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Institutional Information

  1. 1. Information for PKAL Consultancy Review of Skidmore College’s Neuroscience Program Fall, 2003
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS INSTITUTIONAL INFORMATION Skidmore Strategic Plan…………………………………………………………………………1 A Vision for Science at Skidmore College……………………………………………………...6 Admissions Materials…………………………………………………………………………..13 Course Catalogue……………………………………………………………………………….14 Assessment……………………………………………………………………………………....15 Christian A. Johnson Endeavor Foundation Grant Executive Summary...…………....…15 Biographical Summary: Raymond J. Rodrigues, Director of Assessment…………...…16 Work on Skidmore Assessment………………………………………………………….16 NEUROSCIENCE PROGRAM INFORMATION Proposal for Neuroscience Major……………………………………………………………..17 Introduction…………………………………...……………………………………....…17 Mission Statement and Goals……………………………………………………………17 Rationale for Proposed Curriculum………………………………………………….…..18 Curriculum for Major…………………………………………………………………………19 Gateway Course…………………………………………………………………………19 Core Courses………………………………………………………………………….…19 Integrative Course…………………………………………………………………….....19 Elective Courses……………………………………………………………………..….19 Honors……………………………………………………………………………..……20 Tutorial Project……………………………………………………………………….....20 Projected Paths through Major……………………………………………………….....20 Schedule of Course Offerings…………………………………………………………..22 Sample Student Schedules…………………………….…………………………..……25 Course Descriptions……………………………………………………………………………28 Gateway Course…………………………………………………………………………28 Core Courses……………………………………………………………………….……28 Integrative Course…………………………………………………………………….…29 Elective Courses…………………………………………………………………………29 Tutorial Research…………………………………………………………………..……32 I.
  3. 3. Course Syllabi…………………………………………………………………………………34 NS Student Data...………………………………………………………………………..……35 Number of Graduates……………………………..………………………………..……35 Enrollment Patterns for Lab-Based Introductory Neuroscience Course…………..……36 Students’ Reasons for Taking Neuroscience: Mind and Behavior (NS101)……………37 Collaborative Research…………………………………………………………...……………38 Course Offerings for Collaborative Research……………………………………………38 Faculty-Student Collaborative Summer Research Grant through the Dean of Faculty’s Office……………………………………………………………………………………38 Research Internship Opportunity……………………………………………………….40 Collaborative Research Summary………………………………………………………42 Administration and Budget of the Neuroscience Program…………………………………..43 Director of the Neuroscience Program…………………………………………………..43 Neuroscience Steering Committee………………………………………………………43 Budget……………………………………………………………………………………44 Faculty Participating in Delivery of Neuroscience Major……………………………………45 Grants……………………………………………………………………………………………51 Individual Faculty Grants………………………………………………………………..51 External Grants…………………………………………………………………………..51 Internal Grants…………………………………………………………………………...56 Facilities…………………………………………………………………………………………58 Research Laboratory Resources……………………………………………….…………58 Animal Care Facilities……………………………………………………….………….58 Faculty/Student Research Facilities………………………………….……………….58 Teaching Laboratory Resources…………………………………………………………60 Library Resources………………………………………………………………………………61 Assessment………………………………………………………………………………………62 DEPARTMENTAL REVIEWS Departmental Reviews…………………………………………………………………………63 Biology Department Self Study and Review (Spring 2003) ……………………………63 Psychology Department Summary………………………………………………………64 II.
  4. 4. APPENDICES I. Admissions Materials II. Course Catalogue III. Course Syllabi IV. Biology Department Self Study (Spring 2003) V. Review of Biology Department (April, 2003) VI. Exit Interview for Biology-Psychology/Neuroscience Majors
  5. 5. Relevant Websites: Skidmore homepage Neuroscience website Biology Department homepage Psychology Department homepage Skidmore College Microscopy Imaging Center (SMIC) website Skidmore Assessment website
  6. 6. Institutional Information: Skidmore Strategic Plan Institutional Information Skidmore Strategic Plan The Plan for Skidmore: Excellence & Community To inspire and invigorate our growth and development, Skidmore College has gathered to affirm our identity and connection to our history, to articulate our fundamental principles, and to imagine – creatively and hopefully -- our future. We do so as much to energize ourselves as to set concrete goals for achieving our vision. At its best, Skidmore is a community, utopian in the most optimistic sense, based on shared convictions about the nature and value of knowledge. Each member of this community has an opportunity and support to grow intellectually and flourish to his or her fullest through academic, co-curricular, work, and social experiences. Our community encourages each individual to contribute to the spirit and quality of the institution as a whole. We understand who we are and what we aim to be: an exemplary liberal arts college where exceptional faculty and students interact closely in a creative and diverse community. We are nationally recognized for our rich and innovative liberal arts curriculum, our vigorous interdisciplinary offerings, and our dynamic arts and pre-professional programs. Since our inception, we have promoted a strong connection between the theoretical and practical, complementary concepts that move along the same educational pathway. We have created an array of Special Programs that exemplify Skidmore’s ideal of motivation and joy in learning and provide a laboratory for innovation. We have successfully integrated our curricular offerings into an intellectually coherent and vibrant educational experience. Central to that experience is the engagement of faculty and students in embracing the challenge of discovery and mastery. We work to develop our students’ capacities for critical inquiry, to give them disciplinary and interdisciplinary breadth and depth, and to instill in them a lifelong love of learning. We urge them to test ideas, challenge assumptions, and cultivate intellectual curiosity, flexibility, creativity, and independence. We have been committed from our founding to preparing students to participate as wise and productive citizens in the world beyond Skidmore’s boundaries. Justifiably, we are proud of our achievements and our reputation for educational excellence. Now, we recognize in ourselves the desire to strengthen even further the academic culture and community of the College: to intensify and invigorate the intellectual life of our students and to support in significant new ways the endeavors of our teacher-scholars. We also recognize the educational imperative to bring greater diversity of people and perspectives to Skidmore, and to foster genuine interchange among them, to stimulate intellectual inquiry and prepare students to thrive and lead in a dynamic multicultural, global environment. We will build upon our achievements and resources: our impressively qualified faculty, our strong and motivated student body, our curricular innovations, our talented and dedicated staff, and our successful graduates. With our passion for Skidmore, our sense of shared purpose, our 1
  7. 7. Institutional Information: Skidmore Strategic Plan energy, imagination, ambition, and confidence, we can soar to the next level of excellence and recognition. To achieve our vision requires that we begin immediately to realize our objectives: • To challenge students to develop the qualities of mind and skills necessary for a life of meaning and accomplishment in a dynamic world • To insure our ability to carry out our educational mission by increasing the size and diversity of the faculty • To support vigorously our faculty’s work as teacher-scholars by offering enhanced opportunities and funding for development • To attract and serve academically strong and highly motivated students who will contribute to the ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic diversity of the community • To enrich our sense of community by creating opportunities and physical spaces in which all members can interact productively, share ideas, and fulfill their potential Achieving these goals will significantly advance our vision of Skidmore as a distinguished, academically rigorous, and intellectually vital liberal arts college that celebrates and nourishes all of its members and that is attentive and responsive to the community beyond our campus. Strategic Goals Our plan, as outlined below, focuses on the three highest strategic priorities that will foster a new level of intensity and rigor in the Skidmore educational experience. Each of these institutional priorities requires a substantial investment, which we will generate through an ambitious campaign for new resources and devotion of other resources to these highest priorities. At the same time, there are many other steps and changes that would measurably improve the quality of education, student experience, and work and community life at Skidmore. The examples here reflect the values we want to promote and provide a sense of texture for the ways the College aspires to improve the character of daily life. They suggest some of the most promising ways for us to use, indeed to challenge, the faculty and students we bring to Skidmore and the spaces we create through our strategic goals. GOAL 1: To enhance academic quality and faculty-student interaction by investing new resources in the faculty – to enable them to fulfill their potential as teachers, scholars, and citizens of the community – and academic facilities PRIORITY ACTIONS: • Increase the size of the faculty by 10-15 to insure our ability to carry out our educational mission • Offer enhanced opportunities, funding, and other support for our faculty’s work as teacher-scholars • Construct a new and long-needed music facility and renovate the current Filene Music Building to provide vital classrooms and office space for new faculty and additional performance space for student activities 2
  8. 8. Institutional Information: Skidmore Strategic Plan Skidmore’s dedicated faculty amply proves its commitment to teaching, service, and scholarship. Our faculty members are talented teachers, admirable role models for our students, and productive scholars; they contribute substantially to College governance. Our plan is to support innovative pedagogical approaches that will continue to add to and enhance a fluid, vibrant, and coherent curriculum; to sustain the indispensable scholarly efforts of current faculty; to attract and retain new faculty in an increasingly competitive job market; to diversify our faculty racially and ethnically; to provide essential academic space to house our faculty and programs; and to foster a culture in which students and faculty will engage in meaningful exchanges across a variety of learning experiences. Fulfilling these priorities will add resources to meet student needs: additional sections of courses, greater breadth of offerings, increased opportunities for student-faculty interaction, smaller class sizes during the critical first stage of students’ experience, more collaborative research projects, independent studies, and the opportunity to test and develop innovative teaching and learning models. Increasing the size and development resources of the faculty will also enrich the intellectual depth of our curriculum and exploit natural opportunities and connections. To realize our first goal we will: • Increase faculty diversity by investing in recruiting and addressing compensation competition and campus climate • Provide an enriched, selective program offering substantial support for full-year sabbaticals, as well as increased funding for faculty development, research, and summer projects • Create flexible assessment of faculty workloads responding to the evolution of faculty strengths, priorities, and interests • Award increased recognition and credit for student-faculty collaboration, student mentoring, innovative projects, and independent studies • Develop courses and programs that connect disciplines, build on historic strengths, and meet evolving student interest and post-graduate goals The renovation of the existing Filene Music Building, as well as the construction of a new music building, constitutes our most critical academic space requirements project. The renovated space will provide for much-needed new classrooms (6-7) and academic offices (about 15). Offices and classrooms are essential to support planned growth, and resulting space can be configured to serve pedagogical ambitions. A new music facility is necessary to support the academic program; to enhance Special Programs’ active music offerings; to enliven campus musical life; and to meet students’ rehearsal and performance demands. The new building will enhance the College’s intellectual and community activities far beyond this planning cycle. The sooner we complete this project the sooner we reap the benefits of an improved academic program, gain expanded space, aid recruiting, and guarantee the continuation of our strong performance tradition. 3
  9. 9. Institutional Information: Skidmore Strategic Plan GOAL 2: To attract and challenge an increasingly talented, motivated, and diverse student body PRIORITY ACTIONS: • Increase financial aid for students who will contribute most to the goals of educational excellence, rigor, and diversity • Recruit additional international and Academic Opportunity Program students and provide appropriate support service The quality of academic life at Skidmore reflects the quality of its students. For any college, each applicant pool marks a moment of transition and opportunity. We are attracting increasingly strong applicants each year; now we must insure that our strongest accepted candidates choose Skidmore. We seek students eager to engage energetically in intellectual inquiry across disciplines and ways of learning; students who value educational excellence and will challenge themselves to meet the standards and expectations of the faculty. We seek students who will contribute to the College’s ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic diversity and who will contribute to the sense of honor and responsibility of the campus, local, national, and global community. To achieve these goals we will: • Strengthen academic advising and enhance connections between students’ undergraduate and post-graduate aspirations • Support programs that inspire and celebrate academic excellence, such as Honors Forum and Academic Festival • Support programs that enhance campus climate and promote understanding of and between cultures, races, religions, and individuals, such as the Intercultural Center • Strengthen programs integrating academic, international and domestic study, co-curricular, residential, personal, and career development experiences • Develop and implement a comprehensive plan for residential life and facilities, including Moore Hall and Scribner Village • Address and support the contribution of athletics and recreation to student accomplishment and well-being • Encourage cross-fertilization and participation between residential students and Special Programs degree programs and specialized offerings We recognize that our success, present and future, depends on partnership among all the members of the Skidmore community. We seek to represent ethnic and racial diversity in our administrative and support staff; to respect the contributions of and provide opportunities for all individuals to fulfill their potential as productive members of the community; to contribute to and draw upon the vitality of the community of Saratoga Springs; and to welcome all members in the rich cultural, intellectual, social, and recreational life of the College. 4 GOAL 3: To strengthen the sense of community at Skidmore and promote active citizenship among our students, faculty, staff, and alumni
  10. 10. Institutional Information: Skidmore Strategic Plan 5
  11. 11. Institutional Information: Skidmore Strategic Plan We propose to realize these ambitions through the following efforts: • Expand opportunities for employees’ growth and satisfaction through training, mentoring, and recognition • Increase diversity among staff • Maintain competitive compensation and increase rewards of Skidmore employment 1. Promote environmental awareness and responsibility as a community commitment and utilize its educational potential • Foster opportunities and spaces for communication among all sectors of the community and increase the flow of information and responsiveness • Encourage staff participation in degree and other offerings of Special Programs and cultural and special events programming • Enhance recreation, health, and fitness facilities and programs To reach our goals, we have chosen to focus on those few priorities that will most forcefully advance Skidmore toward our vision. Our plans are ambitious, our potential boundless. Together we can make the last decade of Skidmore’s first century a time of real and rewarding progress in the intellectual intensity and community climate of the College. Approved by the Board of Trustees of Skidmore College, May 2002. 6
  12. 12. Institutional Information: Vision for the Sciences 7 Draft A Vision for Science at Skidmore College Aspirations and Challenges Motivation for this document At Skidmore, instruction and collaborative research in the natural sciences offer students superb opportunity to learn about scientific discovery and to engage scientific work. Faculty who review the performance of our science departments consistently praise our science programs, our dedication to high caliber instruction, our equipment, and our support for research. Students who study science at Skidmore often declare enthusiasm for the superb quality of the education they encounter. These students are enthusiastic about their lively interaction with dedicated faculty and about laboratory studies of important work on meaningful problems -work that yields valuable experience important in its own right and in informing others of the skills these students are acquiring. These circumstances, bright and promising as they are, invite a related question: why is it that our natural science programs, staffed by superbly capable faculty and teaching associates, equipped with modern instrumentation and information technology, and energized by commitment to working closely with students and to collaborative research enroll so few students as majors in the natural sciences? Institutional Research data1 at Skidmore tell us that in 2002 and 2003, exclusive of Psychology, 12-13% of our graduates majored in the remaining natural sciences (Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Geosciences, Computer Science, Exercise Science, Mathematics, Environmental Science, and Neuroscience.) A survey of twenty-two other liberal arts colleges2 , comparable in mission and size to Skidmore, exhibit, in the same interval, an average of 26% of their students graduating with degrees in the natural sciences. At Skidmore, 8% of our 2002 and 2003 graduates majored in Psychology; at the other liberal arts colleges, 7%, on average, majored in Psychology. This difference in graduating science student populations (Psychology excepted) is stark, and suggests that the natural sciences at Skidmore suffer from a deficiency of visibility, from an absence of a college message and action that alert more prospective students to the great opportunities that await them in science on our campus. Indeed, in this group of twenty-two, only Bennington College graduates so few science majors, and indirect evidence suggests that Bennington is not as well equipped to deliver science education as we are at Skidmore. 1 2 Survey of SCAFRO colleges, (Allegheny, Amherst, Bennington, Bowdoin, Bryn Mawr, Carleton, Claremont, Colgate, Colorado, Connecticut, Denison, Grinnell, Illinois Wesleyan, Kalamazoo, Macalester, Mt. Holyoke, Oberlin, Pomona, Reed, Skidmore, Swarthmore, Union), April, 2003.
  13. 13. Institutional Information: Vision for the Sciences 8 Alas, we have additional evidence that the visibility of the sciences at Skidmore is insufficient. We have not been invited to compete for funding in the 2004 HHMI Undergraduate Science Education Program. That invitation is dependent upon reaching a threshold of achievement for our science students who earn a Ph.D. in the sciences or an M.D. While we met that test in 2000, we have not done so in 2003. This is loss of an opportunity that we need to recover. Visibility of Skidmore will not be enhanced solely by our work in the classroom or in the laboratory. To deal with this issue, we must approach overarching concerns about Skidmore science, we must identify individual and shared aspirations for delivering science education, we must explain to ourselves and to others why these aspirations are vital, and we must build a case for gaining resources, staffing and support from the community, that help us achieve our objectives –the best possible science programs offered to a significantly larger population of science students than we educate now, and designed to qualify our students for strong graduate programs and challenging professional work. Thus, does a mission statement for the natural sciences make itself valuable, for the sciences, and for the entire College as we work to strengthen the role and the content of science education on our campus. Who we are We are an assembly of seven departments and two interdisciplinary programs staffed by sixty-six people who are faculty, teaching associates, technicians, administrative assistants and secretaries. Our faculty and teaching associates are joined through their enthusiasm for teaching students and through a shared sense of the scientific enterprise. They understand, in depth, the role of theory and experiment in scientific discovery, realize that all scientific conclusions are tentative, and that the key to scientific progress is confirmation of experimental results. Our science faculty teach and explore a wide range of scientific interests as they seek understanding of cosmological features, terrestrial history and action, human behavior, mathematical systems, computing systems, organismic systems, molecular systems, and subatomic behavior. They introduce students to the major discoveries of 18th , 19th , and 20th century science and to the quantitative applications of those discoveries in theoretical and experimental problem solving. Increasingly, this instruction takes the form of collaborative research, a partnership between faculty member and student devoted to scientific exploration and active learning by the student. We reside not only in the context of Skidmore, but within a broader arena of liberal arts colleges devoted to high-quality science education. Just as we are aware of scientific accomplishment within our disciplines, so we are alert to the accomplishments of science education at other colleges and to the challenges we face to provide comparable science instruction on our campus. That awareness illuminates our path and informs our vision of what we must become so we can continue to serve Skidmore science students well.
