriole
      Mitochondrion
      Rough ER
      Smooth ER
      Cytosol
      Ribosomes
      Golgi
      Chromatin
      Lysosome
      Figure 3.2
    • Inside and Outside are not the same
      A cell is surrounded by extracellular fluid. This fluid is called interstitial fluid.
      A cell contains intracellular fluid. This fluid is called cytosol (not cytoplasm; cytoplasm = cytosol + organelles).
      The solute contents and concentrations of interstitial fluids differ from those of cytosol.
      The concentration differences are due primarily to the cell membrane, which acts as a barrier and transporter.
      Name three molecules or atoms that you think would differ between the cytosol and interstitial fluid. In which solution do you think they would be more concentrated? Why?
    • The Cell Membrane
    • Physical isolation
      Regulation of exchange with the environment
      Structural support
      Cell membrane functions include:
    • The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.
      Figure 3.3 The Cell Membrane
      Figure 3.3
    • Integral proteins
      Peripheral proteins
      Anchoring proteins
      Recognition proteins
      Receptor proteins
      Carrier proteins
      Channels
      Membrane proteins include:
    • Figure 3.2 The Anatomy of a Representative Cell
      Figure 3.2
    • Microfilaments
      Intermediate filaments
      Microtubules
      Thick filaments
      Microvilli increase surface area
      Cytoskeleton provides strength and flexibility
    • Figure 3.5 The Cytoskeleton
      Figure 3.5
    • Direct the movement of chromosomes during cell division
      Organize the cytoskeleton
      Cytoplasm surrounding the centrioles is the centrosome
      Centrioles
    • Is anchored by a basal body
      Beats rhythmically to move fluids across cell surface
      Cilia
    • Figure 3.6 Centrioles and Cilia
      Figure 3.6
    • Figure 3.7 Ribosomes
      Figure 3.7
    • Are responsible for manufacturing proteins
      Are composed of a large and a small ribosomal subunit
      Contain ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
      Can be free or fixed ribosomes
      Ribosomes
    • Figure 3.8 The Endoplasmic Reticulum
      Figure 3.8
    • Intracellular membranes involved in synthesis, storage, transportation and detoxification
      Forms cisternae
      Rough ER (RER) contains ribosomes
      Forms transport vesicles
      Smooth ER (SER)
      Involved in lipid synthesis
      Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Figure 3.9 The Golgi Apparatus
      Figure 3.9
    • Forms secretory vesicles
      Discharged by exocytosis
      Forms new membrane components
      Packages lysosomes
      Golgi Apparatus
    • Figure 3.10 Functions of the Golgi Apparatus
      Figure 3.10
    • Lysosomes are
      Filled with digestive enzymes
      Responsible for autolysis of injured cells
      Peroxisomes
      Carry enzymes that neutralize toxins
      Lysosomes and Peroxisomes
    • Figure 3.11 Lysosome Functions
      Figure 3.11
    • Continuous movement and recycling of membranes
      ER
      Vesicles
      Golgi apparatus
      Cell membrane
      Membrane flow
    • Responsible for ATP production through aerobic respiration
      Matrix = fluid contents of mitochondria
      Cristae = folds in inner membrane
      Mitochondria
    • Figure 3.13 The Nucleus
      Figure 3.13
    • Chapter 02: Neurons and Glia
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed,ear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      Slide 26
    • Slide 27
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      Introduction
      “Neurophilosophy”
      Brain is the origin of mental abilities
      Glia and Neurons
      Glia: Insulates, supports, and nourishes neurons
      Neurons
      Process information
      Sense environmental changes
      Communicate changes to other neurons
      Command body response
    • Slide 28
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Neuron Doctrine
      Histology
      Study of tissue structure
      The Nissl Stain
      Facilitates the study of cytoarchitecture in the CNS
    • Slide 29
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    • Slide 30
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Neuron Doctrine
      Golgi-stain shows two parts of neurons:
      Soma and perikaryon
      Neurites: Axons and dendrites
    • Slide 31
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    • Slide 32
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    • Slide 33
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Neuron Doctrine
      Cajal’s Contribution
      Neural circuitry
      Neurons communicate by contact, not continuity
      Neuron doctrine
      Neurons adhere to cell theory
    • Slide 34
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Prototypical Neuron
      Neuronal membrane
      The Soma
      Cytosol: Watery fluid inside the cell
      Organelles: Membrane-enclosed structures within the soma
      Cytoplasm: Contents within a cell membrane (e.g., organelles, excluding the nucleus)
    • Slide 35
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Prototypical Neuron
      The Soma
      Gene expression
      Protein synthesis
      RNA splicing
      Molecular biology
    • Slide 36
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Prototypical Neuron
