Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

  1. 1. Theories of Counseling: Cognitive Behavior Therapy PowerPoint produced by Melinda Haley, M.S., New Mexico State University. “This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:  any public performance or display, including transmission of an image over a network;  preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images;  any rental, lease, or lending of the program.” “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  2. 2. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Basic Tenets  The main theories are Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Modification.  The way individuals structure and interpret experiences, determines their moods and behaviors.  Changing conceptualizations lies at the heart of cognitive behavioral therapy.  Combines both cognitive and behavioral approaches. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  3. 3. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Basic Tenets  Cognitive therapy rests upon the belief that what one thinks determines how one feels.  The therapist is supportive and empathic and uses experiments and empirical processes along with a collaborative alliance with the client, to explore thinking and alternatives.  Cognitive therapy has been used with a variety of disorders and problems (e.g. anxiety, phobias, depression). “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004” What do I think
  4. 4. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Theory of Personality  Personality includes both genetic endowment and social influence.  It reflects the individual’s cognitive organization and structure.  Emotions and behaviors are based on perceptions, interpretations, and assumptions.  Schemas have an important impact on how one operates cognitively. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  5. 5. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Theory of Personality  Schemas: A person’s core beliefs and basic assumptions.  Schemas can either be functional or dysfunctional and more than one schema can compete with another.  Cognitive Vulnerability: When a person’s beliefs and assumptions predispose him or her to psychological distress. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  6. 6. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Nature of Maladjustment.  Maladjustment stems from irrational beliefs and distorted cognitions.  Maladaptive cognitions come from:  Selective attention  Misperception  Maladaptive focusing  Maladaptive self-arousal  Repertory deficiencies “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  7. 7. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Nature of Maladjustment.  Maladaptive cognitions lead to maladaptive, self-defeating behaviors.  Adaptive, self-enhancing behaviors come from a client’s self-enhancing thoughts and this can be taught.  Clients can be taught to shift from self-defeating thoughts to self- enhancing thoughts. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  8. 8. Cognitive Behavior Therapy The Counseling Process  Cognitive therapy and cognitive behavior modification uses a variety of techniques or procedures to assist clients in changing negative, self defeating responses.  The therapist might range from directive to unconditionally accepting, from scientific to empathic, from systemic to open or from suggestive to instructive.  It is highly eclectic and utilizes resources and techniques that fit with the client’s thought processes. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  9. 9. Cognitive Behavior Therapy The Counseling Process  Both cognitive and behavioral strategies might be used.  Client and therapist work together:  to help the client gain cognitive and behavioral control over his or her problem.  to look at different ways of behaving.  to analyze thoughts and emotions.  to practice new cognitive and behavioral patterns. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  10. 10. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Strategies for Helping Clients Beck’s cognitive psychotherapy  The goals are to correct faulty information processing and help clients modify their assumptions that maintain their maladaptive behaviors and emotions.  Collaborative Empiricism: Therapist and client are co- investigators.  Guided Discovery: Guided by the therapist, the client engages in experiments that result in more adaptive ways of thinking. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  11. 11. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Strategies for Helping Clients Relaxation Training and Relaxation Therapy  A person cannot be in a state of complete physical relaxation while at the same time be emotionally anxious.  Works well for stress, anxiety, physiological problems, workplace pressures, and coping with modern lifestyles. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  12. 12. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Strategies for Helping Clients Mental and Emotive Imagery  Mental Imagery is a process through which a person focuses on vivid mental pictures of experiences or events—past, present or future.  Emotive Imagery: It is a procedure where the client imagines the emotional sensations and feelings of an actual situation or behavior. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  13. 13. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Strategies for Helping Clients  Cognitive Modeling: Identification of what maladaptive or bad thoughts or emotions the client wishes to be rid of and then the therapist models with self-talk that the client will incorporate.  Covert Modeling: A client imagines engaging in the desired behaviors he or she wants to learn or adopt.  Thought Stopping: Interruption of unwanted thoughts when they occur by shouting “stop” whenever the unwanted thought pops into consciousness. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  14. 14. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Strategies for Helping Clients  Cognitive Restructuring: Replacement of negative, maladaptive thoughts with positive, adaptive ones.  Reframing: To modify or restructure a person’s view or perception regarding a problem or behavior.  Stress Inoculation: A process of teaching clients both cognitive and physical skills for autonomously coping with future stressful and distressing situations. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  15. 15. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Strategies for Helping Clients  Meditation and Relaxation: Helps the client concentrate on some internal or external stimulus that serves to focus the client’s attention away from aversive stimuli.  Biofeedback: Uses technology to communicate to a client what his or her own body is doing and then allows that person to use mental processes to control bodily functions.  Neurolinguistic programming: Using the client’s sensory language to fully experience the client’s inner world (e.g. I see that (visual); I feel that (kinesthetic) ; I hear that auditory). “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  16. 16. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Strategies for Helping Clients  Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR):  Used primarily to treat traumatic memories.  The client imagines the scene, is aware of the negative statement regarding that scene (along with noxious feelings), and then follows the therapist’s finger with his or her eyes.  Then the client erases the image from his or her mind.  This is continued over a series of steps until hopefully the painful image and noxious feelings and memories are removed. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  17. 17. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Advantages of Cognitive Behavior Therapy  It has established human thought processes as data or events that can be studied.  It validated a number of relaxation techniques.  It has enhanced the rational therapies such as Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.  Uses the systematic scientist-practitioner model. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  18. 18. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Disadvantages of Cognitive Behavior Therapy  It has been harshly judged by feminists, multiculturalists and ecologists because it mirrors masculine and Euro-American worldviews and does not adequately take culture into consideration.  It requires a lot of training and skill.  The therapist needs to not only understand cognitive techniques but also have a vast understanding of behavioral and learning theories.  The therapist needs to have strong discipline and there is less tolerance for error. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  19. 19. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Diverse Populations  It matches problems to treatments without regard for race or cultural considerations.  It can be used effectively if culture and the client’s worldview is take into consideration.  Therapy is a collaboration and depends upon trust between counselor and client and this can work well with culturally diverse clients. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”
  20. 20. Resources Ivey, A. E., D’Andrea, M., Ivey, M. B. and Morgan, L. S. (2002). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: A multicultural perspective, 5th ed. Boston, MA.: Allyn & Bacon. James, R. K. & Gilliland, B. E. (2003). Theories and strategies in counseling and psychotherapy, 5th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Kottler, J. A. (2002). Theories in counseling and therapy: An experiential approach. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004”

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