COGNITIVE
SCIENCE
17
Neurobiology
Of Emotions
Part 2
Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D.
The main purpose of the innermost
part of the brain is survival
To Get at
Emotion,
Go
Deep...
Amygdala is
deep within the ...
Cognition and Emotion
The brain’s shortcut for emotions
Brain Structures That Mediate
Emotion
• Hypothalamus
• Limbic System
– limbic cortex
– amygdala
• Brainstem
Hypothalamus (Under the thalamus)
• What is it?
– A deep brain structure made up of a number of
nuclei
• Where is it?
– Ba...
Hypothalamus
• What does it do?
– Integration of emotional response
– Forebrain, brain stem, spinal cord
– Sexual response...
Hypothalamus
• How do we know that it integrates
emotions and behaviors?
– Ablation studies
– Stimulation studies
– Primar...
Ablation Studies
• Cats
• Remove cerebral
hemispheres: rage
• Remove
hemispheres and
hypothalamus: no
rage
Stimulation Studies on Cats
• Lateral hypothalamic stimulation:
rage, attack
• Other areas: defensive, fear
Hypothalamus:
Routes of information
• Input from: cortex (relatively
unprocessed)
• Output to Reticular Formation
Brainstem: Reticular Formation
• Brainstem web
• 100+ cell groups
• Controls
– sleep-wake rhythm
– Arousal
– Attention
Reticular Formation
• Receives hypothalamic and cortical
output
– separate descending projections that run
parallel to vol...
Limbic System
• Higher Cortical
Processes
(“Secondary
Emotions”)
• Why do humans feel
embarrassed with
flatulence and dogs...
Limbic System
• Link between higher
cortical activity and the
“lower” systems that
control emotional
behavior
• Limbic Lob...
Limbic Lobe
• What is it?
– Cingulate gyrus
– Parahippocampal
gyrus
• Where is it?
– Encircles the
upper brain stem
– arou...
Limbic System
• What does it do?
– Integrates information from cortical
association areas
• How do we know this?
– Kluver ...
Kluver - Bucy Syndrome
• Removal of
temporal lobe in
animals
• Pre-op
– aggressive, raging
• Post-op
– docile, orally fixa...
Kluver- Bucy Syndrome in Humans
• Severe temporal lobe damage
– tumors, surgery, trauma
– Visual Agnosia
– Apathy/ placidi...
Additional Structures in Limbic
System
• Hippocampus
• learning/ retrieval of
memory
• Circuit of Papez
Circuit of Papez
• First localization of
Emotion
– (Overemphasized
role of hippocampus)
– (Left out the
amygdala)
Amygdala
• What is it?
– Nuclear mass
• Where is it?
– Buried in the white
matter of the
temporal lobe, in
front of the
hi...
Amygdala
• “Almond”
Amygdala: What Does It Do?
• Connects to:
– olfactory bulb and cortex
– brainstem and hypothalamus
– cortical sensory asso...
Amygdala and Learned Emotions
• Learned fear: rats and classical
conditioning
– Conditioned emotional response
• Abolish f...
Neuroscience of Emotions
Neuroscience of Emotions
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  • <number>
    Amygdala: a major structure leading to patterns of physiological change which pause when emotion occurs. The connection is thalamus to cortex to amygdala. Thus, we may have an emotional reaction/response before we’re aware what’s going on. View this chart first and then rapidly move to the next, which shows the amygdala.
    The following is a good reference for the learner...
    Diamond, M.C., Scheibel, A.B., and Elson, L.M. (1985). The human brain coloring book. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, a Division of Harper & Row, Publishers. 1-2; 1-3.
  • Neuroscience of Emotions

    1. 1. COGNITIVE SCIENCE 17 Neurobiology Of Emotions Part 2 Jaime A. Pineda, Ph.D.
    2. 2. The main purpose of the innermost part of the brain is survival To Get at Emotion, Go Deep... Amygdala is deep within the most elemental parts of the brain.
    3. 3. Cognition and Emotion The brain’s shortcut for emotions
    4. 4. Brain Structures That Mediate Emotion • Hypothalamus • Limbic System – limbic cortex – amygdala • Brainstem
    5. 5. Hypothalamus (Under the thalamus) • What is it? – A deep brain structure made up of a number of nuclei • Where is it? – Base of the fore brain – Behind the optic chiasm – Forms part of the walls of the 3rd ventricle – Contiguous with infundibular stalk to pituitary
    6. 6. Hypothalamus • What does it do? – Integration of emotional response – Forebrain, brain stem, spinal cord – Sexual response – Endocrine responses • neurosecretory • oxytocin, vasopressin
    7. 7. Hypothalamus • How do we know that it integrates emotions and behaviors? – Ablation studies – Stimulation studies – Primary Emotions: Fear and Anger
    8. 8. Ablation Studies • Cats • Remove cerebral hemispheres: rage • Remove hemispheres and hypothalamus: no rage
    9. 9. Stimulation Studies on Cats • Lateral hypothalamic stimulation: rage, attack • Other areas: defensive, fear
    10. 10. Hypothalamus: Routes of information • Input from: cortex (relatively unprocessed) • Output to Reticular Formation
    11. 11. Brainstem: Reticular Formation • Brainstem web • 100+ cell groups • Controls – sleep-wake rhythm – Arousal – Attention
    12. 12. Reticular Formation • Receives hypothalamic and cortical output – separate descending projections that run parallel to volitional motor system • Output to somatic and autonomic effector systems – cardiac, respiratory, bowels, bladder – Coordinates brain-body response
    13. 13. Limbic System • Higher Cortical Processes (“Secondary Emotions”) • Why do humans feel embarrassed with flatulence and dogs don’t?
    14. 14. Limbic System • Link between higher cortical activity and the “lower” systems that control emotional behavior • Limbic Lobe • Deep lying structures – amygdala – hippocampus – mamillary bodies
    15. 15. Limbic Lobe • What is it? – Cingulate gyrus – Parahippocampal gyrus • Where is it? – Encircles the upper brain stem – around corpus callosum
    16. 16. Limbic System • What does it do? – Integrates information from cortical association areas • How do we know this? – Kluver - Bucy Syndrome
    17. 17. Kluver - Bucy Syndrome • Removal of temporal lobe in animals • Pre-op – aggressive, raging • Post-op – docile, orally fixated, increased sexual and compulsive behaviors
    18. 18. Kluver- Bucy Syndrome in Humans • Severe temporal lobe damage – tumors, surgery, trauma – Visual Agnosia – Apathy/ placidity – Hyperorality – Disturbance in sexual function (hypersexuality) – Dementia, aphasia, amnesia
    19. 19. Additional Structures in Limbic System • Hippocampus • learning/ retrieval of memory • Circuit of Papez
    20. 20. Circuit of Papez • First localization of Emotion – (Overemphasized role of hippocampus) – (Left out the amygdala)
    21. 21. Amygdala • What is it? – Nuclear mass • Where is it? – Buried in the white matter of the temporal lobe, in front of the hippocampus
    22. 22. Amygdala • “Almond”
    23. 23. Amygdala: What Does It Do? • Connects to: – olfactory bulb and cortex – brainstem and hypothalamus – cortical sensory association areas – “Emotional Association Area”
    24. 24. Amygdala and Learned Emotions • Learned fear: rats and classical conditioning – Conditioned emotional response • Abolish fear response – cut central nucleus from amygdala OR – infuse NMDA antagonist into amygdala during learning
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