• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content

Loading…

Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

Download the Powerpoint presentation

on

  • 493 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
493
Views on SlideShare
493
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Download the Powerpoint presentation Download the Powerpoint presentation Presentation Transcript

    • NN CONTEMPLATE THIS! The Developing Field of Contemplative Studies Hal Roth, Director The Contemplative Studies Initiative at BROWN UNIVERSITY
    • What is “Contemplative Studies?”
      • A Proposed New Academic Field
      • 1. Studying the underlying philosophy, psychology, and phenomenology of human contemplative experience.
      • 2. Focusing on the many ways human beings have found, across cultures and across time, to concentrate, broaden and deepen conscious awareness as the gateway to cultivating their full potential and to leading more meaningful, ethically responsible, and personally fulfilling lives.
    • What is “Contemplative Studies?”
      • A Proposed New Academic Field
      • 3. Attempting to:
      • a. identify the varieties of contemplative experiences of which human beings are capable;
      • b. find meaningful scientific explanations for them;
      • c. cultivate first-person knowledge of them;
      • d. critically assess their nature and significance.
    • WHAT IS “CONTEMPLATION?”
      • The focusing of the attention in a sustained fashion leading to deepened states of concentration, tranquility, and insight. It occurs on a spectrum ranging from the rather common, uncultivated, spontaneous experiences of absorption in an activity to the most profound, deliberately cultivated experiences of nonduality.
    • BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES
      • CONTEMPLATION IS NOT CONFINED TO RELIGION
      • Contemplative practices abound in the societies people have constructed throughout human history.
      • They are an important part of the very fabric from which people build meaningful lives.
    • BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES
      • CONTEMPLATION IS NOT CONFINED TO RELIGION
      • While various methods to attain contemplative states of consciousness can be found in Asian and Western religious practices, such states can also be found in a wide variety of non-religious activities such as making or listening to music, dancing, acting, writing poetry or prose, painting, sculpting, and even the intent observation of the natural world.
      • It is the goal of Contemplative Studies to examine the effects of all these activities
    • BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES
      • Third-Person Study is not Sufficient
      • Current North American higher education is dominated by “third-person” learning. We observe, analyze, record, discuss a whole variety of subjects at a distance, as something “out there,” as if they were solely objects and our own subjectivity that is viewing them doesn’t exist.
    • BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES
      • The Neo-Confucian
      • philosopher,
      • Wang Yangming
      • (1472–1529)
      • once said:
      • “ If you wish to know the taste of the bitter melon you must bite into it!”
    • BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES
      • Critical First-person Study Must be Included
      • In addition to being grounded in the philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience of contemplative experience as a third-person study, Contemplative Studies emphasizes “ critical first-person ” approaches.
      • In them, students are encouraged to engage directly with contemplative techniques without prior commitment to their efficacy. They then step back and appraise their experiences in order to gain a deeper appreciation of their meaning and significance.
    • BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES
      • Critical First-person Study Must be Included
      • Examples:
      • Courses on Contemplative Studies and Buddhist Meditation with Practice Labs;
      • Courses on language learning with Contemplative Focus exercises;
      • Courses on poetry with a spontaneous writing component, etc. For further lists please see Contemplative Studies Initiative website
    • The Challenge
      • So the challenge is: how do we combine these concerns into a coherent higher education curriculum to study contemplative experience, one that is based upon a scientific foundation, combines third and first-person perspectives, and gives students practical training in recognizing their own contemplative experiences? To accomplish we are trying to develop a completely new academic field, “Contemplative Studies, ” that includes:
    • AREAS OF A CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES CONCENTRATION
      • SCIENCE
      • The study of human consciousness and of the nature and significance of the varieties of contemplative experience found predominately in neuroscience, cognitive science, and psychology;
      • The applications of contemplative practices in heath and healing on both individual and community levels.