  14. 14. Institutional Information: Vision for the Sciences 9 Vision: what we’d like to attain for the natural sciences at Skidmore We know that the Vice-president for Academic Affairs/Dean of the Faculty has asked CEPP to express a vision for the curriculum of the College. The Chair of CEPP tells us that the Committee will guide its expression through consideration of the following issues:  Concern for excellence and rigor among faculty and students.  Support for collaborative learning and for service learning.  Attention to international and global issues.  Achievement of a balanced core curriculum.  Delivery of effective advising for students.  Attainment of diversity among students.  Achievement of information literacy by our students. So we will speak to these issues as they converge with the concerns of our scientists for sustaining the best that they and their students do and for enriching the climate for science on our campus. Concern for excellence and rigor To declare that our scientists yearn for excellence and rigor is virtually a tautology. What matters here are the strategies, costs and implications of gaining greater excellence in the sciences. First among those strategies is a revivified projection of the College, a strengthened assertion of the importance of natural science education at Skidmore. Our vision resides in the belief that excellent science education begins with the convergence of dedicated faculty and a significant population of bright, motivated, and curious students. While there surely are such science students on our campus, their population is often too small to support advanced level courses, collaborative research projects, seminars, and other campus science programs that embody cutting edge excitement in science. We need to deal with this issue, from the early moments of recruitment, into the admissions operations, through the educational experience of our science students where we must help them to build a greater appetite for excellence, and finally to our alumni who can tell others of science at Skidmore and help us to attract excellent students to our science programs. We are particularly eager to attract more women and minorities into the study of science at Skidmore, and encourage these groups, underrepresented generally in the sciences, to join the excitement, collaboration, and accomplishment that infuse science at Skidmore. In the sciences, what do we mean by excellence? Surely, we mean more than we will express on this page, but among other things we mean faculty and students building together the foundations of scientific understanding that equip students to tackle substantive scientific problems in imaginative, well-informed ways, and to move toward independent thought that productively guides their scientific studies. We mean acquiring knowledge and experimental abilities that foster theoretical or experimental progress. We mean developing understanding of their studies in depth sufficient for them to convey their ideas, in speech and in writing, to peers who can assess their work. Finally, we mean, on occasion for every science student, accomplishment that
  15. 15. Institutional Information: Vision for the Sciences 10 invites the respect of other students and of faculty who know the traditions of excellence in strong undergraduate science education. Collaborative learning and excellence For our scientists and their students, collaborative learning is an important vehicle for achieving excellence. Contemporary science education at all excellent liberal arts colleges guides students to collaborative research and exposes them to the virtues of results oriented achievement. Experimental design, perseverance that overcomes experimental challenge, calibration and thorough understanding of instrumentation and experimental equipment, healthy skepticism that assesses the reliability of data, insight that builds connections between experimental action and the objectives of research –all these things flow from disciplined, well-supervised collaborative research. Therefore, we believe that every Skidmore science student who wishes to engage collaborative research should be afforded opportunity to do so. We know that this work prepares them to enter the best graduate schools and equips them to develop the professional abilities they will need to succeed in their work after college. These are clearly important objectives, but they are costly to attain. Collaborative research is the work of one faculty member with one or perhaps several students. It operates without the leverage of large classes and without the convenience of regularly scheduled courses. Research moves ahead as it will, driven by the commitment of student and faculty member. Its schedule is often fashioned by events, by the need that one experimental result evokes on the path to the next. This is work that is not acknowledged in the teaching assignments of faculty. Our vision looks to a day when the College acknowledges more fully the vital importance of collaborative research, staffs the natural sciences so they are more able to deliver this valuable mode of education, and finds a way to yield teaching credit for this work. Laboratory resources to support excellence Science is the study of the natural world; effective, excellent science education requires the use of instrumentation and equipment that gather data and provide a basis for understanding that world. Our vision for science at Skidmore pictures a distribution of space sufficient to house and support the equipment of science and foster communication among our scientists supportive of the best education we can deliver. Spectrometers and spectrophotometers, and chromatographs, and microscopes, and imaging technology, and computers, and pH meters, and densitometers, and PCR devices, among other things, inhabit our laboratories. They aid our investigation of nature as they serve the educational and research needs of students and faculty. We wish to deploy these resources in the most effective ways, sharing their capacity among departments when there is educational and research leverage to do so, distributing them into focused and dedicated operations when that strategy is essential, establishing the balance of these strategies that affords the best possible applications of these very expensive resources. Furthermore, our vision focuses upon acquiring technical support for our instrumentation, properly trained people who will assure, as CITS does for campus computers, the reliable and effective operation of our instruments so that they serve our educational and research needs on a sustained basis.
  16. 16. Institutional Information: Vision for the Sciences 11 Interdisciplinary programs to support excellence Contemporary scientific research often requires cooperation by scientists in different fundamental fields. Cooperation among university and governmental scientists in a range of fundamental scientific disciplines is a major path to scientific progress. This development alerts us to the continuing importance of teaching fundamental scientific concepts and of developing interdisciplinary science programs that introduce students to concepts and research that depend upon multidisciplinary scientific knowledge. Our Neuroscience and Environmental Science programs reveal the value of such interdisciplinary programs. Our awareness of rapid change in modern science tells us that we will have to develop other such programs to assure that our students continue to engage important new ideas in scientific discovery. To achieve this objective, we must encourage cooperation among scientists in differing disciplines, recognize the importance of collaboration between departments, and acknowledge the work of faculty who sustain such endeavor. In the absence of such recognition, we will diminish this important work and weaken our capacity to teach modern science. Pursuit of external funding to support excellence Sustaining excellence within our science programs is costly and continually demanding of modern resources. Our vision informs us that the College cannot sustain our needs solely through traditional revenues, and that modernizing our programs and supporting our research must rely, to a degree, upon external funding of worthy projects. Agencies such as NSF, NIH, Dreyfus, the Research Corp, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute fund innovation in science education and in research appropriate for faculty and students at liberal arts colleges. We must pursue these funds to gain some of the resources we need to enrich our science programs and to facilitate the research that we expect of our faculty. Funding of our proposals will also enhance the visibility of the sciences at Skidmore, alerting foundations, colleagues elsewhere, and the public of scientific enterprise on our campus. All of this work comes at a cost, and we need to recognize the effort and time that proposal development requires. We need to acknowledge such work, particularly when it is successful, in decisions on retention and promotion. Attention to international and global issues We live in a material and an increasingly interdependent world, a place where the natural and the synthetic converge, in a time when the use and disposal of these resources invite concern for sustainability of the global environment. Biology, Chemistry, Geosciences and Environmental Studies speak to these issues in specific ways, and indeed their capacity to sustain contemporary educational importance depends, in part, upon their ability to investigate and report on environmental issues. We also inhabit our own bodies, and so we wish to educate students in health issues for the individual and for large populations. Our vision for the sciences in these arenas compels strengthening work in our related programs. We wish to build intellectual connections among the sciences and to disciplines outside of the sciences also concerned with sustaining a robust environment and with health issues, alert our students to the social, political,
  17. 17. Institutional Information: Vision for the Sciences 12 economic, and scientific details of these matters, and provide a vehicle for strengthening every aspect of environmental education from the core curriculum to capstone programs. Achievement of a balanced core curriculum Our vision for the natural sciences responds to how well all Skidmore students understand scientific discovery and how much they consider the implications of that discovery for public policy, for choices of private and public values, and for understanding the human condition in the physical world. In a time when technological achievement influences virtually every dimension of life, we must provide substantive encounters with science for all of our students and assure that liberal learning at Skidmore intersects the scientific enterprise. In these matters, too many Skidmore students are woefully undereducated; correcting this circumstance begins with our scientists and their renewed effort to deliver well-designed, topical courses that encourage all of our students to explore scientific accomplishment and consider the impact of science and technology upon society. This enterprise continues when our core curriculum asks all of our students to gain knowledge about science and its consequences to a degree greater than it does now. In a related matter, we look to a day when Skidmore highlights and supports an annual major public lecture in the sciences, as it does for the humanities with the Steloff Lecture, and for the pre-professional business program with the Harder Lecture, and for the social sciences with the Fiscus Lecture. Such an event will stimulate serious discussion about scientific and technological issues and complement our endeavors to strengthen serious curricular consideration of science on our campus. Achievement of Information Literacy Effective and timely use of information technology is a vital aspect of learning and doing science. To prepare for graduate school or to begin professional work in the sciences, our students must employ information technology to support their work. They employ information technology to gain contemporary information from the literature, to gather data in the laboratory, to compute results, to organize information, to model experimental systems, and to communicate findings. In the sciences, our vision for students is not merely for them to develop information literacy; it is to encourage students in the use of this technology for the solution of problems that heretofore have been virtually intractable and to engage these students more deeply with the content of their studies. Concluding observations This narrative on “vision” is a work in progress, its content endorsed by the members of the Science Planning Group (SPG), its fundamental concepts shared and largely accepted by the faculty in the natural science departments, though this latter group has not yet read this document. We know that Skidmore aspires to be among the best liberal arts colleges in the nation. We believe that strengthening the presence of the natural sciences on our campus will help the College gain on that aspiration. It is in that light and with knowledge that CEPP is working on a “vision” for the College curriculum that we convey our aspirations and thoughts. We hope that our expression will provide a basis for exchange between CEPP and SPG, a means for helping CEPP to guide SPG in its thinking about how the sciences mesh with the College
