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Defining the Field of Child Development
 Multifaceted, requires a “holistic” approach to studying the
field (Shaffer, 200...
 Major areas
 Physical development
 Cognitive development
 Socioemotional development
Our Primary Stages of
Interest in this Course
 Infants and Toddlers: The First Years (Birth to 2)
 Early Childhood: The ...
Common Themes in CD
 Normative Development and Ideographic Development
 Nature and Nurture
 Active vs. Passive Issue
 ...
Normative vs.
Ideographic
 Normative
 Ideographic
Nature and Nurture
 Nature
 Nurture
Conflicting Perspectives
“Heredity and not environment is the chief
maker of people…Nearly all of the misery and
nearly al...
“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well formed, and my
own specified world to bring them up in, and I’ll
guarantee to take ...
Active vs. Passive
 Active perspective
 Passive
The Role of Neuroscience
 Using modern technology to view images of the brain at
different stage of development and while...
Contextual Considerations
 Diversity & Multiculturalism
 Historical period and events
Positive Development
and Resilience
Theories
 What is a theory? “An explanation of how facts fit
together.” (Cook & Cook, 2010)
 2 simple examples
 A theory is not simply stringing facts together, but
providing an explanation of HOW they might fit together or
be relat...
5 Major Theoretical Perspectives in
Child Development (So Far)
1 Psychoanalytic Theories
2 Behavioral and Social Learning ...
Psychoanalytic Theories
 Marked by emphasis on behavior being “motivated by inner
forces, memories, and conflicts of whic...
Psychoanalytic Theory
 Developed by an Austrian
neurologist, Sigmund
Freud (1856 – 1939)
working with disturbed
patients....
 Freud analyzed his patients’ repressed unconscious motives
using hypnosis, free association, and dream analysis. He
conc...
Freud’s Three Components of Personality
 “Freud’s psychosexual theory specifies
that three components of
personality…deve...
Id
 Id: Primitive sexual and aggressive instincts inherited
through evolution.
 Represents biological drives
 Unconscio...
Ego
 Ego: Rational and tries to negotiate realistic ways to satisfy
the id.
 Rational and realistic
 Purpose is to “ada...
Superego
 Superego: Moral and contains ethical principles, ideals, and
conscious.
 “Represents societal and parental” id...
Freud’s 5 Stages of
Psychosexual Development
1. Oral: Ages 0 – 2 years
2. Anal: Ages 2 – 3 years
3. Phallic: Ages 3 – 7 years
4. Latency: Ages 7 – 11 years
5. Genital: Age 11 to adulthood
Psychosexual Theory
Contributions Criticisms
Psychosocial Theory
 Development of a healthy ego identity
 Erikson believed…
 Identity was developed by passing
throug...
8 Psychosocial Stages (or Life Crises)
1. Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth to 1 year)
 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2 – 3 years)
2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (2-3)
 Initiative vs. Guilt (4 – 5 years)
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (4 – 5)
 Industry vs. Inferiority (6 – 12 years)
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6 – 12)
 Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence)
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
(Adolescence)
 Intimacy vs. Isolation (Early Adulthood)
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
(Early Adulthood)
 Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
(Middle Adulthood)
 Integrity vs. Despair (Later Adulthood)
8. Integrity vs. Despair
(Later Adulthood)
Contributions Criticisms
Behavioral Theories
 Classical Conditioning
 Behaviorism
 Operant Conditioning
 Social Learning
Pavlov’s Classical
Conditioning
Watson’s Behaviorism
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xt0ucxOrPQE
Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
(Radical Behaviorism)
Bandura’s
Social Learning Theory
Contributions Criticisms
Cognitive Theories
 Cognitive Developmental
 Sociocultural
 Information Processing
Piaget’s Cognitive
Development Theory
 Assimilation
 Accomodation
Piaget’s 4 Stages of
Cognitive Development
Contributions Criticisms
Vygotsky’s
Sociocultural Theory
The Information Processing
Theoretical Perspective
Contributions Criticisms
Biological Theories
 Ethology
 Neuroscience
Lorenz’s Ethological (or
Evolutionary) Viewpoint
 Duck and Dog (Imprinting)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LGBqQyZid04&fe...
Contributions Criticisms
Neuroscience
Systems Theories
 Ecological Systems
 Dynamic Systems
Urie Bronfenbrenner’s
Ecological Systems Theory (1979)
 States that natural environments are the major source of influenc...
What’s your system?
 Individual characteristics: Biological influences
 Microsystem: People or institutions Direct relat...
Contributions Criticisms
Dynamic Systems
Broad World Views
 Contextual models
 Mechanistic models
 Organismic model
Mechanistic Model
Organismic Model
Contextual Model
Child Development Theories - Child Development
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  • Transcript of "Child Development Theories - Child Development"

    1. 1. Defining the Field of Child Development  Multifaceted, requires a “holistic” approach to studying the field (Shaffer, 2001)  Interdisciplinary  What do we need to consider when studying child development?
    2. 2.  Major areas  Physical development  Cognitive development  Socioemotional development
    3. 3. Our Primary Stages of Interest in this Course  Infants and Toddlers: The First Years (Birth to 2)  Early Childhood: The Playful Years (3 to 6)  Middle Childhood: The School Years (7 – 11)  These terms are not objective or entirely exclusive, but we will use them as reference points in this course.  We will not be focusing heavily on adolescents in this course.
    4. 4. Common Themes in CD  Normative Development and Ideographic Development  Nature and Nurture  Active vs. Passive Issue  The Role of Neuroscience  Diversity, Multiculturalism, and Historical Context  Positive Development and Resilience
    5. 5. Normative vs. Ideographic  Normative  Ideographic
    6. 6. Nature and Nurture  Nature  Nurture
    7. 7. Conflicting Perspectives “Heredity and not environment is the chief maker of people…Nearly all of the misery and nearly all of the happiness in this world are not due to environment…The differences among people are due to differences in germ cells with which they were born (Wiggam, 1923, p. 42 as cited in Shaffer, 2001).
    8. 8. “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in, and I’ll guarantee to take any of them at random and train them to become any time of specialist I might select— doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant, chief, and yes, even beggar and thief, regardless of talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of their ancestors. There is no such thing as an inheritance of capacity, talent, temperament, mental constitution, and behavioral characteristics (Watson, 1925, p. 82 as cited in Shaffer, 2001).
    9. 9. Active vs. Passive  Active perspective  Passive
    10. 10. The Role of Neuroscience  Using modern technology to view images of the brain at different stage of development and while engaging in various tasks.
    11. 11. Contextual Considerations  Diversity & Multiculturalism  Historical period and events
    12. 12. Positive Development and Resilience
    13. 13. Theories  What is a theory? “An explanation of how facts fit together.” (Cook & Cook, 2010)  2 simple examples
    14. 14.  A theory is not simply stringing facts together, but providing an explanation of HOW they might fit together or be related.  Summarize the current knowledge in a field  Allow us to make predictions about future behavior or events.  Provide insight or guidance when dealing with a particular circumstance.  Provide frameworks for conducting research and stimulate new research ideas and discoveries.  Act as filters to help us determine what behaviors and observations are relevant when seeking to answer a specific question.
    15. 15. 5 Major Theoretical Perspectives in Child Development (So Far) 1 Psychoanalytic Theories 2 Behavioral and Social Learning Theories 3 Cognitive Theories 4 Biological Theories 5 Systems Theories *You may see these theories with different names or categorized differently depending on where you see them. For the purposes of this course, these are the terms we will use.
    16. 16. Psychoanalytic Theories  Marked by emphasis on behavior being “motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts of which a person has little awareness or control” (Feldman, 2009).  Psychoanalytic/Psychosexual Theory  Psychosocial Theory
    17. 17. Psychoanalytic Theory  Developed by an Austrian neurologist, Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) working with disturbed patients.  Also known as the Psychosexual Theory.  One of the most controversial and widely known theories. Photo Source: Wikipedia
    18. 18.  Freud analyzed his patients’ repressed unconscious motives using hypnosis, free association, and dream analysis. He concluded that humans undergo conflict with their basic sexual and aggressive instincts as they age.  Society does not deem these sexual and aggressive urges desirable, thus causing the conflict.  Freud believed that parents’ management of these urges played a major role in shaping their children.  Source: Shaffer, 2002
    19. 19. Freud’s Three Components of Personality  “Freud’s psychosexual theory specifies that three components of personality…develop and gradually become integrated in a series of five psychosexual stages.”
    20. 20. Id  Id: Primitive sexual and aggressive instincts inherited through evolution.  Represents biological drives  Unconscious  Seeks to experience pleasure and avoid pain  Desires immediate gratification Source: Pearson MyDevelopmentLab
    21. 21. Ego  Ego: Rational and tries to negotiate realistic ways to satisfy the id.  Rational and realistic  Purpose is to “adapt to reality while controlling the id and superego”  Seeks “safety, compromise, and delayed gratification” Source: Pearson MyDevelopmentLab
    22. 22. Superego  Superego: Moral and contains ethical principles, ideals, and conscious.  “Represents societal and parental” ideals  Moral and idealistic  “Represents right and wrong,” focused on perfectionism Source: Pearson MyDevelopmentLab
    23. 23. Freud’s 5 Stages of Psychosexual Development 1. Oral: Ages 0 – 2 years
    24. 24. 2. Anal: Ages 2 – 3 years
    25. 25. 3. Phallic: Ages 3 – 7 years
    26. 26. 4. Latency: Ages 7 – 11 years
    27. 27. 5. Genital: Age 11 to adulthood
    28. 28. Psychosexual Theory Contributions Criticisms
    29. 29. Psychosocial Theory  Development of a healthy ego identity  Erikson believed…  Identity was developed by passing through stages  Interactions with other people were critical in how we resolved a crisis at each stage  Resolutions in earlier stages affected resolutions in later stages  Development of identity continued throughout adulthood Source: Cook & Cook
    30. 30. 8 Psychosocial Stages (or Life Crises) 1. Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth to 1 year)
    31. 31.  Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2 – 3 years) 2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (2-3)
    32. 32.  Initiative vs. Guilt (4 – 5 years) 3. Initiative vs. Guilt (4 – 5)
    33. 33.  Industry vs. Inferiority (6 – 12 years) 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6 – 12)
    34. 34.  Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence) 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence)
    35. 35.  Intimacy vs. Isolation (Early Adulthood) 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Early Adulthood)
    36. 36.  Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood) 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)
    37. 37.  Integrity vs. Despair (Later Adulthood) 8. Integrity vs. Despair (Later Adulthood)
    38. 38. Contributions Criticisms
    39. 39. Behavioral Theories  Classical Conditioning  Behaviorism  Operant Conditioning  Social Learning
    40. 40. Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning
    41. 41. Watson’s Behaviorism  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xt0ucxOrPQE
    42. 42. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning (Radical Behaviorism)
    43. 43. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
    44. 44. Contributions Criticisms
    45. 45. Cognitive Theories  Cognitive Developmental  Sociocultural  Information Processing
    46. 46. Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory
    47. 47.  Assimilation  Accomodation
    48. 48. Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive Development
    49. 49. