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    ConsumerPsychology.pptx - www.personal.psu.edu ConsumerPsychology.pptx - www.personal.psu.edu Presentation Transcript

    • Consumer Psychology: Retrospect and Prospect Hans Baumgartner Penn State University
    • Consumer Psychology Overview  Retrospect □ Influential streams of research in consumer psychology (1956-2007) □ Types of influential articles  Prospect □ Consumer psychology in the third millennium □ Examples of recent research originating in the substantive, conceptual and methodological domains
    • Consumer Psychology Which research streams and articles have had an impact? Citation analysis (based on SSCI) for all articles published in (1974-2007), (1964-2007), and (1956-2007) For articles published since 1974: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Total # of Total # of (2) ÷ (1) # of # of (4) ÷ (1) (5) ÷ (2) articles citations articles citations of cited ≥ 100 articles cited ≥ 100 JCR 1,503 58,232 39 125 22,285 8% 38% JMR 1,646 57,966 35 112 23,512 7% 41% JM 1,374 58,279 42 150 32,373 11% 56%Overall 4,523 174,477 39 387 78,170 9% 45%
    • Consumer Psychology Categorization of influential articles Articles were classified using the scheme shown on the next slide; Articles in , , and were categorized; Articles with at least 100 citations are shown (the number of citations follows each article), although articles with a smaller number of citations were also classified; Articles reporting empirical studies are underlined;
    • Consumer Psychology Categorization of research streams Marketing influences • Product programs • Price programs • Marketing communication programs • Distribution programs The purchasePsychological process Environmental foundation • Types of purchase influences behavior• Cognition • Physical environ- • Decision making and• Affect choice mental influences• Motivation & • The consumption • Social environ- personality experience mental influences • Post-purchase processes
    • Consumer Psychology Psychological foundation research: Cognition Consumer knowledge, expertise and familiarity Alba and Hutchinson (1987) Consumer memory Lynch and Srull (1982) Consumer inferences Meyer (1981) , Huber and McCann (1982) , Folkes (1988) , Kardes (1988) Imagery processing MacInnis and Price (1987) Consumer learning Hoch and Ha (1986) , Johnson and Russo (1984) , Hoch and Deighton (1989) 165
    • Consumer Psychology Psychological foundation research: Affect Mood □ Gardner (1985) Consumption emotions □ Richins (1997)
    • Consumer Psychology Psychological foundation research: Motivation & personality Perceived risk □ Roselius (1971) 118 Involvement □ Conceptual essays: Bloch and Richins (1983) 129 , Greenwald and Leavitt (1984) □ Scales: Zaichkowsky (1985) , Laurent and Kapferer (1985) □ Effects on attention and comprehension: Celsi and Olson (1988) Psychographics and values □ Psychographics: Wells (1975) □ Materialism: Belk (1985) , Richins and Dawson (1992)
    • Consumer Psychology Psychological foundation research: Motivation & personality (cont’d) Purchasing motives □ Shopping motives: Tauber (1972) 108 □ Means-end chains: Gutman (1982) 195 Consumer personality □ Review of theories: Kassarjian (1971) 128 □ Innovativeness: Midgley and Dowling (1978) , Hirschman (1980) , Dickerson and Gentry (1983) □ Scales: Raju (1980) , Shimp and Sharma (1987) 152 , Bearden, Netemeyer, and Teel (1989) The self □ Self-concept: Sirgy (1982) □ Products as social stimuli: Solomon (1983) □ Possessions and the extended self: Belk (1988)
    • Consumer Psychology The purchase process Types of purchase behavior: □ Hedonic consumption: Holbrook and Hirschman (1982) , Hirschman and Holbrook (1982) □ Utilitarian/hedonic shopping value: Babin, Darden, and Griffin (1994) □ Variety seeking: McAlister and Pessemier (1982) □ Impulsive and compulsive buying: Rook (1987) , O’Guinn and Faber (1989) Decision making and choice: □ Consumer search  Amount of search: Newman and Staelin (1972) , Punj and Staelin (1983) , Brucks (1985) , Bloch, Sherrell, and Ridgway (1986) , Beatty and Smith (1987)  Information overload: Jacoby, Speller, and Berning (1974) , Jacoby, Speller, and Kohn (1974) , Malhotra (1982)