      The Soma
      Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
      Major site for protein synthesis
      Free ribosomes
      Polyribosomes
    • Slide 37
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    • Slide 38
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Prototypical Neuron
      The Soma
      Rough ER
      Protein synthesis in neurons
    • Slide 39
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Prototypical Neuron
      The Soma
      Smooth ER and Golgi Apparatus
      Sites for preparing/sorting proteins for delivery to different cell regions (trafficking) and regulating substances
    • Slide 40
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    • Slide 41
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    • Slide 42
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Prototypical Neuron
      The Soma
      Mitochondrion
      Site of cellular respiration (inhale and exhale)
      Krebs cycle
      ATP- cell’s energy source
    • Slide 43
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Prototypical Neuron
      The Neuronal Membrane
      Barrier that encloses cytoplasm
      ~5 nm thick
      Protein concentration in membrane varies
      Structure of discrete membrane regions influences neuronal function
    • Slide 44
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    • Slide 45
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    • Slide 46
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    • Slide 47
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    • Slide 48
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Prototypical Neuron
      The Cytoskeleton
      Not static
      Internal scaffolding of neuronal membrane
      Three “bones”
      Microtubules
      Microfilaments
      Neurofilaments
    • Slide 49
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    • Slide 50
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Prototypical Neuron
      The Axon
      Axon hillock (beginning)
      Axon proper (middle)
      Axon terminal (end)
      Differences between axon and soma
      ER does not extend into axon
      Protein composition: Unique
    • Slide 51
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Prototypical Neuron
      The Axon
      The Axon Terminal
      Differences between the cytoplasm of axon terminal and axon
      No microtubules in terminal
      Presence of synaptic vesicles
      Abundance of membrane proteins
      Large number of mitochondria
    • Slide 52
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Prototypical Neuron
      The Axon
      Synapse
      Synaptic transmission
      Electrical-to-chemical-to-electrical transformation
      Synaptic transmission dysfunction
      Mental disorders
    • Slide 53
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Prototypical Neuron
      The Axon
      Axoplasmic transport
      Anterograde (soma to terminal) vs. Retrograde (terminal to soma) transport
    • Slide 54
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      The Prototypical Neuron
      Dendrites
      “Antennae” of neurons
      Dendritic tree
      Synapse - receptors
      Dendritic spines
      Postsynaptic (receives signals from axon terminal)
    • Slide 55
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      Classifying Neurons
      Classification Based on the Number of Neurites
      Single neurite
      Unipolar
      Two or more neurites
      Bipolar- two
      Multipolar- more than two
    • Slide 56
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      Classifying Neurons
      Classification Based on Dendritic and Somatic Morphologies
      Stellate cells (star-shaped) and pyramidal cells (pyramid-shaped)
      Spiny or aspinous
    • Slide 57
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      Classifying Neurons
      Further Classification
      By connections within the CNS
      Primary sensory neurons, motor neurons, interneurons
      Based on axonal length
      Golgi Type I
      Golgi Type II
      Based on neurotransmitter type
      e.g., – Cholinergic = Acetycholine at synapses
    • Slide 58
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      Glia
      Function of Glia
      Supports neuronal functions
      Astrocytes
      Most numerous glia in the brain
      Fill spaces between neurons
      Influence neurite growth
    • Slide 59
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      Glia
      Myelinating Glia
      Oligodendroglia (in CNS) and Schwann cells (in PNS)
      Insulate axons
      Node of Ranvier
      Region where the axonal membrane is exposed
    • Slide 60
      Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      Glia
      MyelinatingGlia (Cont’d)
      Oligodendroglial cells
      Node of Ranvier
      Other Non-Neuronal Cells
      Microglia as phagocytes (immune)
    • Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain, 3rd Ed, Bear, Connors, and Paradiso Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
      Concluding Remarks
      NEURONS
      Soma
      Axons
      Dendrites
      Synapse
      Structure Correlates with Function
      Structural characteristics of a neuron tell us about its function
      e.g., Dense Nissl stain = protein; suggestsspecialization
      Elaborate structure of dendritic tree = receiver
      Slide 61