LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

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LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

  1. 1. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 1 Research Methods In Psychology 2
  2. 2. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 2 Basic Concepts of Research • Basis of scientific method – Making observations in systematic way – Follow strict rules of evidence – Critical thinking about evidence Research Methods In Psychology
  3. 3. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 3 Empirical Evidence and Operational Definitions • Empirical evidence – observations of publicly (confirmable) observable behavior • Operational definitions – use operations of measurement to describe observations – Evaluates quality of evidence and allows alternative interpretations Research Methods In Psychology
  4. 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 4 Theories and Hypotheses • Theories – tentative explanations of facts and relationships in science • Hypothesis – a prediction based on a theory – Tested to confirm or refute – Can be revised or abandoned Research Methods In Psychology
  5. 5. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 5 Representativeness of Samples • Sample – Representative of larger group or population of interest – Small group of humans or animals – Unrepresentative sample – misleading or biased test of hypothesis • Replication of research removes most doubt Research Methods In Psychology
  6. 6. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 6 Research Methods • Descriptive studies – Simplest method of scientific inquiry – Describe behavior and mental processes – Most widely used • Survey method – ask people’s opinions • Naturalistic observation – watch, describe • Clinical method – observe in clinic setting – All have advantages and disadvantages Research Methods In Psychology
  7. 7. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 7 Research Methods • Correlational Studies – Correlational method: measure two variables for statistical relationship – Variable: anything that can be assigned a numerical value – Uses quantitative measures Research Methods In Psychology
  8. 8. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 8 Research Methods • Correlational Studies – Correlation coefficient • Measures each variable • Indicates strength ( 0 to 1) and direction (negative or positive) of relationship – Correlation does not mean causation Research Methods In Psychology
  9. 9. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 9 Fig. 2.2Variable2 21 Variable 1 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2 20 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101 Hypothetical data illustrating a correlation coefficient of +1.00
  10. 10. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 10 Fig. 2.3 Hypothetical data illustrating a correlation coefficient of -1.00 Variable2 21 Variable 1 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2 20 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101
  11. 11. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 11 Fig. 2.4 Hypothetical data illustrating a correlation coefficient of zero Variable2 21 Variable 1 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2 20 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101
  12. 12. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 12 Formal Experiments • Tests relationship of two or more variables – Allows conclusions about cause-and-effect – Quantitative measures of behavior compared in different conditions created by researchers – Evidence supports or rejects hypothesis Research Methods In Psychology
  13. 13. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 13 Formal Experiments • Elements – Independent variable – gets manipulated – Dependent variable – amount of change – Experimental group – exposed to independent variable or conditions expected to create change – Control group – presents normal behavior used for comparison – Random assignment– – Experimental control Research Methods In Psychology
  14. 14. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 14 0.02 Nonviolent film Violent film 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.00 Fig. 2.6
  15. 15. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 15 Fig. 2.7 Control group: View nonviolent film Randomly assign into control and experimental groups Full population of interest Experimental group: exposed to independent variable: view violent film
  16. 16. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 16 Formal Experiments • Placebo control – Placebo effect: provides no active effect – Use in identical conditions for control and experimental groups • Blind experiment – Researchers blind to group membership of participants to rule out experimenter bias • Strongest experiments – double blind – Researchers and participants kept blind Research Methods In Psychology
  17. 17. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 17 Describing and Interpreting Data • Descriptive statistics – summarized data for large groups of participants – Mean: average – Median: midpoint in rank-ordered data – Mode: score appearing most often – Normal distribution: bell-shaped curve – Standard deviation: degree to which scores in ordered distribution are spread out Research Methods In Psychology
  18. 18. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 0 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 %Givingbirthfor1sttime Mother’s Age Mode Mean & Median
  19. 19. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 19 Describing and Interpreting Data • Reaching conclusions from data – Statistical significance • Size of correlation • Difference of means are greater than chance – Two issues for significance • Larger sample size is better • Statistical difference does not equal practical significance Research Methods In Psychology
  20. 20. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 20 Ethical Principles of Research • Ethics in research with human participants – Freedom from coercion – Informed consent – Limited deception – Adequate debriefing – Confidentiality Research Methods In Psychology
  21. 21. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 21 Ethical Principles of Research • Ethics of research with nonhuman animals – Necessity – Health – Humane treatment Research Methods In Psychology
  22. 22. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 22 Human Diversity: Equal Representation in Research • U.S. National Institutes of Health – New applications for research grants involving human subjects must include diverse samples of • Both sexes • Major racial and cultural groups – Differences may be real and important Research Methods In Psychology
  23. 23. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Slide 23 The End 2 Research Methods In Psychology

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