    • Consumer Psychology The purchase process (cont’d) Decision making and choice (cont’d): □ Preference formation:  Multi-attribute model: Wilkie and Pessemier (1973)  Affective influences: Zajonc and Markus (1982)  Schemas: Sujan (1985) , Meyers-Levy and Tybout (1989)  Time-inconsistent preferences and affect vs. cognition in choice: Hoch and Loewenstein (1991) , Shiv and Fedorikhin (1999)  Pioneering advantage: Carpenter and Nakamoto (1989) □ The decision making process:  Decision-making strategies and constructive choice processes: Wright (1975) , Bettman and Kakkar (1977) , Lussier and Olshavsky (1979) , Bettman and Park (1980) , Park and Lessig (1981) , Bettman, Luce, and Payne (1998) , Luce (1998)  Lack of decision making: Olshavsky and Granbois (1979)  Cost of thinking: Shugan (1980)  Noncomparable alternatives: Johnson (1984) , Bettman and Sujan (1987)
    • Consumer Psychology The purchase process (cont’d) Decision making and choice (cont’d):  Consideration sets: Nedungadi (1990) , Hauser and Wernerfelt (1990) □ Consumer choice:  Memory-based choice: Lynch, Marmorstein, and Weigold (1988)  Attraction and compromise effects: Huber, Payne and Puto (1982) , Huber and Puto (1983) , Simonson (1989) , Simonson and Tversky (1992)  Regret and choice deferral: Simonson (1992) , Dhar (1997) Post-purchase processes □ Consumer satisfaction  Expectations: Cardozo (1965) , Anderson (1973)  ED models: Oliver (1980) , Churchill and Surprenant (1982)  Repurchase and switching: LaBarbera and Mazursky (1983)  Alternative comparison standards: Cadotte, Woodruff, and Jenkins (1987) , Tse and Wilton (1988)
    • Consumer Psychology The purchase process (cont’d) Post-purchase processes (cont’d) □ Consumer satisfaction (cont’d)  Equity theory: Oliver and Swan (1989) , Oliver and Swan (1989)  Comparison of theories: Oliver and DeSarbo (1988)  Desires congruency: Spreng, MacKenzie, and Olshavsky (1996)  Positive/negative performance: Mittal, Ross, and Baldasare (1998)  Affective influences: Westbrook (1987) , Westbrook and Oliver (1991) , Oliver (1993) , Mano and Oliver (1993)  Satisfaction indices: Fornell (1992) , Fornell et al. (1996) □ Satisfaction, loyalty, and repurchase Oliver (1999) , Garbarino and Johnson (1999) , Mittal and Kamakura (2001) □ Consequences of dissatisfaction Bearden and Teel (1983) , Richins (1983) , Folkes (1984)
    • Consumer Psychology Environmental influences Situational influences Belk (1975) , Milliman (1982) Adoption of innovation Gatignon and Robertson (1985) , Steenkamp, ter Hofstede, and Wedel (1999) Interpersonal influences □ WOM influence: Arndt (1967) , Brown and Reingen (1987) , Herr, Kardes, and Kim (1991) □ Reference group influence: Bearden and Etzel (1982) □ Market mavens: Feick and Price (1987) Household and group decision making Davis and Rigaux (1974) , Davis (1976) Consumer socialization Ward (1974)
    • Consumer PsychologyMarketing influences: Product programs Quality and value □ Expectations and quality: Olshavsky and Miller (1972) □ Quality, price, and value: Zeithaml (1988) □ Extrinsic cues: Rao and Monroe (1988) , Rao and Monroe (1989) , Dodds, Monroe, and Grewal (1991) □ Corporate associations: Brown and Dacin (1997) Brands, brand equity, and brand relationships □ Brand concept management: Park, Jaworski, and MacInnis (1986) □ Brand equity: Keller (1993) □ Brand personality: Aaker (1997) □ Brand relationships: Fournier (1998) Brand extension Aaker and Keller (1990) , Boush and Loken (1991) , Park, Milberg, and Lawson (1991) , Keller and Aaker (1992) , Loken and John (1993) , Broniarczyk and Alba (1994)