  18. 18. Institutional Information: Vision for the Sciences 13 curriculum and for SPG to aid CEPP as it thinks about the role of the natural sciences in the education of our students. For the Science Planning Group, Robert P. DeSieno Members of the Science Planning Group: Robert DeSieno, Sponsored Research Office, Mathematics and Computer Science David Domozych, Co-Chair, Biology Denise Evert, Program Director, Neuroscience Mary Ann Foley, Chair, Psychology Sarah Goodwin, Associate Dean of the Faculty Judith Halstead, Director, Environmental Studies Ann Henderson, Registrar and Director, Institutional Research, Mark Hofmann, Chair, Mathematics and Computer Science Richard Lindemann, Chair, Geosciences Vasantha Narasimhan, Chair, Chemistry Bernard Possidente, Co-Chair, Biology Barry Pritzker, Director, Foundations and Corporate Relations Denise Smith, Chair, Exercise Science William Standish, Chair, Physics
  19. 19. Institutional Information: Admissions Materials Admissions Materials See Appendix I, which includes: • Freshman application packet • Application Materials • Brochure on Science and Mathematics (including description of Porter Scholarship) • Brochure on Filene Music Scholarships • Financing Your Education • Is Early Decision Right for You? • 2002-2003 Prospectus: 12 Reasons to Choose Skidmore College • Skidmore College: Snapshot of a College on the Move • Skidmore College: Believe it • Greeting to the Class of 2002 14
  20. 20. Institutional Information: Course Catalogue Course Catalogue See Appendix II or visit 15
  21. 21. Institutional Information: Assessment Assessment Developing formal tools that assess how well our majors are meeting the goals outlined in the mission statement for the neuroscience program is one issue that we have asked the PKAL consultants to address. To provide you with some context for assessment at the institutional level, we have provided below information that describes institutional support for assessment at the college, including a director of assessment, and a description of current work being conducted on assessment at the college. Executive summary from an assessment grant awarded to Skidmore College by the Christian A. Johnson Endeavor Foundation: Skidmore College requests a grant of $281,252 from the Christian A. Johnson Endeavor Foundation to transform teaching and student learning on our campus by developing a comprehensive college assessment plan. Over the past four years, we have devoted considerable attention to clarifying academic standards, examining student life, and working on outcomes- oriented institutional planning. In the process, we have accumulated a great deal of baseline data on various ways of measuring educational effectiveness. A major shift in our curriculum--reconfiguring many of our courses to carry a value of four rather than three credit hours--combined with a current emphasis on strategic planning provides an ideal opportunity to build on and follow through with the assessment model we have already begun to create. Our goal is to be able to evaluate the sum total of students’ growth and development as a way of driving our institutional effectiveness and establishing for students a habit of lifelong learning. What is most needed at this stage of Skidmore’s assessment project is a coordinated effort that (1) brings together College personnel from different disciplines and areas, (2) identifies common standards for measuring student learning, and (3) offers expert guidance in interpreting and responding to the results of those measurements. The vehicle we have chosen to advance our long-standing assessment project is fairly traditional. Rather than propose a flashy project with a catchy title, we have identified our real needs: an assessment expert able to concentrate on and guide this initiative. We seek the resources to bring together faculty and staff who are already stretched thin for concentrated work on the real opportunities for, and barriers to, culture change and genuine institutionalization of assessment. Our vision includes the capacity to cross-fertilize and draw on lessons learned from other schools, indeed, other industries. This will be a major project for Skidmore, and we are committed to making it a part of the continuing life of the college. We propose to appoint an Assessment Director who will oversee this effort for the next four years. We will also hold a series of faculty workshops to focus on assessment issues and will bring to campus nationally recognized assessment experts to add perspective to our project. The worth of this project will be measured by far more than mere accountability. We expect to discover better uses of faculty and college resources, gain a clearer sense of pedagogical and co- curricular effectiveness, measurably improve student learning, and gauge the direction of future innovation. Since we intend our results to help illuminate the value of a liberal arts education, we also expect that our findings will be of interest to other colleges interested in issues of assessment. 16
  22. 22. Institutional Information: Assessment Biographical Summary: Raymond J. Rodrigues, Director of Assessment A former provost in the University of Texas System, Vice President for Academic Affairs at what is now the Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts, and Associate Provost at Colorado State University, Ray Rodrigues has led assessment efforts in all those institutions. The University of Texas System assigned him to lead the development of assessment planning across all nine academic institutions of the System. In addition to having published thirteen books in areas of English and English education, as well as numerous articles, he has worked on assessment efforts because he is a strong proponent of the scholarship of teaching and the need to know whether our students are actually learning what we believe we are teaching them. Work on Skidmore Assessment: During this first year, our efforts have focused primarily upon developing assessment plans for all of our academic programs, both majors and interdisciplinary programs. Some departments had begun assessment efforts earlier, while some had not even started to discuss assessment plans. Our goal is to have all academic departments and interdisciplinary programs implement assessment plans during the 2003-2004 academic year and build upon what they had learned, both for the curriculum and ongoing assessment plans, during the 2004-2005 academic year and beyond. * In support of these efforts, an assessment website ( and online assessment handbook have been developed and distributed, including sample assessment plans for all academic majors represented on this campus. During the 2003-2004 academic year, the assessment plans for the core curriculum will be developed. A future goal of the project is to build the assessment plans for non-academic units, particularly as they support academic teaching and learning. (*Neuroscience is an exception to this timeframe because our assessment planning involves the PKAL consultancy review.) Each department and interdisciplinary program is expected to formulate their assessment plan according to the following categories (taken from the assessment website): • What students should learn: In the literature of assessment, these are usually referred to as “learning outcomes.” What should students be able to do, know, or value? • How their learning will be assessed: One or more methods may be used for each learning outcome. When possible, direct assessments of student work should be used for assessment, but indirect methods may help flesh out the overall assessment. Direct methods include portfolios, work in capstone courses, embedded work such as research papers and examination answers, and student creative products such as art, dance, theatre, and writing. • How the results will be analyzed and by whom: More than one faculty member should assess student work, not just the instructor of a course. Methods might include evaluations using rubrics or written summaries or statistical analyses. • Assessment schedule: Some assessments should occur every year, but not everything needs to be assessed every year. Develop a cycle of assessment that might be one to three years long. Allow additional assessments to be developed as additional questions arise about student learning. • Other information 17
  23. 23. NS Program Information: Proposal for the Major Neuroscience Program Information Proposal for major: The following pages contain selected excerpts from the all-college curriculum committee proposal for an interdisciplinary neuroscience major (approved spring, 2001) Introduction The Department of Psychology and the Department of Biology propose the evolution of our current Biology-Psychology joint major into an integrated, interdisciplinary Neuroscience major. The curriculum that we propose draws upon existing faculty and facilities, along with long standing and recently developed courses, and comprises a suite of research-based experiences in which students will participate in scientific inquiry and actively integrate material across scientific disciplines. Such an approach is in keeping both with Skidmore's traditional and distinctive emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches and with the current trend toward dissolution of sharply defined boundaries among scientific disciplines. Creative interplay and truly exciting science often take place where previously distinct methodologies and ideas interact — it is here that new paradigms and syntheses are born. In our new interdisciplinary Neuroscience major, our students will partake of this excitement. Neuroscience is the scientific community's effort to understand the mechanisms that give rise to thoughts, motives, and behavior. The central mechanism of behavior is the central nervous system, and exploring it is a fascinating odyssey in natural science. Neuroscientists investigate the connections between events that occur at the subcellular level and the behavior of the whole organism. Addressing the fundamental questions of neuroscience requires the collaboration of specialists in diverse fields. Thus, although neuroscientists specialize in one particular discipline, they need to be cognizant of many related areas. Our neuroscience major will be cross-disciplinary and taught primarily by professors in the biology and psychology departments; however, students desiring to do advanced work may choose to work with faculty from a wide variety of departments. This major is well suited for students who wish to pursue a career in research as well as in a variety of health related fields. Mission Statement and Goals 1. Students will engage in broadly based study of the nervous system. This study will be multidisciplinary, integrating the perspectives of biology, psychology, and related sciences. 2. Students will develop a foundation in concepts, issues, discoveries and methodological approaches to the interdisciplinary endeavor of neuroscience. 3. Students will discover how approaches from different neuroscience subdisciplines complement one another and how the findings can be integrated to provide a more global understanding of the functioning of the nervous system. 4. Students will gather, analyze and interpret scientific data and summarize and communicate empirical results; this process will enhance their familiarity and facility with scientific methodology. 5. Students will develop their verbal, quantitative and writing skills. 6. Students will focus in a subfield of neuroscience, and may conduct research with faculty members. 18
