Neuroscience and Occupational Therapy: Vital Connections 1989 ...

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Neuroscience and Occupational Therapy: Vital Connections 1989 ...

  1. 1. Presentation Outline  Historical Events (1989)  Main Points  Subtopics: Neuroimmunomodulation, Organic Bases of Schizophrenia, Traumatic Brain Injuries  Neurobiology Curriculum Philosophy  Conclusion  Biography of Shereen Farber  Discussion Questions
  2. 2. Historical Events of 1989  Politics & War: Cold War Ends- finally after 30 years!  The fall of the Berlin Wall- beginning of the end of communism  USA invades Panama  George Bush Sr. became President  Civil War in Lebanon increases between Christian and Islamic fundamentalists  The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill  Music:  Duran Duran, Madonna, Prince, New Kids on the Block, Cher, REM, Depeche Mode, and Garth Brooks.  Entertainment:  Ghost Busters 2  The Little Mermaid  Dead Poets Society  Honey I Shrunk the Kids  Back to the Future 2  Twins
  3. 3. Main IDEA(s)  Hypothesis: Common Denominator  Philosophies and methodologies are changing due to scientific breakthroughs; so should we change our educational structure and strategies.  Become excited about the neurosciences and what that means to health and wellness. Take the new information and run with it.
  4. 4. Neuroimmunomodulation
  5. 5. Main ideas of Neuroimmunomodulation  Understanding the how and why of Illness  Immunocompetent cells -- antigens and foreign invaders  Release of chemicals in the healthy immune response  Moderation  Visualization and Imagery techniques  T cell competency  Placebos  Superimmunity
  6. 6. Psychopathologies: with focus on Schizophrenia  Technological advances- diagnostic tests  Change environment- sensory overload/saturation  Speech Center location  neuro- rehabilitative approach with sensory integrative intervention  Mental and physical – Holistic view of individual
  7. 7. Traumatic Brain Injuries The order of biological events in a TBI (stroke):  Shock of CNS- synaptic activity decreased  Cell death due to collection of blood in extracellular cerebral space  Pressure in brain increases so much that it hinders the flow of oxygenated blood to the brain  Edema influences factors of ischemia and cell death becomes widespread  Neurotrophic and Neurotoxic substances are dumped into body  Reorganization of neuronal connections (from the built in survival mechanisms)
  8. 8. Plasticity “Plasticity refers to the integrated ability of the brain to remodel its connection in response to development, environmental changes, learning, stimulation, nutrition, and injury.” It is the bodies built in resilience mechanism.
  9. 9. Survival Mechanisms in Healthy individual  Neurotrophic Substances  Reactive Synaptogenesis  Immunological Privilege
  10. 10. Main Idea: Prevention and Treatment Associations with age: diet, hormones, and environment Environment as a modality Approach
  11. 11. Neurobiology Curriculum Philosophy  Real life Application  Learning Styles  Master’s and Doctoral Level education  Evolvement  Neuroscience mentors
  12. 12. Conclusion In our day in age, we have all the tools necessary for creating, developing, and testing out new ideas and knowledge. Science is beyond what therapists could have imagined in the early 1900’s. We are in perfect position for growth and enhancement due to the technological revolution. Farber suggests that the next step, “is up to the creative minds of Occupational Therapists to incorporate these new methodologies and discoveries into therapeutic advances.” ….Carpe Diem!
  13. 13. Shereen Farber, PhD, OTR, FAOTA Active roles and contributions to society:  Consultant of an ortho-neuro rehabilitative private practice  Research consultant for diverse corporations including Johnson & Johnson inc.  Associate professor of PT and Doctoral Studies in Florida  Works with Veterinarians (specializes in rehabilitation of dogs and horses)  PhD in Anatomy  Worked in Administration  Worked with Cerebral Palsy  Became Chief Occupational Therapist in Indianapolis at a children’s hospital  Awarded for several different achievements- Awarded for Scientific Excellence in Sensory integration.  Research interests are focused on the holistic individual and include alternative treatment to promote, and prevent pathologies that are influenced by mind and body integration.  Used OT to “enhance and evolve” herself into the person she is today
  14. 14. Discussion Questions  Farber (1989) Discussion Questions:  The section on neuroimmunomodulation gives examples of the interrelatedness of the body systems. Farber gives the example of the pituitary gland in relation to the hypothalamus and adrenal gland. Normal activation of these systems allow for a fight response to acute stress. In excess, they suppress T cell competency. Can you give an example other body systems that interrelate and are interdependent on expressing a normal body response?  Do you believe that relaxation and imagery techniques have become more or less valid in therapeutic design? If so, can you name any designs or techniques that are used today?  The use of placebos can be controversial. Do you believe that placebos are a “legitimate form of therapy”?  Which area of exploration appealed to you most (neuroimmunomodulation, psychopathologies, or Traumatic Brain Injuries) and why?  Has this lecture sparked an interest or taught you anything new? How can you apply this lecture or areas of this lecture to your career advancement?  Do you agree with the Neurobiological Curriculum Philosophy? Do you believe it is being implemented to the degree it should?
  15. 15. References: Padilla, R. (Ed.). (2005). A Professional Legacy: The Eleanor Clarke Slagle Lectures in Occupational Therapy, 1995-2004 (2nd ed.). Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press.

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