• Like

Loading…

Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

Published

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,339
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
35
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Neuroanatomy
    MCEM Revision
  • 2. Objectives
    Review the BASICS of neuroanatomy
    Revise the clinical presentation of stroke disease
    Understand the Munro-Kelly Doctrine.
    Revise the effects of certain cranial nerve defects
    Touch upon spinal anatomy
  • 3. Curriculum contents
    Huge topic
    General: Structural arrangement of the brain and spinal cord.
    Divided into
    Lobar anatomy
    Neurovascular anatomy
    Cranial Nerves & Nuclei
    Spinal Anatomy
  • 4. Clinical Considerations
    Stroke disease
    Subarachnoid Haemorrhage
    Intracranial Pathology
    Cranial Nerve defects
    Spinal lesions
  • 5. Considering the Neocortex
    Complex visual functions are processed within the occipital lobe
    The motor homunculus lies posterior to the central sulcus
    Division of the cortical tracts within the corpus callosum prevents processing of speech
    Infacrtion of Broca’s area will cause receptive dysphasia
  • 6. Considering the Neocortex
    T
    F
    F
    F
    Complex visual functions are processed within the occipital lobe
    The motor homunculus lies posterior to the central sulcus
    Division of the cortical tracts within the corpus callosum prevents processing of speech
    Infacrtion of Broca’s area will cause receptive dysphasia
  • 7. The Neocortex - Cerebral Hemispheres
    Frontal lobe: anterior to central sulcus
    Motor strip, eye control, speech motor function
    Parietal lobe: behind central sulcus
    Sensory strip, motor and sensory projections, interpretations of motor input
    Occipital Lobe: complex visual functions
    Temporal Lobe:
    Auditory projection, memory, smell(medial)
  • 8. Cortical Links
    The cortices are linked by the Corpus Callosum
    Division leaves both cortices capable of memory and emotional responses
    Cortical connections to the body
    Motor, including links to cerebellum
    Sensory
    Special sensory
    Intra cortical connections
    Integration of sensory inputs with memory areas
  • 9. Motor tracts
    Sensory Tracts
  • 10. In relation to neurovascular anatomy
    The circle of Willis is an anastamosis of the vertebral and external carotid end arteries
    The middle cerebral artery supplies all of the parietal lobe
    Occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery causes leg weakness
    10% of Berry Aneurysms arise from congenital defects
  • 11. In relation to neurovascular anatomy
    The circle of Willis is an anastamosis of the vertebral and external carotid end arteries
    The middle cerebral artery supplies all of the parietal lobe
    Occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery causes leg weakness
    10% of Berry Aneurysms arise from congenital defects
    F
    F
    T
    F
  • 12. Cerebrovascular Anatomy
  • 13. Neurovascular Anatomy
    4 Arteries supply the brain and it’s extensions
    2 Internal Carotid Arteries
    2 Vertebral Arteries
    Connect together to form the Circle of Willis.
    Branches of the External Carotid Arteries supply the Meninges and Skull.
    Venous drainage via dural sinuses into the IJV.
    Communicate with the diplopic veins of the skull into the facial venous circulation.
  • 14. Circle of Willis
  • 15. Internal Carotid Branches
    Anterior Cerebral Artery
    Middle Cerebral Artery
    Divides at the trifurcation to form penetrating branches to the basal ganglia
  • 16. Vertebral Artery Branches
    2 vertebrals merge to form Basilar
    Basilar supplies cerebellum and brain stem structures
    Basilar ends in formation of Posterior Cerebral
  • 17.
  • 18. Cortical Supply
    Sensory Homunculus
    Motor Homunculus
  • 19. Stroke Patterns
    TACI Total Anterior circulatory infarct
    PACI Partial Anterior circulatory infarct
    POCI Posterior circulation infarct
    LACI Lacunar infarct
  • 20. Stroke Patterns
    Anterior Cerebral Artery
    Leg weakness
    Middle Cerebral Artery
    Upper limb and face
    Perforators cause lacunar stroke (20% of all)
    Posterior Cerebral Artery
    Short term memory
    Smell & Visual defects
  • 21. Lacunar Stroke
    Localised lesion within the internal capsule and basal ganglia
    Pure motor (50-60%)
    Pure sensory (6-7%)
    Sensory-motor (20%)
    Ataxic Hemiparesis
    Lower limb weakness, and loss of co-ordination
  • 22. Sub Arachnoid Haemorrhage
    Berry Aneurysm
    1% congenital defect
    Found at the branch points of arteries
    Posterior Communicating
    Anterior Communicating
    Middle Cerebral
    Basilar