  24. 24. NS Program Information: Proposal for the Major 7. Students will gain experience in integrating and synthesizing data, develop a broad background in the sciences and humanities, and acquire skills adaptable to a wide variety of areas and interests. The major will prepare students for career paths that include graduate school, the health professions, research and clinical work. Rationale for Proposed Curriculum The Neuroscience major is comprised of a gateway Neuroscience course (taught by staff from either the Psychology or Biology Department), a group of foundation courses, an integrative seminar course, and a selection of upper level electives and tutorial projects chosen in consultation with a student’s advisors in Psychology and Biology and based upon a student’s interests and professional goals. Neuroscience 1XX, the proposed gateway course for the major, fully integrates biological and psychological approaches to the study of the nervous system and behavior and constitutes a multidisciplinary introduction to Neuroscience. In the foundation courses Cell and Molecular Biology (BI 233), Comparative Vertebrate Physiology (BI 236), Statistical Methods in Psychology 1 (PS 217) and either Experimental Psychology (PS 217) or Physiological Psychology (PS 304), students explore, at different organizational levels and from both psychological and biological perspectives, concepts, issues and discoveries necessary to understand the context for and substance of Neuroscience. In so doing, students also apply methods of critical inquiry within the discipline, and develop skills for upper level coursework and research tutorials. Based upon past successful experience with Biology-Psychology joint majors, Neuroscience majors will have the prerequisite of PS 101 waived by the Psychology department for the foundation courses PS 217 and PS 306. In the foundation course Chemical Principles I (CH 105), fundamental concepts of chemistry necessary for understanding molecular mechanisms in the neurosciences are introduced. Integrative Seminar in Neuroscience Research (a proposed 200 level Honors Forum course) will bring Neuroscience students and faculty together at the point when students are beginning directed studies in the form of coursework and research tutorials at the advanced level. In this course, students will analyze and critique research papers, hear from Skidmore’s neuroscience faculty first-hand accounts of investigations in Neuroscience, and develop their skills in identifying research questions and constructing experimental approaches that would enable them to answer those questions. They will observe the complimentary nature of different approaches to neuroscience, and discuss how the various methodologies and findings can be integrated to provide a fuller understanding of nervous system function. Finally, through a series of upper-level electives chosen based on each student's interests and aspirations, students will focus upon a sub-field of Neuroscience, and will have the option of conducting research in Neuroscience with faculty members in various departments. This major is characterized by rigor, breadth and integration as students develop a foundation in Neuroscience, and by the flexibility (illustrated in Projected Paths Through the Major) to pursue a variety of interests at the upper level. Throughout their studies in the major, students will gather, analyze and interpret scientific data and communicate empirical results. Through this process, they will develop analytical skills and gain experience in oral and written communication. In conjunction with their all-college studies, Neuroscience majors will develop a broad background in the sciences and humanities, acquire skills adaptable to a wide variety of areas and interests, and prepare themselves for a wide variety of career paths that include graduate school, the health professions, research and clinical work. 19
  25. 25. NS Program Information: Curriculum Curriculum for Major Requirements of the Neuroscience Major To fulfill the major, students must complete the following: Gateway course: • NS 101 (Neuroscience: Mind and Behavior) Core courses: • CH105 (Chemical Principles I) • PS217 (Statistical Methods in Psychology I)* • BI233 (Cell and Molecular Biology) • BI236 (Comparative Vertebrate Physiology) • PS304 (Physiological Psych) or PS306 (Experimental Psych)* Integrative course: • NS 277 (Integrative Seminar in Neuroscience Research) Elective courses: Students must take four courses from the following list of electives. No more than three courses taken in one department will count toward the major. • LS 202 (Psychoactive Drugs: Scientific & Social Context) • PS 213 (Hormones & Behavior) • PS 231 (Neuropsychology)* • PS 304 (Physiological Psychology)** • PS 306 (Experimental Psychology)** • BI 306 (Mammalian Physiology) • BI 308 (Principles of Genetics) • BI 311 (Biological Electron Microscopy) • PS 312 (Seminar in Neuropsychology of Perception & Attention) • BI 316 (Animal Behavior) • BI 323 (Developmental Biology) • BI 326 (Behavioral Genetics) • PS 341 (Seminar in Cognitive Neuroscience: Left Brain/Right Brain) • BI 344 (Biological Clocks) • BI 349 (Neuroendocrinology) • BI 351 (Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience) *The pre-requisite of PS 101 (Introduction to General Psychology) is waived for Neuroscience majors taking these courses 20
  26. 26. NS Program Information: Curriculum **unless taken to fulfill the Core requirement None of the regular semester courses that count toward the major may be taken on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. HONORS: Successful completion of a Tutorial Project (PS 375, 376, BI 375) is required for consideration for Honors. Tutorial project Students are strongly encouraged to undertake 1-credit Introduction to Neuroscience Research (NS 275) and a tutorial project (PS 375, 376, BI 375) prior to completion of the Neuroscience major. Those students who plan on completing a senior tutorial project should consider taking the 1-credit research experience during their junior year which allows students to explore particular areas of research introduced in NS 101 or NS 277. This additional experience will help students to make more informed decisions about the particular area of research they are most interested in pursuing for a senior tutorial project. Advice on Choosing Electives: Students choices of electives (both within and beyond the requirements specified by the Neuroscience Major) may be guided by interests as well as professional goals. For example, in the Core course Chemical Principles I (CH 105), students are introduced to fundamental concepts of chemistry that are necessary for understanding molecular mechanisms in the neurosciences; students wishing to deepen this understanding are encouraged to take additional courses in Chemistry. Examples of Projected Paths through the Major are intended as illustrations of groupings of electives informed by different kinds of interests and goals. For each illustration, suggestions are offered for electives within and beyond the major. Projected Paths through the Major PATH 1: A BIOBEHAVIORAL FOCUS Within Major: Consider three electives from the biology courses (e.g., BI306, 308 316, 324, 351), and PS213, 304, or 306. Beyond Major: Additional electives from such areas as philosophy, ethics, chemistry, and biology (BI317, 343, 370). PATH 2: A COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE FOCUS Within Major: Consider three electives from the cognitive neuroscience courses (PS231, 312, 341) and BI308 or 316. Beyond Major: Additional electives from such areas as philosophy and psychology (PS324, 325). PATH 3: A COGNITIVE SCIENCE FOCUS Within Major: Consider three electives from the cognitive neuroscience courses (PS231, 312, 341). 21
  27. 27. NS Program Information: Curriculum Beyond Major: Consider electives from anthropology, philosophy, computer science, psychology (PS323, 324, 325) or interdisciplinary courses on cognitive processes (LS2 129). PATH 4: A DEVELOPMENTAL FOCUS Within Major: Consider as electives BI308, 323 and 324. Beyond Major: Consider electives from philosophy and psychology (PS305, 312a). PATH 5: AN APPLIED FOCUS Within Major: Distribute electives equally in biology and psychology. Beyond Major: Consider electives from psychology (PS315, 326), sociology or social work. Note: Those students interested in pre-med and other health professions should consult with the HP Advisory Committee for guidance in selecting options. 22
  28. 28. NS Program Information: Curriculum Schedule of Course Offerings Gateway Course: Course # Course Name Frequency of Offering Semester(s) Offered Credits Lab? Prereqs. All- college Prof. NS 101 Neuroscience: Mind and Behavior Yearly (three sections) Fall, Spring 4 yes none Natural Science DE, GG, MT, RM Core Courses: CH 105 Chemical Principles I Yearly Fall 4 yes See catalogue Natural Science, QR2 SF, MF, DW PS 217 Statistical Methods in Psychology Every semester Fall and Spring 4 yes PS 101 or permis. None HF, FP, JD BI 233 Cell and Molecular Biology Yearly Fall 4 yes CH105 (concur. or permis.) None ER BI 236 Comparative Vertebrate Physiology Yearly Spring 4 yes BI 233 None RM PS 304 Physiological Psychology Yearly Spring 4 yes PS 217 None GG PS 306 Experimental Psychology Every semester Fall and Spring 4 yes PS 101 or permis., PS 217 Natural Science, QR2 MF, HF, FP Integrative Course: NS 277 Integrative Seminar in Neuroscience Research Yearly Spring 1 no NS 101, 1 other NS course None Alternate Depts. 23
  29. 29. NS Program Information: Curriculum Elective Courses: Course # Course Name Frequency of Offering Semester(s) Offered Credits Lab? Prereqs. All- college Prof. LS2 202 Psychoactive Drugs Yearly Spring 3 no LS I LS GG PS 213 Hormones & Behavior Yearly Fall 4 no PS 101 or permis. None GG PS 231 Neuropsychology Yearly Fall 3 no PS 101 or permis. None DE PS 304 Physiological Psychology Yearly Spring 4 yes PS 217 None GG PS 306 Experimental Psychology Every semester Fall and Spring 4 yes PS 101 or permis., PS 217 Natural Science, QR2 MF, HF, FP BI 306 Mammalian Physiology Every other year Fall or Spring (alt.w/ Cardio.Phys) 4 yes BI 236 None RM BI 308 Principles of Genetics Yearly Fall 4 yes BI 233 None BP BI 311 Biological Electron Microscopy Yearly Fall 4 yes BI 233 or permis. None DD PS 312 Neuropsychology of Perception and Attention Once Spring 3 no PS 231 or permis None DE, HF BI 316 Animal Behavior Every other year (at least) Spring 4 yes BI 236 None MRR BI 323 Developmental Biology Every other year Fall 4 yes BI 233 or permis None ER BI 326 Behavioral Genetics Every other year Fall (alt. with BI 344) 4 yes BI 233 BI 236 None BP 24
  30. 30. NS Program Information: Curriculum Elective Courses (con't): Course # Course Name Frequency of Offering Semester(s) Offered Credits Lab? Prereqs. All- college Prof. PS 341 Cognitive Neuroscience: Left Brain/Right Brain Yearly Spring 3 no PS 231 or permis None DE BI 344 Biological Clocks Every other year Fall (alt. with BI 326) 4 yes BI 236 or permis none BP BI 349 Neuroendocrinology Every other year Fall 4 yes BI 233, BI 236 none MT BI 351 Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience Yearly Spring 3 No BI 233, BI 236 none MT Tutorial Research: NS 275 Introduction to Neuroscience Research Every semester Fall and Spring 1 NS 101 none Dept. BI 375 Research in Biology Every semester Fall and Spring 4 See catalogue none Dept. PS 375 Senior Research Project I Yearly Fall 3 PS 304 or 306 none Dept. PS 376 Senior Research Project II Yearly Spring 3 PS 304 or 306 none Dept. 25
  31. 31. NS Program Information: Curriculum Sample Student Schedules Several sample student schedules for how students can structure their curriculum across their four years based on their individual interests are presented in the following two pages. 26
  32. 32. NS Program Information: Curriculum Sample Student Schedules (® indicates a required course) Sample schedule for a student who wishes to conduct senior research in Biology Fall Spring Freshman Year CH 105® NS 101 ® Sophomore Year BI 233 ® PS 217 ® BI 236 ® PS 304 ® NS 277 ® Junior Year BI 311 BI 324 LS2 202 Senior Year BI 375 BI 326 Sample schedule for a student who wishes to conduct senior research in Psychology Fall Spring Freshman Year NS 101 ® CH 105 ® PS 217 ® Sophomore Year BI 233 ® PS 306 ® BI 236 ® NS 277 ® Junior Year PS 231 PS 341 LS2 202 Senior Year PS 375 BI 323 PS 376 Sample schedule for a student who gets a later start on neuroscience major and conducts senior research in Biology Fall Spring Freshman Year Sophomore Year CH 105 ® NS 101 ® Junior Year BI 233 ® PS 217 ® BI 236 ® PS 306 ® NS 277 ® Senior Year PS 2xx BI 375 BI 344 BI 316 BI 324 Sample schedule for a student who gets a later start on neuroscience major and conducts senior research in Psychology Fall Spring Freshman Year Sophomore Year NS 101 ® PS 217 ® CH 105 ® NS 277 ® Junior Year BI 233 ® PS 231 BI 236 ® PS 304 ® LS2 202 Senior Year BI 326 PS 375 PS 341 PS 376 27
  33. 33. NS Program Information: Curriculum Sample schedule for a student who conducts senior research in Biology and spends a semester abroad Fall Spring Freshman Year CH 105 ® NS 101 ® Sophomore Year BI 233 ® PS 217 ® BI 236 ® PS 304 ® NS 277 ® Junior Year BI 311 BI 326 Abroad Senior Year BI 375 BI 344 LS2 202 Sample schedule for a student who conducts senior research in Psychology and spends junior year abroad Fall Spring Freshman Year NS 101 ® CH 105 ® Sophomore Year BI 233 ® PS 217 ® PS 231 BI 236 ® PS 306 ® LS2 202 NS 277 ® Junior Year Abroad Abroad Senior Year PS 375 BI 311 PS 376 PS 341 Sample schedule for a student who wishes to focus on Cognitive Neuroscience path Fall Spring Freshman Year NS 101 ® CH 105 ® Sophomore Year BI 233 ® PS 217 ® PS 231 BI 236 ® PS 306 ® LS2 202 Junior Year PS 324 or PS 325 PS 312a NS 277 ® Senior Year PS 375 BI 311 PS 312 PS 376 PS 341 Sample schedule for a student who wishes to focus on Cognitive Science Fall Spring Freshman Year NS 101 ® CH 105 LS2 129 Sophomore Year BI 233 ® PS 217 ® BI 236 ® NS 277 ® PS 306 ® Junior Year PS 231 PS 324 PS 325 Phil/Anthro Elective Senior Year PS 375 BI 311 PS 376 PS 341 28
  34. 34. NS Program Information: Course Descriptions Course Descriptions Gateway Course NS 101 Neuroscience: Mind and Behavior 4 An interdisciplinary examination of the neurobiological bases of behavior and mental processing. Topics include the structure and functioning of the nervous system, brain-behavior relationships, and hormonal and genetic effects on behavior and mental processing. Laboratories develop students' understanding of functional neuroanatomy, neural transmission, and human psychophysiology. (Fulfills natural sciences breadth requirement.). D. Evert, G. Goodwin, R. Meyers, M. Tetel Core Courses CH 105 Chemical Principles I 4 Fundamental concepts of chemistry are presented. Emphasis is placed upon atomic and molecular structure, physical and chemical properties related to structure, periodic relationships, mass relationships, thermo-chemistry, and properties of solutions. The lab experiments provide applications of the principles. Students will take a general chemistry readiness exam the first day of class to assist the department in advising them for which course, CH105 or 105H, they are best prepared. Prerequisite: high-school algebra (two years), chemistry (one year) or CH101 or 103, and QR1. Three hours of lecture-discussion and one three-hour lab per week. (Fulfills QR2 and natural sciences requirements.) S. Frey, D. Weis, M. Frey PS 217 Statistical Methods in Psychology 4 A survey of methods used to describe, correlate, and make inferences about frequency distributions, including the use of binomial distribution, normal distribution, t-distribution, chi- square, sign tests, and the analysis of variance. Three hours of lecture, two hours of lab a week. Prerequisite: PS101 or consent of instructor. J. Douglas, H. Foley, F. Phillips BI 233 Cell and Molecular Biology 4 A study of living processes on a cellular and molecular level. Cell structure and function, the regulation of information flow, and biochemical processes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes will be examined. Prerequisite: BI 237, completion or concurrent registration in CH 105, or permission of instructor. Three hours of lecture, three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in the fall semester. E. Rubenstein BI 236 Comparative Vertebrate Physiology 4 The adaptive function and structure of major systems in vertebrates considered principally from the perspective of their ability to meet environmental demands. Prerequisite: BI 233 or permission of the instructor. Three hours of lecture, three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in the spring semester. R. Meyers 29
  35. 35. NS Program Information: Course Descriptions PS 304 Physiological Psychology 4 The study of physiological structures of the central nervous system, muscles and glands in humans and animals with emphasis on the use of animal models to understand human psychopathologies such as anxiety, depression, and drug addition. Laboratory sessions are used to test various animal models of psychopathology to better understand their validity and limitations. Three hours of lecture and two hours of lab per week. Prerequisites: NS101 and PS217. G. Goodwin PS 306 Experimental Psychology 4 A theoretical and empirical introduction to psychology as a natural science. Emphasis will be on the basic phenomena in physiological psychology, cognition, perception, and social psychology and the principle experimental paradigms employed in their investigation. Three hours of lecture, three hours of lab a week. Prerequisites: QR1, PS217 (Fulfills QR2 requirement and natural sciences breadth requirements.) H. Foley, M. Foley, F. Phillips Integrative Course NS 277 Integrative Seminar in Neuroscience Research 1 A study of selected areas of neuroscience research and techniques. Both primary source articles and first person accounts by faculty in the Biology and Psychology departments are used to introduce the theoretical and practical aspects of neuroscience research. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the multiple levels (e.g. molecular to behavioral) at which research topics in neuroscience can be addressed and also the ways in which research techniques define the types of questions that can be asked at a given level of analysis. Prerequisites: This course should be taken upon completion of NS101 and the completion of (or current enrollment in) at least one other Core or Elective course from the list of courses in the major. Elective Courses LS2 202. Psychoactive Drugs: Scientific and Social Contexts 3 This course will trace the interaction between scientific knowledge and social responses to such knowledge regarding the use of psychoactive drug substances. After a consideration of the nature of consciousness, and introduction to the structure and the function of the nervous system, and exposure to some basic pharmacological concepts, we will study the specific psychological and physiological effects of various psychoactive substances (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and LSD). Psychological, historical, and cultural influences of drug use and the social regulation of drug use will then be examined to demonstrate that the distinction between legal and illegal substances is social rather than pharmacological, and that social attitudes and legal proscriptions of drug substances are not based on scientific and/or pharmacological concerns. Finally, the general nature of the social use (or in this case, nonuse) of scientific knowledge will be explored. G. Goodwin, Psychology 30
  36. 36. NS Program Information: Course Descriptions PS 213 Hormones and Behavior 4 An introduction to the study of how hormones coordinate the behavioral and physiological components of important psychological processes like reproduction, defense, aggression, learning, and emotions. A comparative approach (cross-species) is used to explore the endocrine system and many of the effects of hormones on both the body and brain. Whenever possible research findings in humans are integrated into this discussion. To help illustrate hormone/behavior relationships, several in class experiments are conducted using both animal and human subjects. G. Goodwin PS 231 Neuropsychology 3 An introduction to the relationship between the brain and mind through the assessment of human patients (and animals) with brain damage. This focus will show how scientists are better able to understand components of the mind (i.e. processes related to attention, perception, cognition, personality, emotion, memory, language, consciousness) and behavior, and how this information can be used to refine theories of psychological functioning. A case-study approach of humans with brain damage will be adopted in this course. D. Evert PS 304 Physiological Psychology 4 (see description under Core Courses) PS 306 Experimental Psychology 4 (see description under Core Courses) BI 306 Mammalian Physiology 4 An intensive study of selected topics in mammalian neural, respiratory, and renal physiology. Prerequisites: 236, or permission of the instructor. Three hours of lecture, three hours of laboratory per week. Offered in alternate years. R. Meyers BI 308 Principles of Genetics 4 A study of the principles underlying the structure and function of hereditary mechanisms. Topics include classical genetics, DNA structure and function, transcription, translation, regulation of gene expression, and recombinant DNA methods. Prerequisites: CH106, BI233, or permission of instructor. Three hours of lecture, three hours of lab a week. B. Possidente BI 311 Biological Electron Microscopy 4 Practical and theoretical study of the operation and application of electron microscopes and the preparation of samples for electron microscopy. Topics include: chemical fixation, cryofixation, cytochemistry, immunolabeling, ultramicrotomy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron microscopic photography. Prerequisite: BI 233 or permission of instructor. Two hours of lecture and four hours of lab a week. D. Domozych PS 312 Neuropsychology of Perception and Attention 3 An in-depth examination of the neuropsychology of perceptual and attentional processing. The ability to perceive and attend to information in our environment is often taken for granted. However, as this course will show, the mechanisms regulating perception and attention are far from simple. The main goal of the course is to develop and understanding of how these processes operate. As a means to reach this goal, we will learn about the underlying neural basis of perceptual and attentional processes discussing work with animals and with humans. Research 31
