Created by:Created by:
Beven Livingston, Becky Huot, & Wendy HasenkampBeven Livingston, Becky Huot, & Wendy Hasenkamp
Grad...
Common Potpourri What’s that When it goes
Bonds for? wrong
$200
$400 $400 $400 $400
$200 $200 $200
$600 $600 $600 $600
$80...
COMMON BONDS - 200COMMON BONDS - 200
Vincent van GoghVincent van Gogh
Kurt CobainKurt Cobain
Ted TurnerTed Turner
Jim Carr...
What is Depression?What is Depression?
UNIPOLARUNIPOLAR
– major depressionmajor depression
– Affects 17.6 millionAffects 1...
Symptoms of DepressionSymptoms of Depression
Unipolar (major)Unipolar (major)
– persistent sadnesspersistent sadness
– los...
Causes of DepressionCauses of Depression
GENETICGENETIC
– most importantmost important
predisposing factorpredisposing fac...
COMMON BONDS - 400COMMON BONDS - 400
Click on the movie window to pause/play.Click on the movie window to pause/play.
Click outside the movie when you are read...
What is Parkinson’s Disease?What is Parkinson’s Disease?
movement disordermovement disorder
slowly progressiveslowly progr...
COMMON BONDS - 600COMMON BONDS - 600
disease of agingdisease of aging
gradual memory lossgradual memory loss
dementiademen...
What is Alzheimer’s Disease?What is Alzheimer’s Disease?
EPIDEMIOLOGYEPIDEMIOLOGY
– Usually does notUsually does not
occur...
Alzheimer’s HistologyAlzheimer’s Histology
Loss of neuronsLoss of neurons
Change in neuronal morphologyChange in neuronal ...
Normal Young Adult Brain Normal 88-yr old Brain
Compare ventricular volumes
relative to the whole brain mass
normal enlarg...
Alzheimer’s Disease - T1 coronal
Normal
88 yr. old w/ moderately
advanced Alzheimer’s Disease
Hippocampal shrinkage
*
Vent...
COMMON BONDS - 800COMMON BONDS - 800
Drew BarrymoreDrew Barrymore
Mickey MantleMickey Mantle
Ernest HemingwayErnest Heming...
What is Alcoholism?What is Alcoholism?
SYMPTOMSSYMPTOMS
– depressed mooddepressed mood
– appetite disturbanceappetite dist...
Lifetime PrevalenceLifetime Prevalence
ALCOHOLALCOHOL
– 10-20%10-20%
– 5:1 male:female5:1 male:female
– 1/10 drinkers1/10 ...
Questions about Drug AbuseQuestions about Drug Abuse
Why certain drugs?Why certain drugs?
– ReinforcingReinforcing
propert...
POTPOURRI - 200POTPOURRI - 200
The major cell type of the nervous systemThe major cell type of the nervous system
What is the Neuron?What is the Neuron?
a neuron consists of a cell body (C), an axon (B),a neuron consists of a cell body ...
POTPOURRI - 400POTPOURRI - 400
The part of the body injured byThe part of the body injured by
actor Christopher Reeves.act...
What is the Spinal Cord?What is the Spinal Cord?
When the spinal cord is damaged,When the spinal cord is damaged,
informat...
Spinal CordSpinal Cord
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI):Spinal Cord Injury (SCI):
The Big PictureThe Big Picture
Estimated 250,000 SCI people in the U.S....
Causes of SCI in the U.S.Causes of SCI in the U.S.
Vehicular AccidentsVehicular Accidents 40%40%
ViolenceViolence 25%25%
F...
Age Distribution of SCI PopulationAge Distribution of SCI Population
Approximately 60% of SCI population wereApproximately...
Costs Associated with SCICosts Associated with SCI
In 1992, approximately 10,000 SCI’s wereIn 1992, approximately 10,000 S...
POTPOURRI - 600POTPOURRI - 600
An immediate muscular responseAn immediate muscular response
to a specific stimulus. Like w...