    • Consumer Psychology Marketing influences: Product programs The service encounter and servicescapes □ Service encounter: Solomon and Surprenant (1985) , Surprenant and Solomon (1987) , Arnould and Price (1993) □ Servicescapes: Bitner (1990) , Bitner (1992) □ Crowding and delays: Hui and Bateson (1991) , Taylor (1994) Service quality, value, satisfaction and loyalty □ SERVQUAL: Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1985) , Brown and Swartz (1989) , Cronin and Taylor (1992) , Teas (1993) , Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1994) , Cronin and Taylor (1994) , Zeithaml, Berry, and Parasuraman (1996) □ Dynamic models: Bolton and Drew (1991) , Bolton and Drew (1991) , Boulding, Kalra, Staelin, and Zeithaml (1993) , Bolton and Lemon (1999) □ Critical incidents: Bitner, Booms, and Tetreault (1990) , Keaveney (1995) , Meuter, Ostrom, Roundtree, and Bitner (2000) □ Failure, complaints, recovery, trust and loyalty: Tax, Brown, and Chandrashekaran (1998) , Smith, Bolton, and Wagner (1999) , Sirdeshmukh, Singh, and Sabol (2002)
    • Consumer Psychology Marketing influences: Price programs Price knowledge Dickson and Sawyer (1990) Price perception and reference prices □ Price perception: Monroe (1973) □ Reference prices: Winer (1986) , Urbany, Bearden, and Weilbaker (1988) , Grewal, Monroe, and Krishnan (1998) Unit prices Russo (1977) Price-oriented sales promotions □ Loyalty and brand switching: Dodson, Tybout, and Sternthal (1978) □ Deal-prone consumers: Blattberg, Buesing, Peacock, and Sen (1978) , Blattberg, Eppen, and Lieberman (1981) □ Promotion signals: Inman, McAlister and Hoyer (1990)
    • Consumer Psychology Marketing influences: Advertising programs Advertising in general Resnik and Stern (1977) , Pollay (1986) , Richins (1991) Information processing of ads MacInnis and Jaworski (1989) , MacInnis, Moorman, and Jaworski (1991) Information processing of pictures in ads Edell and Staelin (1983) , Kisielius and Sternthal (1984) , Childers and Houston (1984) Affect in advertising Gorn (1982) , Aaker,Stayman, and Hagerty (1986) , Batra and Ray (1986) , Edell and Burke (1987) , Holbrook and Batra (1987) , Goldberg and Gorn (1987) , Burke and Edell (1989) Attitude toward the ad Mitchell and Olson (1981) , MacKenzie, Lutz, and Belch (1986) , Mitchell (1986) , MacKenzie and Lutz (1989) , Brown and Stayman (1992)
    • Consumer Psychology Marketing influences: Advertising programs Attitudes and persuasion □ Hierarchy of effects: Lavidge and Steiner (1961) □ Expectancy-value model: Lutz (1975) □ Cognitive responses: Wright (1973) , Wright (1980) □ ELM: Petty, Cacioppo, and Schumann (1983) , Park and Young (1986) □ Framing: Levin and Gaeth (1988) , Maheswaran and Meyers-Levy (1990) □ Persuasion knowledge model: Friestad and Wright (1994) Attitudes and behavior □ Fishbein model and alternatives: Ryan and Bonfield (1975) , Bagozzi (1982) , Shimp and Kavas (1984) , Sheppard, Hartwick, and Warshaw (1988) , Bagozzi and Warshaw (1990) □ Direct experience: Smith and Swinyard (1983) , Fazio, Powell, and Williams (1989)
    • Consumer Psychology Marketing influences: Personal selling and distribution programs Buyer-seller relationships Schurr and Ozanne (1985) , Crosby and Stephens (1987) , Crosby and Evans (1990) Electronic shopping Alba et al. (1997) , Hoffman and Novak (1996)
    • Consumer Psychology Miscellaneous research in JCR Cultural/interpretive papers Sherry (1983) , McCracken (1986) , Belk, Wallendorf, and Sherry (1989) , Mick (1986) , Belk, Sherry, and Wallendorf (1988) , Wallendorf and Arnould (1988) , McCracken (1989) , Mick and Buhl (1992) , Celsi, Rose, and Leigh (1993) , Schouten and McAlexander (1995) , Firat and Venkatesh (1995) , Muniz and O’Guinn (2001) Methodological papers  Conjoint analysis: Green and Srinivasan (1978) , Green (1974)  SEM: Gerbing and Anderson (1984) , Steenkamp and Baumgartner (1998) , Jarvis, MacKenzie, and Podsakoff (2003)  Qualitative approaches: Kassarjian (1977) , Thompson, Locander, and Pollio (1989) , Kolbe and Burnett (1991) , Spiggle (1994)  Other papers: Calder, Phillips, and Tybout (1981) , Blair and Burton (1987) , Peter, Churchill, and Brown (1993) , Peterson (1994)
    • Consumer Psychology Proportion of total citations accounted for by different areas and journals JCR JMR JM AllPsychological Foundations 12 2 2 17Prepurchase processes 15 3 1 19Postpurchase processes 3 6 4 12Environmental influences 3 0 1 4Product programs 3 4 17 23Price programs 1 1 1 4Advertising programs 10 4 3 17Distribution programs 0 0 3 3Total 48 21 31 100
