• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content

Loading…

Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

on

  • 1,076 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,076
Views on SlideShare
1,076
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
28
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Presentation Transcript

    • Research Methods In Psychology 2
    • Basic Concepts of Research
      • Basis of scientific method
        • Making observations in systematic way
        • Follow strict rules of evidence
        • Critical thinking about evidence
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • Empirical Evidence and Operational Definitions
      • Empirical evidence – observations of publicly (confirmable) observable behavior
      • Operational definitions – use operations of measurement to describe observations
        • Evaluates quality of evidence and allows alternative interpretations
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • Theories and Hypotheses
      • Theories – tentative explanations of facts and relationships in science
      • Hypothesis – a prediction based on a theory
        • Tested to confirm or refute
        • Can be revised or abandoned
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • Representativeness of Samples
      • Sample
        • Representative of larger group or population of interest
        • Small group of humans or animals
        • Unrepresentative sample – misleading or biased test of hypothesis
      • Replication of research removes most doubt
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • Research Methods
      • Descriptive studies
        • Simplest method of scientific inquiry
        • Describe behavior and mental processes
        • Most widely used
          • Survey method – ask people’s opinions
          • Naturalistic observation – watch, describe
          • Clinical method – observe in clinic setting
        • All have advantages and disadvantages
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • Research Methods
      • Correlational Studies
        • Correlational method : measure two variables for statistical relationship
        • Variable : anything that can be assigned a numerical value
        • Uses quantitative measures
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • Research Methods
      • Correlational Studies
        • Correlation coefficient
          • Measures each variable
          • Indicates strength ( 0 to  1) and direction (negative or positive) of relationship
        • Correlation does not mean causation
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • Fig. 2.2 Hypothetical data illustrating a correlation coefficient of + 1.00 Variable 2 21 Variable 1 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2 20 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1
    • Fig. 2.3 Hypothetical data illustrating a correlation coefficient of -1.00 Variable 2 21 Variable 1 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2 20 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1
    • Fig. 2.4 Hypothetical data illustrating a correlation coefficient of zero Variable 2 21 Variable 1 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 2 20 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1
    • Formal Experiments
      • Tests relationship of two or more variables
        • Allows conclusions about cause-and-effect
        • Quantitative measures of behavior compared in different conditions created by researchers
        • Evidence supports or rejects hypothesis
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • Formal Experiments
      • Elements
        • Independent variable – gets manipulated
        • Dependent variable – amount of change
        • Experimental group – exposed to independent variable or conditions expected to create change
        • Control group – presents normal behavior used for comparison
        • Random assignment
        • Experimental control
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • Fig. 2.6 0.02 Nonviolent film Violent film 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.00
    • Fig. 2.7 Control group: View nonviolent film Randomly assign into control and experimental groups Full population of interest Experimental group : exposed to independent variable: view violent film
    • Formal Experiments
      • Placebo control
        • Placebo effect : provides no active effect
        • Use in identical conditions for control and experimental groups
      • Blind experiment
        • Researchers blind to group membership of participants to rule out experimenter bias
      • Strongest experiments – double blind
        • Researchers and participants kept blind
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • Describing and Interpreting Data
      • Descriptive statistics – summarized data for large groups of participants
        • Mean : average
        • Median : midpoint in rank-ordered data
        • Mode : score appearing most often
        • Normal distribution : bell-shaped curve
        • Standard deviation : degree to which scores in ordered distribution are spread out
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 0 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 % Giving birth for 1st time Mother’s Age Mode Mean & Median
    • Describing and Interpreting Data
      • Reaching conclusions from data
        • Statistical significance
          • Size of correlation
          • Difference of means are greater than chance
        • Two issues for significance
          • Larger sample size is better
          • Statistical difference does not equal practical significance
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • Ethical Principles of Research
      • Ethics in research with human participants
        • Freedom from coercion
        • Informed consent
        • Limited deception
        • Adequate debriefing
        • Confidentiality
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • Ethical Principles of Research
      • Ethics of research with nonhuman animals
        • Necessity
        • Health
        • Humane treatment
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • Human Diversity: Equal Representation in Research
      • U.S. National Institutes of Health
        • New applications for research grants involving human subjects must include diverse samples of
          • Both sexes
          • Major racial and cultural groups
        • Differences may be real and important
      Research Methods In Psychology
    • The End 2 Research Methods In Psychology