What is aWhat is a
Reflex?Reflex?
Tapping a tendon to
elicit a contraction
of the muscle can
determine the status
of the n...
POTPOURRI - 800POTPOURRI - 800
The part of the retina that has noThe part of the retina that has no
photoreceptors. (optic...
What is the Optic Disc?What is the Optic Disc?
Blind SpotBlind Spot
Back >Back >
WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 200WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 200
The largest structure of the brain, itThe largest structure of the brain, it
...
What is the Cerebral Cortex?What is the Cerebral Cortex?
Cerebral CortexCerebral Cortex
Frontal Lobe = MotorFrontal Lobe = Motor
Parietal Lobe = SensoryParietal Lobe = Sensory
Tem...
WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 400WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 400
The part of the brain that isThe part of the brain that is
composed of the mi...
What is the Brain Stem?What is the Brain Stem?
Controls heart beat and respirationControls heart beat and respiration
(bre...
MedullaMedulla
PonsPons
MidbrainMidbrain
Back >Back >
WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 600WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 600
A tennis ball-sizedA tennis ball-sized
structure at the basestructure at the ...
What is the Cerebellum?What is the Cerebellum?
2 main functions:2 main functions:
– Coordinates skilled voluntary movement...
CerebellumCerebellum
When the cerebellum is damaged (commonlyWhen the cerebellum is damaged (commonly
from tumors, trauma ...
WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 800WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 800
The part of the brain that controlsThe part of the brain that controls
HOMEOS...
What is the Hypothalamus?What is the Hypothalamus?
Fight or FlightFight or Flight
ResponseResponse
Blood pressure controlB...
WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 200WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 200
The mental disorder portrayed by DustinThe mental disorder portrayed by D...
What is Autism?What is Autism?
Developmental DisorderDevelopmental Disorder
– Impaired communication (verbal/nonverbal)Imp...
AutismAutism
PREVALENCEPREVALENCE
– 1/500 children1/500 children
– 3-4 times more3-4 times more
common in boyscommon in bo...
Autistic SavantAutistic Savant
10% of autistics have spectacular abilities (like Rain10% of autistics have spectacular abi...
WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 400WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 400
The neuromuscular disease namedThe neuromuscular disease named
after an o...
What isWhat is
Amyotrophic Lateral SclerosisAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
(Lou Gehrig’s disease)?(Lou Gehrig’s disease)?
E...
Neurons in ALSNeurons in ALS
Back >Back >
WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 600WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 600
The mental disorder depicted by the young man in this video:The mental disorder depicted by the young man in this video:
C...
What is SCHIZOPHRENIA?What is SCHIZOPHRENIA?
A mental disorder characterized by disturbances inA mental disorder character...
SCHIZOPHRENIASCHIZOPHRENIA
Age of onset is generally from 16-25, butAge of onset is generally from 16-25, but
males tend t...
WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 800WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 800
The disease characterized by irrational fearThe disease characterized by ...
What is Agoraphobia?What is Agoraphobia?
Often accompanies panic disorder, fear ofOften accompanies panic disorder, fear o...
PhobiasPhobias
Specific Phobia (of particular object or situation)Specific Phobia (of particular object or situation)
– af...
