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  • Amygdala: a major structure leading to patterns of physiological change which pause when emotion occurs. The connection is thalamus to cortex to amygdala. Thus, we may have an emotional reaction/response before we’re aware what’s going on. View this chart first and then rapidly move to the next, which shows the amygdala. The following is a good reference for the learner... Diamond, M.C., Scheibel, A.B., and Elson, L.M. (1985). The human brain coloring book . New York: Barnes & Noble Books, a Division of Harper & Row, Publishers. 1-2; 1-3.

Transcript

  • 1. COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17 Neurobiology Of Emotions Part 2 Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D.
  • 2. To Get at Emotion, Go Deep... The main purpose of the innermost part of the brain is survival Amygdala is deep within the most elemental parts of the brain.
  • 3. Cognition and Emotion
    • The brain’s shortcut for emotions
  • 4. Brain Structures That Mediate Emotion
    • Hypothalamus
    • Limbic System
      • limbic cortex
      • amygdala
    • Brainstem
  • 5. Hypothalamus (Under the thalamus)
    • What is it?
      • A deep brain structure made up of a number of nuclei
    • Where is it?
      • Base of the fore brain
      • Behind the optic chiasm
      • Forms part of the walls of the 3rd ventricle
      • Contiguous with infundibular stalk to pituitary
  • 6.  
  • 7. Hypothalamus
    • What does it do?
      • Integration of emotional response
      • Forebrain, brain stem, spinal cord
      • Sexual response
      • Endocrine responses
        • neurosecretory
        • oxytocin, vasopressin
  • 8. Hypothalamus
    • How do we know that it integrates emotions and behaviors?
      • Ablation studies
      • Stimulation studies
      • Primary Emotions: Fear and Anger
  • 9. Ablation Studies
    • Cats
    • Remove cerebral hemispheres: rage
    • Remove hemispheres and hypothalamus: no rage
  • 10. Stimulation Studies on Cats
    • Lateral hypothalamic stimulation:
    • rage, attack
    • Other areas: defensive, fear
  • 11. Hypothalamus: Routes of information
    • Input from: cortex (relatively unprocessed)
    • Output to Reticular Formation
  • 12. Brainstem: Reticular Formation
    • Brainstem web
    • 100+ cell groups
    • Controls
      • sleep-wake rhythm
      • Arousal
      • Attention
  • 13. Reticular Formation
    • Receives hypothalamic and cortical output
      • separate descending projections that run parallel to volitional motor system
    • Output to somatic and autonomic effector systems
      • cardiac, respiratory, bowels, bladder
      • Coordinates brain-body response
  • 14. Limbic System
    • Higher Cortical Processes (“Secondary Emotions”)
    • Why do humans feel embarrassed with flatulence and dogs don’t?
  • 15. Limbic System
    • Link between higher cortical activity and the “lower” systems that control emotional behavior
    • Limbic Lobe
    • Deep lying structures
      • amygdala
      • hippocampus
      • mamillary bodies
  • 16. Limbic Lobe
    • What is it?
      • Cingulate gyrus
      • Parahippocampal gyrus
    • Where is it?
      • Encircles the upper brain stem
      • around corpus callosum
  • 17. Limbic System
    • What does it do?
      • Integrates information from cortical association areas
    • How do we know this?
      • Kluver - Bucy Syndrome
  • 18. Kluver - Bucy Syndrome
    • Removal of temporal lobe in animals
    • Pre-op
      • aggressive, raging
    • Post-op
      • docile, orally fixated, increased sexual and compulsive behaviors
  • 19. Kluver- Bucy Syndrome in Humans
    • Severe temporal lobe damage
      • tumors, surgery, trauma
      • Visual Agnosia
      • Apathy/ placidity
      • Hyperorality
      • Disturbance in sexual function (hypersexuality)
      • Dementia, aphasia, amnesia
  • 20. Additional Structures in Limbic System
    • Hippocampus
    • learning/ retrieval of memory
    • Circuit of Papez
  • 21. Circuit of Papez
    • First localization of Emotion
      • (Overemphasized role of hippocampus)
      • (Left out the amygdala)
  • 22. Amygdala
    • What is it?
      • Nuclear mass
    • Where is it?
      • Buried in the white matter of the temporal lobe, in front of the hippocampus
  • 23. Amygdala
    • “ Almond”
  • 24. Amygdala: What Does It Do?
    • Connects to:
      • olfactory bulb and cortex
      • brainstem and hypothalamus
      • cortical sensory association areas
      • “ Emotional Association Area”
  • 25.  
  • 26. Amygdala and Learned Emotions
    • Learned fear: rats and classical conditioning
      • Conditioned emotional response
    • Abolish fear response
      • cut central nucleus from amygdala OR
      • infuse NMDA antagonist into amygdala during learning