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Microsoft PowerPoint - L3 Neuroanatomy 3061 07b_notes

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Microsoft PowerPoint - L3 Neuroanatomy 3061 07b_notes Microsoft PowerPoint - L3 Neuroanatomy 3061 07b_notes Document Transcript

  • Psy 3061: Biological Psychology Neuroanatomy Mark Thomas, Ph.D. Department of Psychology Department of Neuroscience Anatomy of the Nervous SystemOutline Divisions Orientation Spinal Cord Brain Protection The Real Thing
  • Divisions of the Nervous System Brain OrganizationSensory information PNS Afferent CNS PNS Efferent Appropriate behavior
  • Divisions of the Nervous System AutonomicParasympathetic vs.Sympathetic• Region of spinal cord• Pre- and postganglionic length• Effects on target organ• Prepares organism for differentcircumstances
  • Divisions of the Nervous SystemCNS vs PNSBrain vs Spinal cord (both are CNS)Somatic vs autonomic (both are PNS)Afferent vs efferent (info flow re CNS)Sympathetic vs parasympathetic (both areautonomic PNS)Terminology differs in PNS vs CNS: ganglion -nuclei; nerves - tracts/pathways Direction & Orientation Anterior (towards front) v. posterior (towards back) (Similar: rostral v. caudal) Dorsal (towards surface of back or top of head) v. ventral Medial (toward midline) v. lateral
  • Planes of Section Horizontal section = divides specimen into dorsal and ventral segments Transverse (or coronal) section = divides specimen into rostral and caudal segments Sagittal section = divides specimen into left and right portions
  • Coronal Sagittal HorizontalThe Human Brain Copyright ©1994 by U of WA Digital Anatomist Program
  • The Human Brain Copyright ©1994 by U of WA Digital Anatomist ProgramThe Human Brain Copyright ©1994 by U of WA Digital Anatomist Program
  • The Human Spinal Cord Copyright ©1994 by U of WA Digital Anatomist Program Spinal Cord31 pairs of spinal nerves4 regions: cervical, thoracic,lumbar, sacralDorsal horn (sensory functions)& ventral horn (motor functions)Function: Receives & processessensory info and controlsmovement of limbs and trunk
  • Brainstem Midbrain Pons Medulla
  • Medulla MedullaIncludes major ascendingand descending nervetracts and a network ofsmall nuclei (reticularformation)Functions: Vital functions Sleep, attention Movement, muscle toneRaphe nuclei Major source of serotonin
  • Pons Continuation of reticular formation Peduncles connect cerebellum to brainstem MidbrainTectum superior colliculi (vision) inferior colliculi (audition)Tegmentum red nucleus, substantia nigra, periaqueductal gray, ventral tegmental area (VTA) Complex motor behavior, motivational behavior
  • Midbrain CerebellumPostural controlFeedback formovements inprogress; fine-tuningLearning motor skills
  • ThalamusSensory relay nuclei Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN; vision) Medial Geniculate Nucleus (MGN; auditory)ArousalLarge number of nucleiSynchrony HypothalamusRegulates autonomic,endocrine & visceralfunctionsControl overresponses toenvironment: Fight Flight Feeding Reproduction
  • TelencephalonLargest division of human brainCortex (outer layer)Subcortical structures: Striatum: regulates motor performance, motivated behavior Limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala): memory, emotion Striatum
  • Limbic System CortexCortex has gyri andsulci/ fissuresCorpus callosum :‘commissure’Landmark fissures: Longitudinal two hemispheres Central pre- from postcentral gyrus Lateral parietal from temporal cortex
  • CortexCortex: complex cognitive,integrative functions.Important gyri: precentral &postcentral4 lobes: Frontal = planning, working memory, selecting options Parietal = processing somatosensory info Temporal = processing auditory info, language comprehension, memory, emotion Occipital = processing visual info
  • Cortex Meninges3 types of meninges offer protection: Dura mater (outer) = tough membrane. Protects CNS. Arachnoid mater (middle) = weblike, secures dura to pia, and creates subarachnoid space (with CSF and large blood vessels) Pia mater (on inside)= delicate. Tight adhesion to cortical surface.
  • Meninges Frank Willard: http://faculty.une.edu/com/fwillard/Meninges/pages/mening14.htm VentriclesVentricles: 4 large cavities; containCSF Two lateral ventricles: in telencephalon. C-shaped. 3rd ventricle: in diencephalon. Vertically oriented. Tapers into aqueduct. 4th ventricle: on roof of pons and medulla. Diamond shaped.
  • Ventricles Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Protective roleManufactured by ‘choroid plexus’:capillary network lining ventricles.Circulates through ventricles andsubarachnoid space. Absorbed into largechannels (‘sinuses’) in dura mater, thenback into blood streamHydrocephalus caused by excessCSF: headaches, vomiting, gait instability, urinary incontinence, dementia and coma
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) Brain relies on vascular system for nourishment and oxygen BBB protects brain via ‘selective permeability’ allows water, small lipid soluble solutes and gases (O2, Co2) to pass Impermeable to large plasma proteins and large organic molecules
  • Human Brain & Evolution Key Points It has increased in size during the course of evolution Most of this increase in size has occurred in the cerebrum Increase in the size of the cerebrum has been accompanied by increased convolutions of the cortex