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Neuroscience Jeopardy

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Neuroscience Jeopardy

  1. 1. Created by:Created by: Beven Livingston, Becky Huot, & Wendy HasenkampBeven Livingston, Becky Huot, & Wendy Hasenkamp Graduate StudentsGraduate Students Emory University Graduate Program in NeuroscienceEmory University Graduate Program in Neuroscience Edited by:Edited by: Jordan RoseJordan Rose Outreach CoordinatorOutreach Coordinator Center for Behavioral NeuroscienceCenter for Behavioral Neuroscience http://www.cbn-atl.org/education/outreach.htmlhttp://www.cbn-atl.org/education/outreach.html Please send questions or comments to jrose14@learnlink.emory.edu
  2. 2. Common Potpourri What’s that When it goes Bonds for? wrong $200 $400 $400 $400 $400 $200 $200 $200 $600 $600 $600 $600 $800 $800 $800 $800
  3. 3. COMMON BONDS - 200COMMON BONDS - 200 Vincent van GoghVincent van Gogh Kurt CobainKurt Cobain Ted TurnerTed Turner Jim CarreyJim Carrey Winston ChurchillWinston Churchill Harrison FordHarrison Ford Charles DickensCharles Dickens Robin WilliamsRobin Williams Monica SelesMonica Seles Emily DickinsonEmily Dickinson StingSting RoseanneRoseanne A disease affecting the following people:A disease affecting the following people:
  4. 4. What is Depression?What is Depression? UNIPOLARUNIPOLAR – major depressionmajor depression – Affects 17.6 millionAffects 17.6 million Americans/yearAmericans/year – Affects 1/5 womenAffects 1/5 women – Affects 1/15 menAffects 1/15 men – Treatment cost $30Treatment cost $30 billion in 1990billion in 1990 BIPOLARBIPOLAR – manic depressionmanic depression – Affects 2-3 millionAffects 2-3 million Americans/yearAmericans/year – men and womenmen and women equally affectedequally affected – treated with Lithiumtreated with Lithium There are two major types of depression:There are two major types of depression:
  5. 5. Symptoms of DepressionSymptoms of Depression Unipolar (major)Unipolar (major) – persistent sadnesspersistent sadness – loss of interestloss of interest – loss of energyloss of energy – changes in appetitechanges in appetite – low self-esteemlow self-esteem – changes in sleepchanges in sleep – poor concentrationpoor concentration – school/work absencesschool/work absences Bipolar (manic)Bipolar (manic) – Recurrent episodesRecurrent episodes of mania andof mania and depressiondepression – euphoric moodeuphoric mood – irritabilityirritability – racing thoughtsracing thoughts – excessive spendingexcessive spending – decreased sleepdecreased sleep
  6. 6. Causes of DepressionCauses of Depression GENETICGENETIC – most importantmost important predisposing factorpredisposing factor vulnerability tovulnerability to depressiondepression vulnerability tovulnerability to environmentalenvironmental factorsfactors ENVIRONMENTALENVIRONMENTAL – stress (major/chronic)stress (major/chronic) – serious lossserious loss – chronic illnesschronic illness – separationseparation – chemical dysfunctionchemical dysfunction Back >Back >
  7. 7. COMMON BONDS - 400COMMON BONDS - 400
  8. 8. Click on the movie window to pause/play.Click on the movie window to pause/play. Click outside the movie when you are ready to see the answer.Click outside the movie when you are ready to see the answer. The brain disorder depicted by the woman in this video:The brain disorder depicted by the woman in this video:
  9. 9. What is Parkinson’s Disease?What is Parkinson’s Disease? movement disordermovement disorder slowly progressiveslowly progressive tremor at resttremor at rest Akinesia: inability toAkinesia: inability to movemove Bradykinesia: slowBradykinesia: slow movementsmovements postural reflexpostural reflex impairmentimpairment affects over 1 millionaffects over 1 million Americans, including:Americans, including: Michael J. Fox,Michael J. Fox, Muhammad Ali, PopeMuhammad Ali, Pope John Paul, Janet RenoJohn Paul, Janet Reno Avg. age of onset: 58Avg. age of onset: 58 40% of PD patients are40% of PD patients are under age 60under age 60 Decrease inDecrease in neurotransmitterneurotransmitter dopaminedopamine Back >Back >