      • The interface between contemplative epistemologies and new developments in theoretical physics;
    • AREAS OF A CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES CONCENTRATION
      • HUMANITIES
      • The study of the role of contemplation in:
      • Philosophy,
      • The Religious traditions of the world
      • World literatures,
      • a variety of other related disciplines;
    • AREAS OF A CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES CONCENTRATION
      • THE CREATIVE ARTS
      • The study of the role of contemplation in both the creation and the appreciation of the visual and fine arts, creative writing, and in the various performing arts of dance, drama, and music
    • What is “Contemplative Studies” at Brown?
      • We have organized a series of lectures, films, and retreats (a total of 52 such events alone in the past three years; See website for videos)
      • We have coordinated students’ academic and personal study in this area, which has included:
      • --directing Independent Concentrations
      • --offering Contemplative Practice Grants,
      • We have become 1 of 12 programs in the Medical School’s new Scholarly Concentrations Program .
      • We developed a proposal for a concentration and program in contemplative studies that we are awaiting funding to move ahead with
      • We are conducting research on effects of regular contemplative practice on university students
    • What is “Contemplative Studies” at Brown?
      • As of this moment, Contemplative Studies is a Faculty Initiative whose members teach courses and guide work in their own areas of expertise and support students interested in developing an independent concentration. To this point we have had eight such students, five of whom have already graduated and the rest of whom are still working on their degrees.
    • Contemplative Studies Independent Concentrations
      • Contemplative Neuroscience
      • Tibetan Buddhist Meditation and the Treatment of Eating Disorders
      • Contemplative Experience and Morality
      • Theories of Madness in Tibetan and Western Medicine
      • Contemplative Music: A Composition Based on the Chakras
      • Neuroscientific Research in Contemplative Studies
      • Contemplative Education in a Village School in Auroville, Pondicherry, India
      • Appreciating the Subjective in Medicine
    • Website for the Contemplative Studies Initiative
      • http://www.brown.edu/Faculty/Contemplative_Studies_Initiative/index.html
    • Contemplative Studies in Medicine
      • The Warren Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University has established a “Scholarly Concentration” for medical students. It gives them an additional elective focus in their training. Topics include Women’s Health, Third World Medicine, Disaster Medicine, Medical Ethics, and Contemplative Studies; We currently have 7 students in this program.
    • Web Links for the Brown Medical School Scholarly Concentration in Contemplative Studies
      • Scholarly Concentrations Program
      • http://bms.brown.edu/students/curriculum/concentrations/index
      • Scholarly Concentration in Contemplative Studies
      • http://bms.brown.edu/students/curriculum/concentrations/contemplative
    • Effects of Contemplative Training in College Students at Brown University, 2007-08
      • By
      • Willoughby Britton, Ph.D.
      • Department of Psychiatry
      • Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University
    • Effects of Contemplative Training in College Students at Brown University, 2007-08 Preliminary Study: Unpublished Results
      • Introduction
      • Students in the study were volunteers recruited from two courses, one in each semester. The first, Religious Studies 0500, “The Theory and Practice of Buddhist Meditation” was taught in the first semester. The second, “An Introduction to Contemplative Studies” was taught during the second semester. Each course featured a curriculum that included one 140 minute seminar weekly and three 50 minute meditation session per week. Each session was divided into 15 minutes of yoga, 25 minutes of meditation, and 10 minutes of discussion and journaling. The instructor in both courses was Professor Hal Roth.
      • Three measures were administered: The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, the Five Factor Mindfulness Scale, and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire
    • Effects of Contemplative Training in College Students at Brown University, 2007-08
      • 1. Scores on Brown and Ryan's Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) steadily increased over the semester. There was a significant increase from the beginning of the semester to mid semester to mid-semester (t(1,16)=-3.38, p=.004) and from beginning to end of the semester (t(1,14)=-3.8, p=.002). The increase from mid-semester to end of the semester was not significant, which suggests that the biggest gains in attention occur early in the semester
    • Effects of Contemplative Training in College Students at Brown University, 2007-08
      • 2. Total Scores on the Baer's Mindfulness Five Factor Mindfulness Scale (FFMQ) also increased across the semester (p=.0005).