  37. 37. NS Program Information: Course Descriptions with brain-damaged and healthy individuals will be examined, including that based on functional imaging studies. D. Evert, H. Foley BI 316 Animal Behavior 4 Behavior is a product of evolution and a means of animal adaptation. This course considers the mechanisms, proximate causes and ultimate origins of behavior. Prerequisite: BI 236. Three lectures, three hours of lab or fieldwork a week. One Saturday field trip. M. Raveret Richter BI 323 Developmental Biology 4 The study of the progressive, sequential changes that occur within cells, tissues, and organisms over time. The study of development encompasses molecular, biochemical, cellular, morphological, and physiological organizational levels. Course topics range from gametogenesis and embryonic development to molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. Prerequisite: BI233 or permission of instructor. Three lectures, three hours of lab a week. E. Rubenstein. BI 326 Behavioral Genetics 4 An introduction to the study of genetic mechanisms that regulate the development and expression of behavior and the relationships between genetic variation and variation in behavioral traits. Model systems examined will emphasize analysis of genetic components of phenotypic variation and covariation, and mapping of genes involved in regulation and expression of behavior. Three hours of lecture, three hours of lab per week. Prerequisites BI233 and BI236. B. Possidente PS 341 Seminar in Cognitive Neuroscience: Left Brain/Right Brain 3 Discussion-based study of hemispheric specialization for cognitive functioning (including perception, attention, memory, creativity, emotional processing, and language) from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Cognitive neuroscience is the interdisciplinary science built up to understand the gap between biological processes of the central nervous system and the process of the mind. In learning about hemispheric specialization of function, we will draw on research from such fields as experimental psychology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, brain imaging, and computer modeling. The first part of the course is designed to teach you about the methods and techniques used in the study of cognitive neuroscience, including theoretical issues associated with each approach. Throughout the second part of the course, we will learn some of the ways these methodologies have been utilized to understand hemispheric specialization of cognitive function. D. Evert BI 344 Biological Clocks 4 Organisms in all the major taxonomic groups have internalized geophysical and other periodicities in the form of endogenous biological mechanisms that function as clocks. Theoretical, molecular, cellular, physiological, behavioral, ecological and biomedical aspects of biological clocks will be examined with an emphasis on circadian clocks. Three hours of lecture, three hours of lab per week. B. Possidente BI 349 Neuroendocrinology 4 Hormones act throughout the body to coordinate basic biological functions such as development, reproduction and metabolism. This course will investigate how hormones work in the brain to regulate physiology and behavior. We will study the molecular bases of neuroendocrine regulation, with a focus on how the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis functions to regulate 32
  38. 38. NS Program Information: Course Descriptions reproduction, homeostasis, growth, metabolism and stress. Laboratory sessions will explore various approaches to neuroendocrine research, including detection of hormone receptors in brain and assessment of biological functions through bioassays. Three hours of lecture, three hours of lab per week. Prerequisites BI 233 and BI236. M. Tetel BI 351 Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 4 This course will explore “hot topics” in Neuroscience. We will discuss how novel approaches in cell culture, animal and human studies are being used in current Neuroscience research. Students will review current literature from top journals, give group presentations in class and write a paper. This course will be divided into two sections: 1) topics in Neurogenesis (neuron birth in the adult brain, stem cell research) and 2) topics in Neurodegeneration (mechanisms of cell death in disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease). Students will develop skills in critically reading research papers and giving presentations. A prerequisite of BI 233 and BI 236 is required, a prerequisite of NS 101 is recommended. M. Tetel Biological and Computational Vision* 3 In this class we will explore the ideas of seeing in biological systems (humans, animals, insects, et al.) as compared to computer and machine vision. As it turns out the fields of computer and human vision seem to have had a parting of ways in the late 1970's-- biological vision concentrated on higher level cognition while computer vision began to concentrate on pragmatic tasks similar to those outlined above. Does the traffic light "eye'' see the car the same way a human being would? Probably not. What about the terrorist stereotyping computer? Perhaps so. Today, the two fields are again on friendly terms as we are able to better model the brain-- both theoretically and computationally. What can the two groups learn from each other in light of this? F. Phillips *Although not part of the regular NS curriculum, this course counts as a NS elective when offered (approximately every other year). Tutorial Research NS 275 Introduction to Neuroscience Research 1 An introductory exploration of conducting research in neuroscience. The purpose of this learning experience is to provide students with an interactive research experience in the laboratory or field in coordination with a faculty member. Students may be exposed to, and participate in, several aspects of the research process, including planning, designing, and implementing the research, as well as in data analysis and interpretation of the results. This experience will allow students at various stages of their careers to sample research questions/methodologies in particular subdisciplines of Neuroscience, and will enhance the student’s ability for more independent work. Must be taken S/U. Prerequisites: Completion of NS 101 and permission of instructor. 33
  39. 39. NS Program Information: Course Descriptions BI 375 Research in Biology 4 An opportunity for students to engage in laboratory or field research under the guidance of a faculty member. The emphasis is on the development of analytical and technical expertise in biological research. Students present their results in the form of a written thesis and an oral presentation. Prerequisite: agreement by a faculty member to serve as a tutor, completion of the 200-level course requirements, and permission of the department. Biology majors may take either BI371 or 375 only once to substitute for a 300-level biology requirement; however, with departmental approval, BI375 may be repeated once for credit toward all-college requirements. The Department PS 375 Senior Research Project I 3 Students will work with an individual faculty member to develop a major research project. This development will include definition of topic, review of the scientific literature, the learning of any necessary research techniques, execution of any necessary preliminary research, and submission of a written proposal to the faculty supervisor. Each student will make an oral presentation of the proposal to other senior thesis students. Prerequisites: PS306 and consent of instructor. PS 376 Senior Research Project II 3 Students will work with an individual faculty member to complete the major research project developed in Senior Research Project I. A final project will be submitted in thesis form to the faculty supervisor at least two weeks before the end of the term. Prerequisite: PS375. May not be taken concurrently with PS378. Senior Research Project II may be used to fulfill the thesis requirement for departmental honors in psychology. 34
  40. 40. NS Program Information: Syllabi Course Syllabi See Appendix III. 35
  41. 41. NS Program Information: NS Student Data NS Student Data Number of Graduates Number of Graduates with a Major in Biology (BI), Psychology (PS), Biology-Psychology (BI-PS Interdepartmental Major), and Neuroscience (NS) Class of: BI PS BI-PS* NS 1991 10 61 8 1992 12 55 1 1993 13 63 3 1994 10 49 6 1995 14 65 3 1996 15 74 6 1997 19 63 1 1998 22 49 4 1999 13 28 2 2000 27 67 6 2001 11 54 1 2002 32 48 2 1 2003 21 41 1 9 *Starting with the class of 2004, there will no longer be graduates who have majored in BI-PS. 36
  42. 42. NS Program Information: NS Student Data The enrollment patterns for the lab-based introductory neuroscience course are presented in the following table. This course has been offered for six semesters and once during the summer session. For the first two semesters that it was offered, the course was called Introduction to Biopsychology (PS216). The title for the course was changed to Neuroscience: Mind and Behavior (NS101) upon all- college approval of the Neuroscience Program in 2001. Enrollment Patterns for the Lab-Based Introductory Neuroscience Course Term Section Cap Enrollment Freshmen Sophomores Juniors Seniors Other Fall, 2000 PS 216 (1) 24 18 2 11 4 1 PS 216 (2) 24 8 0 6 1 1 Spring, 2001 PS 216 (1) 24 24 5 14 4 0 1 Fall, 2001 NS 101 (1) 24 22 0 15 4 3 NS 101 (2) 24 24 1 14 4 5 Spring, 2002 NS 101 (1) 32 26 14 7 4 1 NS 101 (2) 24 23 13 6 2 2 NS 101 (3) 24 21 10 10 1 0 Summer, 2002 NS 101 (1) 24 7 1 3 0 2 1 Fall, 2002 NS 101 (1) 32 28 12 12 4 0 Spring, 2003 NS 101 (1) 32 29 21 5 2 1 NS 101 (2) 32 32 20 8 1 2 1 37
  43. 43. NS Program Information: NS Student Data At the beginning of each semester, all students enrolled in Neuroscience: Mind and Behavior (NS101) are asked to indicate their reason(s) for taking the course. Students' responses are presented in the table below. Students' Reasons for Taking Neuroscience: Mind and Behavior (NS101) Reasons for Taking NS 101 F '01 Sect. 1 F '01 Sect. 2 S '02 Sect.1 S '02 Sect. 2 S '02 Sect. 3 F '02 Sect. 1 S '03 Sect. 1 S '03 Sect. 2 To meet the all-college natural science requirement 13 11 13 18 9 19 16 16 To meet a cluster requirement for the psychology major 7 2 9 5 8 4 9 3 To start a neuroscience major 3 4 5 2 4 7 4 9 May be interested in neuroscience, so exploring the area 11 6 19 12 12 19 26 13 Just wanted to take the course 13 14 15 15 17 12 13 14 Respondents are asked to choose each reason that applies. F = fall semester, S = spring semester 38
  44. 44. NS Program Information: Collaborative Research Collaborative Research Faculty-Student Collaborative Research Opportunities Faculty-student collaborative research is in integral component of the sciences at Skidmore College. The curriculum for the NS program emphasizes research experience as a critical and valuable experience for the students. The curriculum is structured to guide students through both introductory and advanced level research. This section includes descriptions of the following faculty-student collaborative research opportunities: • Course offerings • Dean of Faculty's office summer research grant • Neuropsychology/Health Psychology research internship Course Offerings for Collaborative Research: There are a variety of course offerings in which students may enroll to engage in student/faculty collaborative research. These include introductory-level offerings (NS 275), and opportunities for more advanced and in-depth research experiences (PS 375, 376, 399; BI 375, 399). At present, there is no NS designation for senior research; the home department of the student's faculty mentor determines the course designation for NS major's research experience. Faculty/Student Collaborative Summer Research Grant through the Dean of Faculty's Office: PROGRAM. The Summer Collaborative Research Program, initially funded by the W. W. Keck Foundation, enables teams of Skidmore faculty and students to engage in significant projects over a ten-week period during the summer. The project should be closely related to the faculty member's curricular, pedagogical, scholarly, or creative interests and should be planned and executed by the student and faculty member working together. The relationship between team members is expected to be truly collaborative; the student is a junior colleague rather than a research assistant. The project should be defined in such a way as to permit completion of a substantial portion of the project by the end of the ten weeks. Each team will give an oral report on the planned project, explaining goals and methods, early in the period; participate in a discussion about the collaborative research program in early; and a final report, demonstration, poster show, or other appropriate activity on progress and achievements at the close. A final written report is due no later than September 15. The project should produce a finished work, such as a jointly authored paper for publication or presentation a t a professional meeting or an artistic work exhibited for public, critical review. The teams may also participate in periodic informal meetings to discuss the collaborative concept and share observations on the research process. 3939