  10. 10. COMMON BONDS - 600COMMON BONDS - 600 disease of agingdisease of aging gradual memory lossgradual memory loss dementiadementia affects 1 millionaffects 1 million AmericansAmericans Ronald ReaganRonald Reagan
  11. 11. What is Alzheimer’s Disease?What is Alzheimer’s Disease? EPIDEMIOLOGYEPIDEMIOLOGY – Usually does notUsually does not occur before age 45occur before age 45 – rare before age 65rare before age 65 – affects 11% ofaffects 11% of people over 65people over 65 – unknown causeunknown cause DIAGNOSISDIAGNOSIS – Memory lossMemory loss – Rule out otherRule out other possible factorspossible factors Head injury, PD,Head injury, PD, Huntington’s, Stroke,Huntington’s, Stroke, tumor, infection, metabolictumor, infection, metabolic diseasesdiseases – Post mortem histologyPost mortem histology
  12. 12. Alzheimer’s HistologyAlzheimer’s Histology Loss of neuronsLoss of neurons Change in neuronal morphologyChange in neuronal morphology Accumulation of ß-amyloid proteinAccumulation of ß-amyloid protein “plaques” (extracellular)“plaques” (extracellular) Cytoskeletal abnormalities (intracellular),Cytoskeletal abnormalities (intracellular), “neurofibrillary tangles”“neurofibrillary tangles”
  13. 13. Normal Young Adult Brain Normal 88-yr old Brain Compare ventricular volumes relative to the whole brain mass normal enlarged Periventricular white matter hyperintensity Normal Aging - T1 axial
  14. 14. Alzheimer’s Disease - T1 coronal Normal 88 yr. old w/ moderately advanced Alzheimer’s Disease Hippocampal shrinkage * Ventricular enlargement Cortical shrinkage (increased space around the brain) Back >Back >
  15. 15. COMMON BONDS - 800COMMON BONDS - 800 Drew BarrymoreDrew Barrymore Mickey MantleMickey Mantle Ernest HemingwayErnest Hemingway William FaulknerWilliam Faulkner John SteinbeckJohn Steinbeck A disease affecting the following people:A disease affecting the following people:
  16. 16. What is Alcoholism?What is Alcoholism? SYMPTOMSSYMPTOMS – depressed mooddepressed mood – appetite disturbanceappetite disturbance – memory deficitsmemory deficits – psychomotorpsychomotor agitationagitation – self deprecationself deprecation COMORBIDITYCOMORBIDITY – mood disordermood disorder – anxietyanxiety – antisocialantisocial personality disorderpersonality disorder
  17. 17. Lifetime PrevalenceLifetime Prevalence ALCOHOLALCOHOL – 10-20%10-20% – 5:1 male:female5:1 male:female – 1/10 drinkers1/10 drinkers develops problemdevelops problem OTHER DRUGSOTHER DRUGS – Marijuana 4%Marijuana 4% – Stimulants 2%Stimulants 2% – Sedatives 1%Sedatives 1% – Heroin 0.7%Heroin 0.7% – Hallucinogens 0.4%Hallucinogens 0.4% – Cocaine 0.2%Cocaine 0.2%
  18. 18. Questions about Drug AbuseQuestions about Drug Abuse Why certain drugs?Why certain drugs? – ReinforcingReinforcing propertiesproperties – Reward pathway inReward pathway in the brainthe brain Why certain people?Why certain people? – GeneticsGenetics – PersonalityPersonality – Environment (stress)Environment (stress) – ComorbidityComorbidity Back >Back >
  19. 19. POTPOURRI - 200POTPOURRI - 200 The major cell type of the nervous systemThe major cell type of the nervous system
  20. 20. What is the Neuron?What is the Neuron? a neuron consists of a cell body (C), an axon (B),a neuron consists of a cell body (C), an axon (B), dendrites (D) and a myelin sheath (A)dendrites (D) and a myelin sheath (A) message transmission between neurons occursmessage transmission between neurons occurs through neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine)through neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine) learning occurs as connections between neuronslearning occurs as connections between neurons are strengthenedare strengthened Back >Back >
  21. 21. POTPOURRI - 400POTPOURRI - 400 The part of the body injured byThe part of the body injured by actor Christopher Reeves.actor Christopher Reeves.
