Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition


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Educational Psychology, Canadian Edition

  2. 2. CHAPTER 1CHAPTER 1 Introducing EducationalIntroducing Educational Psychology and Reflective PracticePsychology and Reflective Practice
  3. 3. Educational Psychology, Chapter 1:Chapter 1: Introducing EducationalIntroducing Educational Psychology and Reflective PracticePsychology and Reflective Practice • Themes of the ChapterThemes of the Chapter – Learning how to understand learners andLearning how to understand learners and to promote their learning helps teachersto promote their learning helps teachers feel more comfortable and successful.feel more comfortable and successful. – Students are diverse and some haveStudents are diverse and some have special needsspecial needs – Theory and research play major roles inTheory and research play major roles in educational psychology and reflectiveeducational psychology and reflective practicepractice
  4. 4. Educational Psychology, Guiding QuestionsGuiding Questions • What is educational psychology?What is educational psychology? • What primary concerns do beginningWhat primary concerns do beginning teachers have?teachers have? • What is reflective teaching, and how is itWhat is reflective teaching, and how is it different from technical teaching?different from technical teaching? • How can teachers recognize, adapt, andHow can teachers recognize, adapt, and respond to diverse learners and studentsrespond to diverse learners and students with special needs?with special needs? • How do educational psychologists useHow do educational psychologists use theory and research?theory and research?
  5. 5. Educational Psychology, Goals of Educational PsychologyGoals of Educational Psychology • Enhance theoretical knowledge ofEnhance theoretical knowledge of basic psychological processesbasic psychological processes • Improve educational practiceImprove educational practice
  6. 6. Educational Psychology, Teaching and LearningTeaching and Learning Teaching • A relatively permanent change in behaviourA relatively permanent change in behaviour or knowledge as a result of experienceor knowledge as a result of experience Learning • One person’s interpersonal effort to helpOne person’s interpersonal effort to help others acquire knowledge, develop skill, andothers acquire knowledge, develop skill, and realize their potentialrealize their potential
  7. 7. Educational Psychology, What Expert Teachers KnowWhat Expert Teachers Know • Broad and deep subject matter knowledgeBroad and deep subject matter knowledge • How-to instructional strategiesHow-to instructional strategies • Knowledge about learning environmentsKnowledge about learning environments • Knowledge about educational materialsKnowledge about educational materials
  8. 8. Educational Psychology, Concerns of Beginning TeachersConcerns of Beginning Teachers • Classroom disciplineClassroom discipline • Motivating studentsMotivating students • Special needsSpecial needs • Assessment and gradingAssessment and grading
  9. 9. Educational Psychology, Teaching EfficacyTeaching Efficacy • A teacher’s judgement of, orA teacher’s judgement of, or confidence in, his or her capacity toconfidence in, his or her capacity to cope with the teaching situation incope with the teaching situation in ways that bring about desiredways that bring about desired outcomesoutcomes
  10. 10. Educational Psychology, Teaching Efficacy CategoriesTeaching Efficacy Categories • Efficacy for classroom managementEfficacy for classroom management • Efficacy for student engagementEfficacy for student engagement • Efficacy for instructional strategiesEfficacy for instructional strategies  See Table 1.3 (p.9) for sample questionnaireSee Table 1.3 (p.9) for sample questionnaire items that measure teaching efficacyitems that measure teaching efficacy
  11. 11. Educational Psychology, Examples of StatementsExamples of Statements of Efficacyof Efficacy • Classroom management: “Classroom management: “I can preventI can prevent behaviour problems in the classroombehaviour problems in the classroom.”.” • Student engagement: “Student engagement: “I can develop interestingI can develop interesting tasks that students will enjoytasks that students will enjoy.”.” • Instructional strategies:Instructional strategies: ““I can teach writing veryI can teach writing very wellwell.”.”
  12. 12. Educational Psychology, Metaphors for TeachingMetaphors for Teaching Provide examples of how teachers mightProvide examples of how teachers might describe their teaching if they adopted thedescribe their teaching if they adopted the metaphor of teacher as:metaphor of teacher as: entertainer, coach, lion tamer, choreographer, party host, circus master, traffic cop, ship captain, air traffic controller Benefits of Having Metaphors for Teaching: •Facilitates reflectionFacilitates reflection •Serves as a standard for self-evaluationServes as a standard for self-evaluation •Helps initiate desired changes in teachingHelps initiate desired changes in teaching
  13. 13. Educational Psychology, Two Modes of TeachingTwo Modes of Teaching • Technical teachingTechnical teaching: Teaching situation is: Teaching situation is predictable and calls for routine actionpredictable and calls for routine action – Classroom experience: ConstructiveClassroom experience: Constructive learning experiencelearning experience • Reflective teachingReflective teaching:: Teaching situation isTeaching situation is surprising and calls for conjectures,surprising and calls for conjectures, information gathering, and decision-information gathering, and decision- making.making. – Knowledge about teaching and learning:Knowledge about teaching and learning: Constructive learning experienceConstructive learning experience
  14. 14. Educational Psychology, Figure 1.2 Similarities in the Day-to-DayFigure 1.2 Similarities in the Day-to-Day Work of Teachers and ResearchersWork of Teachers and Researchers
  15. 15. Educational Psychology, Model for Reflective Teaching:Model for Reflective Teaching: RReflection,eflection, IInformation gathering,nformation gathering, DDecisionecision making,making, EEvaluationvaluation (RIDE)(RIDE)
  16. 16. Educational Psychology, Your TurnYour Turn • Ms Newby is afraid that she will not beMs Newby is afraid that she will not be able to handle students’ misbehavioursable to handle students’ misbehaviours • How might she solve this problem usingHow might she solve this problem using the RIDE model?the RIDE model?