    • Consumer Psychology Types of influential articles Methodological articles: □ New methodological techniques and procedures (e.g., Fornell and Larcker 1981; Thompson, Locander, and Pollio 1989; Bitner, Booms, and Tetreault 1990) □ Guidelines on how to use particular techniques and procedures (e.g., Green and Srinivasan 1978; Kassarjian 1977; Steenkamp and Baumgartner 1998; Calder, Phillips, and Tybout 1981) □ Syntheses of research evidence on a particular technique (e.g., Peterson 1994)
    • Consumer Psychology Types of influential articles (cont’d) Conceptual articles: □ New perspective/idea essays (e.g., Lavidge and Steiner 1961; Holbrook and Hirschman 1982; Zajonc and Markus 1982; Belk 1988; Friestad and Wright 1994) □ Minitheories of particular substantive phenomena (e.g., Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry 1985; Zeithaml 1988; Keller 1993; Fornell et al. 1996) □ Analytical frameworks (e.g., Shugan 1980; Hauser and Wernerfelt 1990) □ Propositional reviews of a research area (e.g., Gatignon and Robertson 1985; Alba and Hutchinson 1987; Bettman, Luce, and Payne 1998) □ Quantitative and qualitative syntheses of research evidence (e.g., Sheppard, Hartwick, and Warshaw 1988; Gardner 1985; Wilkie and Pessemier 1973)
    • Consumer Psychology Types of influential articles (cont’d) Empirical articles: □ Studies that introduce a new concept, effect, or model  Mitchell and Olson (1981); Winer (1986); Aaker and Keller (1990); Fournier (1998)  Huber, Payne, and Puto (1982); Simonson (1989)  Oliver (1980); MacKenzie, Lutz, and Belch (1986) □ Studies that test, extend, or challenge prior concepts, effects, or models  Petty, Cacioppo, and Schumann (1983)  Sujan (1985); Simonson and Tversky (1992)  Cronin and Taylor (1992) □ Studies in popular research areas  Bettman and Park (1980); Brucks (1985); Edell and Burke (1987); Celsi and Olson (1988) □ Scale development studies  Zaichkowsky (1985); Richins and Dawson (1992)
    • Consumer Psychology Consumer psychology in the third millennium Fragmentation of the field □ Behavioral, managerial and quantitative □ Positivistic vs. interpretive □ BDT vs. information processing/social cognition Many empirical findings – few integrative theories Some personal thoughts on needed research □ What we don’t need more of □ What we need more of
    • Consumer Psychology What we don’t need more of Phenomenon-, theory-, and method-of-the-month papers Preoccupation with esoteric phenomena, theories, and methods Counter-intuitive or theory-inconsistent findings that are not germane to consumer behavior Studies that are more relevant to a foundational discipline than to consumer behavior and marketing
    • Consumer Psychology What we need more of CB-relevant substantive phenomena as the starting point of research Greater concern with ecologically valid manipulations, measures, and research settings Contextualized theories of the middle range that integrate empirical findings □ ELM □ Extended ED model of consumer satisfaction □ GAP model of service quality
    • Consumer Psychology The purchase cube Deliberate purchases High purchase Spontaneous purchases involvement Low purchase involvement Functional Psycho-social purchases purchases Based on Baumgartner (2002, forthcoming)
    • Consumer Psychology The purchase cube (cont’d) Deliberate purchases Extended Symbolic Spontaneous purchases purchase purchase decision behavior making Promotional Exploratory purchase purchase behavior behavior Repetitive Hedonic purchase purchase behavior behavior Casual Impulsive purchase purchase behavior behavior Based on Baumgartner (2002, forthcoming)
    • Consumer Psychology Recent research streams Substantively-motivated research □ Price fairness □ The mere-measurement effect □ Other examples Conceptually-motivated research □ Promotion and prevention focus □ Other examples Methodologically-motivated research □ Consumer neuroscience □ Implicit association test