  22. 22. What is the Spinal Cord?What is the Spinal Cord? When the spinal cord is damaged,When the spinal cord is damaged, information travelling along descendinginformation travelling along descending motor tracts and ascending sensory tracts ismotor tracts and ascending sensory tracts is blocked.blocked. Motor and sensory deficits can be predictedMotor and sensory deficits can be predicted from the level and location of the lesion infrom the level and location of the lesion in the spinal cord.the spinal cord.
  23. 23. Spinal CordSpinal Cord
  24. 24. Spinal Cord Injury (SCI):Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): The Big PictureThe Big Picture Estimated 250,000 SCI people in the U.S.Estimated 250,000 SCI people in the U.S. 11,000 new injuries reported annually11,000 new injuries reported annually Paraplegia (paralysis of legs) affects 55% ofParaplegia (paralysis of legs) affects 55% of the SCI populationthe SCI population Quadriplegia (paralysis of all extremities)Quadriplegia (paralysis of all extremities) affects 44% of the SCI populationaffects 44% of the SCI population
  25. 25. Causes of SCI in the U.S.Causes of SCI in the U.S. Vehicular AccidentsVehicular Accidents 40%40% ViolenceViolence 25%25% FallsFalls 21%21% Diving accidentsDiving accidents 10%10% Work/Sports RelatedWork/Sports Related 4%4%
  26. 26. Age Distribution of SCI PopulationAge Distribution of SCI Population Approximately 60% of SCI population wereApproximately 60% of SCI population were injured between 15-30 years of ageinjured between 15-30 years of age Most frequently occurring age is 19 years.Most frequently occurring age is 19 years. Male 70%Male 70% Female 30%Female 30% Ninety percent of SCI population lives normalNinety percent of SCI population lives normal lifespanlifespan
  27. 27. Costs Associated with SCICosts Associated with SCI In 1992, approximately 10,000 SCI’s wereIn 1992, approximately 10,000 SCI’s were reported.reported. Estimated lifetime costs associated with theseEstimated lifetime costs associated with these SCI’s are $10 Billion.SCI’s are $10 Billion. Individual suffering and loss to society areIndividual suffering and loss to society are impossible to calculate.impossible to calculate. Back >Back >
  28. 28. POTPOURRI - 600POTPOURRI - 600 An immediate muscular responseAn immediate muscular response to a specific stimulus. Like whento a specific stimulus. Like when the doctor hits your kneecap with athe doctor hits your kneecap with a hammer.hammer.
  29. 29. What is aWhat is a Reflex?Reflex? Tapping a tendon to elicit a contraction of the muscle can determine the status of the nerve that supplies that muscle. Back >Back >
  30. 30. POTPOURRI - 800POTPOURRI - 800 The part of the retina that has noThe part of the retina that has no photoreceptors. (optic _______ )photoreceptors. (optic _______ )
  31. 31. What is the Optic Disc?What is the Optic Disc?
  32. 32. Blind SpotBlind Spot Back >Back >
  33. 33. WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 200WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 200 The largest structure of the brain, itThe largest structure of the brain, it is divided into two hemispheresis divided into two hemispheres and each containing four lobes.and each containing four lobes.
  34. 34. What is the Cerebral Cortex?What is the Cerebral Cortex?
  35. 35. Cerebral CortexCerebral Cortex Frontal Lobe = MotorFrontal Lobe = Motor Parietal Lobe = SensoryParietal Lobe = Sensory Temporal Lobe = Hearing, LanguageTemporal Lobe = Hearing, Language Occipital Lobe = VisionOccipital Lobe = Vision Back >Back >
  36. 36. WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 400WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 400 The part of the brain that isThe part of the brain that is composed of the midbrain, thecomposed of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla.pons, and the medulla.
  37. 37. What is the Brain Stem?What is the Brain Stem? Controls heart beat and respirationControls heart beat and respiration (breathing).(breathing). Contains the major ascending and descendingContains the major ascending and descending pathways.pathways. It is a link between the cerebral cortex, theIt is a link between the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum, and the spinal cord.cerebellum, and the spinal cord. Contain the cranial nerve nucleiContain the cranial nerve nuclei 12 C.N.12 C.N.