  45. 45. NS Program Information: Collaborative Research AWARDS: (1) Each faculty participant will be given a stipend of $3000. (2) Each student participant will be provided with a stipend of $1550 and free room and board at the campus. Because the program emphasizes the sharing of ideas and experiences, students are strongly urged to live on campus. In exceptional circumstances, students may be granted permission by the Faculty Development Committee and/or the Associate Dean of the Faculty to live off campus (in such cases the students will have to provide for their own housing). Whether living on or off campus, students are expected to participate in all collaborative research group activities. (3) Faculty may apply for funds to purchase supplies and equipment of modest cost (not more than $750). Faculty may also request funds to pay for the costs of travel to conferences where they will report the results of their research or further costs of printed publication. The FDC budget for such costs is limited and faculty are urged to use departmental funds as well to help pay for their costs. APPLICATION PROCEDURE: Faculty/Student teams wishing to participate in the Collaborative Research Program should submit an application to the Office of the Dean of the Faculty by FEBRUARY 17, 2003. The Faculty Development Committee will communicate its selection of funded proposals to all applicants prior to spring break. The application should consist of the following clearly marked components: 1. The names of the student and faculty team members. Indicate if either has participated in the Collaborative Research Program before, and if so, when they participated. 2. The title of the project. 3. A brief description or abstract of the project (125 words maximum) written in a fashion comprehensible to non-specialists. 4. A statement of the goals, proposed activities, and type of the final outcome (e.g., journal article, exhibit, etc.). 5. A brief description of the roles of the student and faculty member in completing the project. 6. An itemized budget, listing the costs of equipment and supplies needed to complete the project. 7. A complete description of the project in language accessible to the non-specialist. 8. A signed description of project responsibilities written by the student. 9. Attach this information to a copy of the guidelines. 10. Signatures of both the faculty and student applicants. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION 1. Each proposal will be judged on the merits of the project, its feasibility, and the clarity of presentation. 2. Projects which have the potential for generating continuing work of an intellectually stimulating nature after the ten-week period has ended will be favored. 3. Projects which are truly collaborative in nature in which the student member serves in a collegial relationship with the faculty member will be favored. 4. Where proposals are equivalent in merit, selection of proposals will favor distribution of proposals across the largest possible number of disciplines. 5. In general, proposals from faculty returning to the College for the 2002-03 year will be given priority over proposals from other faculty. 4040
  46. 46. NS Program Information: Collaborative Research 6. Teams will be selected by the Associate Dean of the Faculty following recommendation by the Faculty Development Committee. 4141
  47. 47. NS Program Information: Collaborative Research CONDITIONS 1. Other summer commitments that either the student or the faculty member may have must not interfere with the demands of this program. Please note that during the grant period students may not enroll in summer school and they may not be otherwise employed. Students should not expect to stay on campus beyond the ten-week period for which they have been funded. Respectively, faculty members are discouraged from teaching in summer school or participating in any other grant program during the grant period. 2. Teams are expected to be present for the three group sessions unless prior arrangements have been made with the Associate Dean of the Faculty when the awards are accepted. 3. The applications which are funded may be placed in a file accessible to the public, foundations, media, and future applicants. 4. Teams may be asked to participate in programs where they can present reports of their work from the summer to the larger Skidmore community during the succeeding academic year. 5. Work submitted for publication or public presentation should acknowledge the role of the Skidmore College Collaborative Research Program, funded in part by the W. M. Keck Foundation. Research Internship Opportunity Denise Evert and Cay Anderson-Hanley (Research Associate, Department of Psychology) organized and instituted an internship experience focused on exposing students to neuropsychology/health psychology research and practice in a clinical setting. The internship is mainly based at The Cancer Center at Glens Falls Hospital, but was recently extended to also include opportunities at The Saratoga Hospital and Nursing Home. Professor Evert primarily serves as the Skidmore faculty advisor for the interns and the administrator for the internship, and Professor Anderson-Hanley, who has clinical and research positions in the community, serves as the on-site supervisor for the interns. With this internship experience, students have the opportunity to find out first-hand what it means to conduct research in a clinical setting. Students are involved in a variety of research projects, including assessing the possible neuropsychological consequences of systemic treatments in cancer patients (e.g., chemotherapy, hormones), comparing the efficacy of different kinds of support groups in women who are newly diagnosed with breast cancer, and assessing outcome measures for chronic pain patients. The students’ activities during the internship include: attending multidisciplinary research meetings, training with a licensed psychologist, administering neuropsychological test batteries and computer-generated experiments to patients, and reviewing medical charts. At the research meetings students interact with a variety of health care professionals, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, clinicians, and researchers. The interns also have an opportunity to take a field trip to a research lab at the University of Vermont and interact with doctoral and postdoctoral students in psychology. Since its inception in the summer of 2000, 16 students have participated in the internship program. To date, over half of the interns have continued their research interests/experience beyond the internship in the form of independent studies, senior thesis projects, and research assistant positions. Three of the students recently presented their research from the internship at a conference and several students are working on publishing their findings. 4242
  48. 48. NS Program Information: Collaborative Research Following are the descriptions of the internship experiences posted for the students: Neuropsychology/Health Psychology Research Internship Opportunities In collaboration with Glens Falls Hospital, the Department of Psychology at Skidmore College has internship opportunities available in Neuropsychology/Health Psychology. Students will have the opportunity to get involved in a variety of research projects in neuropsychology and psychooncology being conducted at the Cancer Treatment Center at Glens Falls Hospital. The internship is available during the Summer, Fall, or Spring sessions. Students will receive three-credits for the internship and it is only offered as S/U. Between 2 and 4 students will be selected for each term. Preference will be given to psychology and neuroscience majors who have completed their sophomore year. You are expected to have some background working with computers and you must have completed courses in Introduction to Psychology and Statistics. Coursework in Neuropsychology, Health Psychology, Psychological Testing, or Clinical Psychology is highly recommended. You will need your own transportation to Glens Falls Hospital (located about 20 minutes away). Research: • assessing the possible neuropsychological consequences of systemic treatments in breast cancer patients • comparing the efficacy of different kinds of support groups in women who are newly diagnosed with breast cancer Potential activities: • Attending multidisciplinary research meetings • Training with a licensed psychologist • Medical chart reviews • Interaction with doctoral and postdoctoral students in psychology • Administration of behavioral computer experiments to patients • Administration of neuropsychological test batteries to patients • Optional Independent Study or Senior Thesis follow-up: literature reviews, data analysis, write-ups, and presentation of findings Neuropsychology/Geropsychology Clinical & Research Internship Opportunities In collaboration with Saratoga Hospital Nursing Home (SHNH), the Department of psychology at Skidmore College has internship opportunities available in Neuropsychology/Geropsychology. Students will have the opportunity to be involved in a variety of interventions and research projects being conducted at SHNH. Potential Activities: • supervision by a licensed psychologist • attending multidisciplinary meetings • training in neuropsychological assessment • administration of neuropsychological assessments • co-facilitation of Cognitive-Behavioral Support Groups • individual interactions with residents as a "friendly visitor" • conducting research assessments with residents on quality of life and • satisfaction with the nursing home 4343
  49. 49. NS Program Information: Collaborative Research • possible review of literature, data analysis and presentation of findings Collaborative Research Summary The number of enrollments in a variety of collaborative research opportunities over the past five years (1998-2003) is summarized in the table below. The data are collapsed across all participating NS-affiliated faculty. *Introduction to Research (275) was added to the BI curriculum in 1999, the PS curriculum in 2002, and the NS curriculum in 2002. **See description in Grants section ***The “other academic experiences” category includes students participating in the neuropsychology/health psychology research internship, students supported by individual faculty grants, non-traditional students enrolled in the University Without Walls (UWW) program, and high school students participating in research opportunities. Biology Majors Psychology Majors Biology- Psychology Interdepartmental Majors Neuroscience Majors Other Majors Total Intro to Research (275)* 41 9 2 14 13 79 Research (375/376) 83 27 11 6 10 137 Indep. Study (371/372) 12 21 5 7 13 58 Dean's summer program 5 2 4 1 2 14 NSF-REU** summer program 0 11 3 0 0 14 Other academic experiences*** 8 11 0 4 5 28 4444