      • Increases in observation (p=.03) and attentional clarity (p=.004) increased significantly in the first, but not second half of the semester. Non-judgment and non-reactivity showed large increases in the second, but not first half of the semester. These differences in skill acquisition are most likely due to different types of practices in each half of the semester.
    • Effects of Contemplative Training in College Students at Brown University, 2007-08
      • 3. On Hayes' Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ) , students scores increased significantly on the Willingness subscale (p=.03), but not the Action subscale. This suggests an overall decrease in experiential avoidance of internal events and increased acceptance of unpleasant mental states and emotions.
      • In terms of clinical symptoms, students showed a 30% reduction in total symptoms with a 40% reductions in both anxiety and depression symptoms (p>.05). Students also showed a trend (p<.10) toward improved social functioning, both in terms of interpersonal sensitivity (feeling inferior, self-conscious) and feelings of isolation and loneliness.
    • Effects of Contemplative Training in College Students at Brown University, 2007-08 :Observations
      • Improvements in depression symptoms across the semester were significantly correlated with increases in mindfulness scores, both on the MAAS (r=-.62, p=.01) and the FFMQ (r=.78, p=.001).
      • Increased scores on the FFMQ were associated with reported improvements in attention problems (difficulty concentrating etc).
    • Effects of Contemplative Training in College Students at Brown University, 2007-08 :Observations
      • Improvements in attention problems in the first semester correlated with MAAS total scores and the FFMQ nonreactivity subscale. Decreases in total symptoms, depression and social problems were most evident in the second semester and were correlated with FFMQ total score(r=-.85), non-reactivity(r=-.6-88), and attentional clarity (r=-.88). Decreases in experiential avoidance or willingness to experience unpleasant emotions was significantly correlated with decreases in anxiety in the second semester.
    • Effects of Contemplative Training in College Students at Brown University, 2007-08 :Observations
      • In a simultaneous regression, FFMQ subscales attentional clarity, non-judgment, nonreactivity and willingness to experience accounted for 92% of the variance in depression scores. That is, the higher the scores on these subscales, the lower the scores in depression.
      • Mindful awareness (MAAS) and observational skills did not correlate with clinical symptom relief.
    • Effects of Contemplative Training in College Students at Brown University, 2007-08 :Observations
      • SUMMARY: Participation in these two courses and the associated meditation labs was associated with significant decreases in clinical symptoms, notably depression and anxiety. Class participation was also associated with significant increases in a multifaceted construct called mindfulness which includes enhanced clarity and maintenance of attention, and emotional non-reactivity. Decreases in clinical symptoms, particularly depression, were highly correlated with increases in mindfulness scores over the semester.
    • As William James stated over a century ago:
      • … the faculty of voluntarily bringing back a wandering attention, over and over again, is the very root of judgment, character, and will….An education which should improve this faculty would be the education par excellence. But it is easier to define this ideal than to give practical directions for bringing it about.