  38. 38. MedullaMedulla PonsPons MidbrainMidbrain Back >Back >
  39. 39. WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 600WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 600 A tennis ball-sizedA tennis ball-sized structure at the basestructure at the base of the brain that isof the brain that is important forimportant for coordination ofcoordination of movement andmovement and balance.balance.
  40. 40. What is the Cerebellum?What is the Cerebellum? 2 main functions:2 main functions: – Coordinates skilled voluntary movementsCoordinates skilled voluntary movements by influencing muscle activityby influencing muscle activity – Helps to control equilibrium and muscleHelps to control equilibrium and muscle tone through connections with thetone through connections with the vestibular systemvestibular system
  41. 41. CerebellumCerebellum When the cerebellum is damaged (commonlyWhen the cerebellum is damaged (commonly from tumors, trauma or alcohol), patientsfrom tumors, trauma or alcohol), patients exhibit:exhibit: – Hypotonia (diminished muscle tone)Hypotonia (diminished muscle tone) – Ataxia (loss of coordinated, smooth movements)Ataxia (loss of coordinated, smooth movements) – balancebalance – Intention tremor (a tremor that arises whenIntention tremor (a tremor that arises when voluntary movements are attempted)voluntary movements are attempted) Back >Back >
  42. 42. WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 800WHAT’S THAT FOR? - 800 The part of the brain that controlsThe part of the brain that controls HOMEOSTASIS:HOMEOSTASIS: ThermoregulationThermoregulation Circadian rhythmsCircadian rhythms Appetite controlAppetite control Stress ResponseStress Response ReproductionReproduction
  43. 43. What is the Hypothalamus?What is the Hypothalamus? Fight or FlightFight or Flight ResponseResponse Blood pressure controlBlood pressure control Endocrine ControlEndocrine Control – ReproductionReproduction – StressStress Back >Back >
  44. 44. WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 200WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 200 The mental disorder portrayed by DustinThe mental disorder portrayed by Dustin Hoffman as Raymond in Rain ManHoffman as Raymond in Rain Man
  45. 45. What is Autism?What is Autism? Developmental DisorderDevelopmental Disorder – Impaired communication (verbal/nonverbal)Impaired communication (verbal/nonverbal) – Impaired social interactionsImpaired social interactions – Behavior - stereotyped, self injuryBehavior - stereotyped, self injury – Hypersensitivity of senses (light, touch)Hypersensitivity of senses (light, touch) – Large variability in symptomsLarge variability in symptoms – Not a mental illnessNot a mental illness
  46. 46. AutismAutism PREVALENCEPREVALENCE – 1/500 children1/500 children – 3-4 times more3-4 times more common in boyscommon in boys – >1/2 million people>1/2 million people in US todayin US today – 3rd most common3rd most common developmentaldevelopmental disorderdisorder CAUSECAUSE – Not knownNot known – Not psychologicalNot psychological – Genetic linkGenetic link – Major area of researchMajor area of research
  47. 47. Autistic SavantAutistic Savant 10% of autistics have spectacular abilities (like Rain10% of autistics have spectacular abilities (like Rain Man’s ability to count the number of toothpicks thatMan’s ability to count the number of toothpicks that fell on the floor just by looking at the mess for afell on the floor just by looking at the mess for a second).second). Skills like math, music, memory, and art areSkills like math, music, memory, and art are extremely advanced while social skills remainextremely advanced while social skills remain impaired.impaired. less than 1% of non-autistic population has theseless than 1% of non-autistic population has these abilitiesabilities underlying changes in brain unknown; major area ofunderlying changes in brain unknown; major area of researchresearch Back >Back >
  48. 48. WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 400WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 400 The neuromuscular disease namedThe neuromuscular disease named after an older baseball player forafter an older baseball player for the New York Yankee’s. It is fatalthe New York Yankee’s. It is fatal and has no known cause or cure.and has no known cause or cure.