    • Consumer Psychology Price fairness as a prototype of recent substantively-motivated research Price fairness as a “consumer’s assessment and associated emotions of whether the difference (or lack of difference) between a seller’s price and the price of a comparative other party is reasonable, acceptable, or justifiable” (Xia, Monroe, and Cox 2004; see also Bolton, Warlop, and Alba 2003) Xia et al. (2004) list 21 studies relevant to price fairness (including research outside marketing and non-price research); Consumer perception of price fairness is a topic uniquely suited to consumer research; Rich literature base related to fairness in other areas; Potential for theory building in the pricing area is huge; Implications for pricing management are substantial;
    • Consumer PsychologyThe mere-measurement effect as a prototype of recent substantively-motivated research Asking questions about future behavior can change the behavior in question; Morwitz, Johnson, and Schmittlein (1993) showed that asking respondents once whether they planned to buy an automobile (PC) in the next 6 months increased the incidence of purchase by 37 (18) percent; Similar results for voting, volunteering, recycling, etc. Theoretical explanations include increased accessibility of attitudes, avoidance of dissonance, etc. Fitzsimons and Moore (2008) discuss the implications of this research for screening adolescents for risky behaviors such as drug and alcohol use or sexual behaviors;
    • Consumer Psychology Other substantively-motivated research developments□ New marketing technologies (internet recommendation systems, on- line communities, design of web pages, virtual product experiences, customization, self-service technologies)□ Customer relationship management□ Financial consequences of satisfaction□ Cross-cultural consumer behavior□ Really new products□ Brand communities□ Identity signaling□ Sales promotion (loyalty and frequency programs)□ Product assortments□ Transformative consumer behavior and consumer welfare□ Corporate social responsibility and consumer boycotts
    • Consumer Psychology Regulatory focus theory as a prototype of recent conceptually-motivated research Two types of regulatory focus (Higgins 2002): □ Promotion focus as self-regulation w/r/t the presence or absence of positive outcomes; concern with ideals and accomplishments; preferred means of goal attainment is eagerness; emotional reactions of cheerfulness and dejection; □ Prevention focus as self-regulation w/r/t the presence or absence of negative outcomes and a concern with oughts and security; preferred means of goal attainment is vigilance; emotional reactions of quiescence and agitation;
    • Consumer Psychology Other conceptually-motivated research developments□ The unconscious consumer and automaticity (Bargh 2002; Dijksterhuis et al. 2005)□ Self-control and ego-depletion (Baumeister et al. 2008; Vohs and Faber 2007);□ Construal Level Theory (Trope, Liberman and Wakslak 2007)□ Terror management (Arndt, Solomon, Kasser, and Sheldon 2004)□ Metacognitive experiences (Schwarz 2004)□ Regret theory (Zeelenberg and Pieters 2007)
    • Consumer Psychology Consumer neuroscience as a prototype of recent methodologically-motivated research In the brand personality literature, humanlike traits are ascribed to brands; Yoon et al. (2006) investigated, using fMRI, whether trait judgments about people and products (both self-relevant and nonself-relevant) are processed in similar regions of the brain; the findings indicated that brand personality was processed differently from human personality;
    • Consumer Psychology IAT as a prototype of recent methodologically-motivated research IAT as a measure of implicit consumer social cognition (Brunel, Tietje, and Greenwald, 2004); Useful when people are unable (e.g., because of lack of conscious awareness) or unwilling (e.g., because of social desirability concerns) to reveal their opinions; Disguised, unstructured procedure for assessing the strength of automatic associations between concepts (e.g., brand attitudes, consumer-brand relationships, attitudes toward ethnic spokespeople in ads);