      • ( The Principles of Psychology )
    • The END
    • Contemplative Studies Courses
      • An abridged list
      • Those marked with an asterisk* have explicit contemplative content
    • SCIENCE COURSES FOR CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES CONCENTRATION
      • Courses on scientific explanations of the mind and its cognitive functioning, on individual and cultural levels
      • PSYCHOLOGY
      • PY0001: Elementary Psychology: Introduction to Mind and Behavior
      • PY0019: Animal Minds
      • PY0030: Personality
      • PY0105: Music and Mind
      • PY0107: Psychological Theory
      • *PY0182: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotion
    • SCIENCE COURSES FOR CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES CONCENTRATION
      • COGNITIVE AND LINGUISTIC SCIENCES:
      • CG001: Approaches to the Mind
      • CG008: Meaning and Thought
      • CG042: Human Cognition
      • CG044: Perception and Mind
      • CG0045 Language and the Mind
      • CG0105 Music and Mind (MU0123 S01 PY0105 )
      • CG0186 Philosophy and the Science of Perception
      • (PL0189 )
    • SCIENCE COURSES FOR CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES CONCENTRATION
      • NEUROSCIENCE
      • BN001: The Brain: An Introduction to Neuroscience
      • BN105: Cognitive Neuroscience
      • ANTHROPOLOGY
      • AN0105 Peoples and Cultures of Southeast Asia
      • *AN118: Japanese Culture, Society, and Performance
      • AN131: Religion and Culture
      • AN139: Culture and Cognition
    • HUMANITIES COURSES FOR CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES CONCENTRATION
      • UNIVERSITY COURSES
      • *UC054: Introduction to Contemplative Studies
      • *UC170: Transformation of the Research University
      • RELIGION
      • Courses on contemplative experience attained through religious practice
      • JUDAIC STUDIES
      • *JS 099: Jewish Mysticism
      • *JS 198: Mysticism and Community in the Hasidic Tale
      • RELIGIOUS STUDIES
      • *RS 23: Religion Gone Wild: Spirituality and the Environment
      • *RS 81: The Hindu Tradition
      • *RS 88.018: The Foundations of Chinese Religion
    • HUMANITIES COURSES FOR CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES CONCENTRATION
      • *RS 88.023: Great Mystical Traditions of Asia
      • *RS 188.018: Theory and Practice of Buddhist Meditation
      • *RS 188.001: Music, Drama, and Religion in India
      • *RS 137.003: Buddhist Psychology
      • PHILOSOPHY
      • Courses on the nature of the human mind from Western and Non-Western traditions
      • AFRICANA STUDIES
      • *AF 115: Afro-Caribbean Philosophy
      • PHILOSOPHY
      • PL002: Mind and Matter
      • PL008: Existentialism
      • PL175: Epistemology
      • PL177: Philosophy of Mind
    • HUMANITIES COURSES FOR CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES CONCENTRATION
      • PHILOSOPHY
      • PL0008 Existentialism
      • PL0152 Consciousness
      • CLASSICS
      • CL0112 : The Idea of Self
      • *CL 99: Concepts of Self in Indian Classical Literature
      • *SA 191: Advanced Sanskrit: Readings in Classical Indian Philosophical texts
      • AMERICAN CIVILIZATION
      • AC 161.06: H.D. Thoreau and His Heritage
      • AC 190.06: Transcendentalism in Action: Emerson and Whitman
    • HUMANITIES COURSES FOR CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES CONCENTRATION
      • LITERATURE
      • Courses on contemplative dimensions in creation or appreciation of creative writing
      • Literary Arts
      • *LA 100: John Cage Seminar: Mind, Methods, and Materials
      • *LA 115: Ecopoetics in Practice
      • *LA 100: Buddhism and Creative Practice
      • *LA 176: Still and Moving Minds: Contemplative Practice in Literature *LA 123: Section 02: Poetry, Mind, and World, Outside and Inside
      • EDUCATION
      • ED 080: Introduction to Human Development and Education
      • ED 156: Philosophy of Education
      • COMPARATIVE LITERATURE
      • *CO 143.01: Critical Approaches to Chinese Poetry
      • *CO 161.01: Theory of Lyric Poetry
    • COURSES IN THE CREATIVE ARTS FOR CONTEMPLATIVE STUDIES CONCENTRATION
      • Courses that study the role of contemplative experience in the creative arts
      • THEATRE ARTS
      • *TA 32: Creative Dance Collaborations
      • *TA 33: Mande Dance, Music, and Culture
      • *TA 127: Non-Western Theatre and Performance
      • *TA 128.008: New Works/ World Traditions
      • MUSIC
      • *MU0119: Music and Trance
      • MU0168: Music of Indonesia