  17. 17. Educational Psychology, Diverse Learners inDiverse Learners in CanadaCanada • In Canada,In Canada, 14%14% of the 8 million studentsof the 8 million students enrolled in public schools are visibleenrolled in public schools are visible minoritiesminorities • 12% of these 8 million students have special12% of these 8 million students have special needs that interfere with their ability to learnneeds that interfere with their ability to learn • Response to diversityResponse to diversity – Equality – Accommodation
  18. 18. Educational Psychology, Instruction for Canadian StudentsInstruction for Canadian Students with Special Needswith Special Needs • Individualize instruction dictated by theIndividualize instruction dictated by the Education Act • Rely on direct and explicit instructional practicesRely on direct and explicit instructional practices outlined in anoutlined in an individual education program (IEP) required by lawrequired by law • Meticulously arrange or structure the learningMeticulously arrange or structure the learning environmentenvironment • Provide external supports, such as calculators, tape-Provide external supports, such as calculators, tape- recorded textbooks, adaptive furniture, special lightingrecorded textbooks, adaptive furniture, special lighting or acousticsor acoustics • Closely monitor students’ progress and provideClosely monitor students’ progress and provide systematic feedbacksystematic feedback • Teach skill-based strategies, such as how to generateTeach skill-based strategies, such as how to generate questions while readingquestions while reading
  19. 19. Educational Psychology, TheoryTheory • What is theory and why is it important?What is theory and why is it important? • Theory is an intellectual framework thatis an intellectual framework that organizes a vast amount of knowledgeorganizes a vast amount of knowledge about a phenomenon so that educatorsabout a phenomenon so that educators can understand and explain better thecan understand and explain better the nature of that phenomenonnature of that phenomenon
  20. 20. Educational Psychology, Research MethodsResearch Methods • Research methods provide evidence that assistsResearch methods provide evidence that assists teachers make appropriate choices in theteachers make appropriate choices in the classroomclassroom • Types of research methods:Types of research methods: – Descriptive studies – Correlational studies – Experimental studies – Action research
  21. 21. Educational Psychology, Descriptive StudiesDescriptive Studies • A research method used to describe theA research method used to describe the educational situation as it naturallyeducational situation as it naturally occurs: what typically happens, howoccurs: what typically happens, how teachers teach, and how students learnteachers teach, and how students learn and developand develop • Example research question: “How doesExample research question: “How does Ms. Newby organize the physical layoutMs. Newby organize the physical layout of her classroom?of her classroom?
  22. 22. Educational Psychology, Correlational StudiesCorrelational Studies • A research method used to measure twoA research method used to measure two naturally occurring variables andnaturally occurring variables and summarize the nature and magnitude ofsummarize the nature and magnitude of their relationship in numerical formtheir relationship in numerical form • Example research question: “How isExample research question: “How is measured intelligence related to schoolmeasured intelligence related to school achievement?”achievement?”
  23. 23. Educational Psychology, Experimental StudiesExperimental Studies • A research method used to test for aA research method used to test for a cause-and-effect relationship betweencause-and-effect relationship between two variablestwo variables • Example research question: “Is readingExample research question: “Is reading program ‘A’ better than readingprogram ‘A’ better than reading program ‘B’ for teaching first graders toprogram ‘B’ for teaching first graders to read?”read?”
  24. 24. Educational Psychology, Action ResearchAction Research • A research method carried out byA research method carried out by teachers in their own classrooms toteachers in their own classrooms to inform and refine their personalinform and refine their personal theories of teaching and classroomtheories of teaching and classroom learninglearning • Example research question: “Do I askExample research question: “Do I ask boys more questions than I ask girls?”boys more questions than I ask girls?”
  25. 25. Educational Psychology, What Kind of Research?What Kind of Research? • I want to decide if boys in the Grade 6I want to decide if boys in the Grade 6 benefit more from cooperative learning thanbenefit more from cooperative learning than girlsgirls • I want to decide if completion of homeworkI want to decide if completion of homework is associated with better achievementis associated with better achievement • I want to examine the number of errorsI want to examine the number of errors present in the Grade 8 science bookpresent in the Grade 8 science book • I want Maria to tell me about herI want Maria to tell me about her experiences in solving a math problemexperiences in solving a math problem
  26. 26. Educational Psychology, Critical Thinking of TeachersCritical Thinking of Teachers • Teachers supplement their subjectiveTeachers supplement their subjective ways of knowing with objective, data-ways of knowing with objective, data- based ways of knowing and gobased ways of knowing and go beneath the surface of their ideabeneath the surface of their idea
  27. 27. Educational Psychology, CopyrightCopyright Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (the Canadian copyright licensing agency) is unlawful. Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his or her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The author and the publisher assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these files or programs or from the use of the information contained herein.