  49. 49. What isWhat is Amyotrophic Lateral SclerosisAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease)?(Lou Gehrig’s disease)? EPIDEMIOLOGYEPIDEMIOLOGY – uncommonuncommon – 4 to 6/100,0004 to 6/100,000 – men and womenmen and women equallyequally – age 40-70age 40-70 SIGNS & SYMPTOMSSIGNS & SYMPTOMS – degeneration of motordegeneration of motor neurons in the brain andneurons in the brain and spinal cordspinal cord – muscle weakness andmuscle weakness and atrophyatrophy – doesn’t affect intellect,doesn’t affect intellect, or sensoryor sensory
  50. 50. Neurons in ALSNeurons in ALS Back >Back >
  51. 51. WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 600WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 600
  52. 52. The mental disorder depicted by the young man in this video:The mental disorder depicted by the young man in this video: Click on the movie window to play or pause.Click on the movie window to play or pause. Click outside the movie when you are ready to see the answer.Click outside the movie when you are ready to see the answer.
  53. 53. What is SCHIZOPHRENIA?What is SCHIZOPHRENIA? A mental disorder characterized by disturbances inA mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thinking, emotional reactions, and social behavior, as wellthinking, emotional reactions, and social behavior, as well as delusions and hallucinations.as delusions and hallucinations. Commonly misunderstood as “multiple personalityCommonly misunderstood as “multiple personality disorder”disorder” Devastating psychiatric disease that affects 1% of theDevastating psychiatric disease that affects 1% of the populationpopulation – 1/3 of homeless in America are afflicted1/3 of homeless in America are afflicted ‘‘Positive’ symptoms: delusions, hallucinations,Positive’ symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech & thoughtsdisorganized speech & thoughts ‘‘Negative’ symptoms: flattened affect, apathy, socialNegative’ symptoms: flattened affect, apathy, social withdrawal, poverty of speechwithdrawal, poverty of speech
  54. 54. SCHIZOPHRENIASCHIZOPHRENIA Age of onset is generally from 16-25, butAge of onset is generally from 16-25, but males tend to develop the disorder earlier thanmales tend to develop the disorder earlier than femalesfemales Excessive dopamine neurotransmission withinExcessive dopamine neurotransmission within the brain is hypothesized to be the cause ofthe brain is hypothesized to be the cause of schizophreniaschizophrenia As you might expect, the most common drugsAs you might expect, the most common drugs used to treat schizophrenia are dopamineused to treat schizophrenia are dopamine antagonists (block dopamineantagonists (block dopamine neurotransmission)neurotransmission) Back >Back >
  55. 55. WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 800WHEN IT GOES WRONG - 800 The disease characterized by irrational fearThe disease characterized by irrational fear of open spaces. Sigourney Weaver’sof open spaces. Sigourney Weaver’s character had this condition in Copycat.character had this condition in Copycat.
  56. 56. What is Agoraphobia?What is Agoraphobia? Often accompanies panic disorder, fear ofOften accompanies panic disorder, fear of having an attack in an unsafe placehaving an attack in an unsafe place PANIC DISORDER = sudden, unpredictablePANIC DISORDER = sudden, unpredictable onset of terroronset of terror – people believe they are having a heart attack orpeople believe they are having a heart attack or dyingdying – average length of attack is 10 minutesaverage length of attack is 10 minutes
  57. 57. PhobiasPhobias Specific Phobia (of particular object or situation)Specific Phobia (of particular object or situation) – affects 1 in 10 peopleaffects 1 in 10 people Social Phobia (of becoming humiliated in socialSocial Phobia (of becoming humiliated in social situations)situations) – runs in families, begins in early adolescenceruns in families, begins in early adolescence – associated with depression or alcoholismassociated with depression or alcoholism Back >Back >

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