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Health Psychology - Template for Divisional PowerPoints

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Health Psychology - Template for Divisional PowerPoints Health Psychology - Template for Divisional PowerPoints Presentation Transcript

  • Health Psychology Division 38 (Health Psychology) Education & Training Committee Regan A. R. Gurung (Chair) Created 2008
  • Sample Research Findings in Health Psychology
    • One of the strongest predictors of who is likely to have a heart attack among American adults is a hostile personality trait and a tendency towards hostile interactions with others.
    • After surgery, patients in a hospital room with a pleasant view go home sooner and with fewer complications that those looking at a blank wall.
    • Premature infants in the hospital given 15 minutes of light massage per day gain weight faster and go home sooner
    • Keeping a diary where one writes about important thoughts and events boosts the body’s immune system and improves physical health.
    • Hostile and conflictual interactions with one’s spouse or partner can suppress the immune system and increase the risk of developing colds.
    • Laughter is a powerful painkiller.
  • Sample Research Findings in Health Psychology (cont.)
    • Some people with asthma can suffer full-blown attacks after looking at artificial flowers.
    • People with few friends and who lead isolated lives are twice as likely to die during a given time period.
    • After a heart attack, patients who owned pets were significantly less likely to die in the following year.
    • Blood pressure decreases when pet owners talk to their pets or are in the presence of their pets during stressful events.
    • Men who performed volunteer work once a week lived longer and were healthier than men who volunteered less than once a week.
    • Depression is a stronger predictor of heart attacks and poor recovery from a heart attack than high cholesterol or cigarette smoking.
    • When people watch tropical fish in an aquarium with their full attention, they lower their blood pressure and heart rate significantly.
    • People taught relaxation and meditation techniques showed lower blood pressure and less complications during surgery.
  • The Area
    • Psychologists who strive to understand how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health and illness are called health psychologists.
    • The term "health psychology" is often interchanged with the terms "behavioral medicine" or "medical psychology".
  • Illnesses related to Psychological/Behavioral factors: Heart disease and stroke Cancer HIV/AIDS COPD Type II diabetes Poor birth outcomes Chronic pain conditions Infectious illnesses
    • Actual causes of death in the US *:
    • Smoking / tobacco
    • Sedentary lifestyle and poor diet
    • Alcohol
    • Microbial agents
    • Toxic agents
    • Motor vehicle accidents
    • Firearms
    • Sexual behavior
    • Drug abuse
    *Mokdad et al. Actual causes of death in the US 2000. JAMA 2004:291:1238-46 Half of all deaths that occurred in the United States in 2000 can be attributed to a limited number of largely preventable behaviors and exposures (Mokdad et al., 2000). This is where Health Psychologists are particularly effective.
  • Health over Time
    • 3000 years ago :
      • Spirits, Mind, and body seen as one
    • Greeks onward (e.g., Descartes):
      • Mind and body separate
    • Age of Scientific Discovery (17-19 th century):
      • Rise of the biomedical model of disease
      • Inventions drive health care (e.g., 1668 Microscope)
    • Beginnings of Health Psychology as we know it
      • 1930s Society for Psychosomatic Medicine formed
      • 1970s Society for Behavioral Medicine formed
      • 1970s Health Psychology formed
      • Mind and body are seen as one again
    • Historical moments in health psychology
    • Walter Cannon (1932) - stomach movements affected by emotional state. Stress increases blood sugar, epinephrine, BP, respiration rate (“Fight or flight”)
    • Framingham study (1948 - ) - lifestyle factors are significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease
    • Hans Selye (1956) – physiological arousal from stress leads to disease if prolonged or chronic
    • Lazarus (1960’s+) – appraisals of events are critical for understanding health outcomes
    • Neal Miller (1970’s) – can learn to control bodily functions like BP, intestinal contractions, muscle tension
    • Robert Ader (1970’s) – classical conditioning of immune system responses to immune-suppressant drugs
  • Health Psychology’s Main Goals
    • Understanding psychological influences:-
    • - on how we stay healthy,
    • - why we become sick, and
    • - how we respond when we do.
  • GOALS of Field
    • 1. Promote and maintain health (e.g., stop smoking, buckle belts).
    • 2. Prevent and treat illness (e.g. reduce High Blood pressure).
    •  
    • 3. Focus on cause and detection of illness: influence of personality, cognitive processes.
    • 4. Improve the health care system/health policy.
  • The Main Approach Used
    • The Biopsychosocial Model
      • views health and illness as the product of a combination of factors including
        • Biological factors (e.g., genetic predisposition),
        • Psychological factors (e.g., personality, lifestyle, stress, health beliefs), and
        • Social factors (e.g., cultural influences, family relationships, social support).
    • Biopsychosocial Approach to Health and Illness
    • Traditional biomedical model has limited usefulness with current patterns of illness and the health challenges of the 21 st century.
    •  Integrates biological, psychological, and social influences in order to understand health and vulnerability to illness and successfully treat disorders.
    • Addresses limitations of a traditional medical model that attempts to cure disease. We are not healthy until we become sick. Mental problems are not clearly distinguishable from physical problems.
  • Sample Major Theories
    • BEHAVIOR CHANGE
      • Health Belief Model
      • Theory of Planned Behavior
      • Transtheoretical Model
    • STRESS
      • Fight and Flight response
      • General Adaptation Syndrome
      • Cognitive Appraisal Model
  • Current Issues
    • Interactions between health psychologists and medical doctors.
    • Cultural differences in health.
    • Technology and health.
    • Reducing Obesity.
  • Where Do Health Psychologists Work?
    • Health psychologists participate in health care in a multitude of settings including:
      • primary care programs,
      • inpatient medical units, and
      • specialized health care programs such as
        • pain management,
        • rehabilitation,
        • women's health,
        • oncology,
        • smoking cessation, and
        • headache management
      • They also work in colleges and universities, corporations, and for governmental agencies.
  • Clinical Activities
    • Health Psychologists:
      • Help measure/assess for mental and behavioral problems,
      • Conduct clinical interviews
      • Administer surveys and personality tests.
      • Design interventions to help:
        • With stress management,
        • Educate about disease and illness,
        • Ways to cope with disease,
        • Perform more health behaviors such as physical activity.
  • Research Activities
    • Health psychologists are on the leading edge of research focusing on the biopsychosocial model in areas such as:
      • HIV,
      • Cancer
      • Compliance with medical regimens,
      • Health promotion, and
      • the effect of psychological, social, and cultural factors on numerous specific diseases
        • diabetes,
        • cancer,
        • hypertension and coronary artery disease,
        • chronic pain, and
        • sleep disorders.
  • Health psychology research examines:
      • The causes and development of illness,
      • Methods to help individuals develop healthy lifestyles to promote good health and prevent illness,
      • The treatment people get for their medical problems,
      • The effectiveness with which people cope with and reduce stress and pain,
      • Biopsychosocial connections with immune functioning, and
      • Factors in the recovery, rehabilitation, and psychosocial adjustment of patients with serious health problems.
  • Careers
    • Elaborate on career opportunities in this area
    • Describe potential intrinsic and extrinsic benefits
    • Describe working conditions
    • Describe training required
    • Potential for upward career movement
    • Other professional opportunities
  • Training for Health Psychology Careers:
    • Health psychologists typically hold a doctoral degree (Ph.D. or Psy.D.) in psychology.
    • Applied health psychologists are licensed for the independent practice of psychology in areas such as clinical and counseling psychology
    • Board certification is available in health psychology through the American Board of Professional Psychology.
  • Preparing for a career in health psychology
    • Obtain general psychology training at the undergraduate and doctoral levels,
    • Receive specialty training at the postdoctoral or internship level.
      • Predoctoral Internships: Clinical and counseling psychologists are required to complete a one-year internship/residency before obtaining their doctorates.
      • Postdoctoral Fellowships: Many university medical centers, universities, health centers, and health psychology programs offer specialized research and/or clinical training in different areas of health psychology.
  • Resources
    • APA Division 38 (Health Psychology) Webpage: www.health-psych.org/
    • Major Journal in Field
      • Health Psychology: www.apa.org/journals/hea/
    • Careers Page:
      • www.sbm.org/careers/