    • Consumer Psychology JCP as the outlet for “extraordinary ideas” about consumer psychology CW Park suggests the following under-researched areas: □ The role of learning in consumer behavior □ Aesthetic experience in consumption □ Perspectives on consumers’ cognitive flexibility beyond the cognitive miser view □ Hedonic consumption □ Consumers’ relationships with brands □ Culture and consumer psychology □ Neuroscience approaches □ Temporal interdependencies between purchase and consumption activities □ Joint decision making of users, deciders, disposers, and purchasers
    • Consumer Psychology Additional readings Haugtvedt, Curtis P., Paul M Herr, and Frank R. Kardes, eds. (2008), Handbook of Consumer Psychology, New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum. Loken Barbara (2006), “Consumer Psychology: Categorization, Inferences, Affect, and Persuasion,” Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 453-485. Simonson, Itamar, Ziv Carmon, Ravi Dhar, Aimee Drolet, and Stephen M. Nowlis (2001), “Consumer Research: In Search of Identity,” Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 249-275.
    • Consumer Psychology The three domains of research (Brinberg and McGrath 1985; Lutz 1989) Substantive Conceptual domain domain Methodological domain
    • Consumer Psychology ELM as a prototype of conceptually- motivated research persuasivecommunication nature of cognitive processing ? motivation yes ability yes to process ? favorable neither or unfavorable to process ? thoughts neutral thoughts thoughts predominate predominate predominate no no yes yes peripheral central positive central negative cue present ? attitude change attitude change yes yes peripheral attitude shift Based on Petty and Cacioppo (1986)
    • Consumer Psychology ELM (cont’d) Conceptually sophisticated theory of the middle range that integrates many disparate persuasion findings; Useful mental model for thinking about persuasion problems in practice – variables can influence the extent and direction of attitude change by: □ serving as persuasive arguments (e.g., weak vs. strong arguments); □ serving as peripheral cues (e.g., source expertise or attractiveness, number of arguments); □ affecting the extent and direction of message elaboration (e.g., involvement as a determinant of motivation to process and distraction as a determinant of ability to process);
    • Consumer Psychology American Customer Satisfaction Index (Fornell et al. 1996) customer customer expectations complaints perceived customer value satisfaction perceived customer quality loyalty
    • Consumer PsychologyC The GAPS modelO WOMN Personal NeedsS Expected Service Past ExperienceU GAP 5MER Perceived ServiceM ExternalA GAP 1 Service Delivery CommunicationR to ConsumersK GAP 3 GAP 4E Translation of Mgmt.T Perceptions into SQ specsER GAP 2 Management Perceptions of Consumer Expectations
    • Consumer Psychology Purchase motives underlying the purchase cube comparison price quality value sale logic problemsolving utilitarian senses social fashion variety performance approval status change image style curiosity reputation trial emotion fun feelgood personality time pressure unplanned self-esteem replacement brand name impulse random convenience w ant preference liking mindless satisfaction familiarity thoughtless past purchase loyalty usual routine habit
    • Consumer Psychology Price fairness as a prototype of recent substantively-motivated research Bolton, Warlop, and Alba (2003) show that □ Consumers underestimate the effects of inflation and attribute rising prices to vendor price gouging; □ Consumers attribute price differences across competitors more to profit than cost; even when profits are equal, cost differences matter (e.g., quality differences are considered fair, use of a margin strategy as unfair); □ Consumers have poor mental models of a firm’s cost structure; less salient costs (with the exception of COGS) are often ignored and perceptions of profit margins are too high; certain costs (e.g., promotional costs) are deemed unfair;
    • Consumer Psychology Schematic representation of the IAT Man United or Pleasant Chelsea or Unpleasant √ Love Χ Χ √ Χ Vomit √ √ ΧMan United or Unpleasant Chelsea or Pleasant Χ Freedom √ Χ √ √ Sickness Χ √ Χ