History of
Cognitive Neuroscience
Neolithic Neurology
(i.e. trephination)
Estimated 65% survival rate from Stanley Finger,...
Fundamental Circularity of
Being
“The world is inseparable from the subject, but from a
subject which is nothing but a pro...
Goal of Cognitive Neuroscience is to provide and
explain the correspondence between
brain and mind
structure and function
...
Ancient views of the mind
Cerebrocentric Cardiocentric
Plato, Hippocrates Aristotle
Andreas Vesalius
(1514-1564)
De Humani Corporis
Fabrica (The Fabric of
The Human Body) – 1543
Studied anatomy solely
for s...
Rene Descartes
(1596-1650)
De Homine – 1662
Mechanistic view of brain
Pineal gland – gateway to soul
Luigi Galvani
(1737-1798)
Professor of Obstetrics
Moves frog leg with static electricity
Detects electricity in the nerves...
Phrenology
Cerebral Localization: Gall
Franz Gall (1781) pioneer
• noted aphasia-frontal lesion link
• Phrenology: Analysis of the sh...
Cerebral Holism
(Diffuse representation)
• Pierre Flourens (1824) set up lab to attack
Gall’s mind-brain equivalence.
• He...
Swing back to Localization
• Bouillaud (1825): large
series of speech loss with
frontal lesions
• Marc Dax (1836): LH
dama...
Paul Broca
(1824-1880)
Anthropologist and anatomist
Paris educated MD pathologist
“Tan” aphasic patient died in
April 1861...
Swing back to Localization
Carl Wernicke (1874): temporal lesion disturbs
comprehension. Developed connectionism model of
...
Back to Holism
John Hughlings Jackson
CNS ~hierarchies,
highly interactive
Korbinian Brodmann
(1868-1918)
Established the basis for comparative
cytoarchitectonics of the mammalian
cortex.
Back to Localization
Brodmann (1905) 52 cytoarchitectonic brain areas
Experimental Neurology: Patient H.M. and callosotomy
Camillo Golgi
(1843-1926)
Golgi’s silver chromate stain shows dendrites, soma, and axons
Santiago Ramon y Cajal
(1852-1934)
Father of Modern Neuroscience
Birth of Cognitive Neuroscience
Cognitive Psychology
strengths: cognitive
components (versus
abilities like speech)
Neuroi...
Modern Phrenology
History of
Cognitive
Neuroscience
History of Cognitive Neuroscience
History of Cognitive Neuroscience
History of Cognitive Neuroscience
History of Cognitive Neuroscience
History of Cognitive Neuroscience
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History of Cognitive Neuroscience

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History of Cognitive Neuroscience

  1. 1. History of Cognitive Neuroscience Neolithic Neurology (i.e. trephination) Estimated 65% survival rate from Stanley Finger, neurologist One archeological site in France with 120 skulls had 40 with holes
  2. 2. Fundamental Circularity of Being “The world is inseparable from the subject, but from a subject which is nothing but a projection of the world, and the subject is inseparable from the world, but from a world which the subject itself projects.” Merleau-Ponty (1906-1961)
  3. 3. Goal of Cognitive Neuroscience is to provide and explain the correspondence between brain and mind structure and function Does brain=mind or some other relationship?
  4. 4. Ancient views of the mind Cerebrocentric Cardiocentric Plato, Hippocrates Aristotle
  5. 5. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) De Humani Corporis Fabrica (The Fabric of The Human Body) – 1543 Studied anatomy solely for structure Some error in brain convolutions
  6. 6. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) De Homine – 1662 Mechanistic view of brain Pineal gland – gateway to soul
  7. 7. Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) Professor of Obstetrics Moves frog leg with static electricity Detects electricity in the nerves of frogs
  8. 8. Phrenology
  9. 9. Cerebral Localization: Gall Franz Gall (1781) pioneer • noted aphasia-frontal lesion link • Phrenology: Analysis of the shapes and lumps of the skull would reveal a person’s personality and intellect. • Identified 27 basic faculties like imitation, spirituality Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)
  10. 10. Cerebral Holism (Diffuse representation) • Pierre Flourens (1824) set up lab to attack Gall’s mind-brain equivalence. • He demonstrated that main divisions of brain were responsible for largely different functions. • By removing cerebrum, all perceptions, motor function, and judgment were abolished. • Removal of cerebellum affected equilibrium and motor coordination. • Destruction of brain stem caused death. • Extensive cortical lesions in birds and rabbits showed little behavioral change, which led him to believe that these functions are represented diffusely around the brain.
  11. 11. Swing back to Localization • Bouillaud (1825): large series of speech loss with frontal lesions • Marc Dax (1836): LH damage, right hemiplegia, & aphasia linked • Paul Broca (1861) convincing evidence of speech laterality; Tan
  12. 12. Paul Broca (1824-1880) Anthropologist and anatomist Paris educated MD pathologist “Tan” aphasic patient died in April 1861 “Nous parlons avez l’hemisphere gauche”
  13. 13. Swing back to Localization Carl Wernicke (1874): temporal lesion disturbs comprehension. Developed connectionism model of language and predicated conduction aphasia
  14. 14. Back to Holism John Hughlings Jackson CNS ~hierarchies, highly interactive
  15. 15. Korbinian Brodmann (1868-1918) Established the basis for comparative cytoarchitectonics of the mammalian cortex.
  16. 16. Back to Localization Brodmann (1905) 52 cytoarchitectonic brain areas Experimental Neurology: Patient H.M. and callosotomy
  17. 17. Camillo Golgi (1843-1926) Golgi’s silver chromate stain shows dendrites, soma, and axons
  18. 18. Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934) Father of Modern Neuroscience
  19. 19. Birth of Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Psychology strengths: cognitive components (versus abilities like speech) Neuroimaging strengths: normal brains, spatial resolution Neurology strengths:mechanisms, causation
  20. 20. Modern Phrenology
  21. 21. History of Cognitive Neuroscience
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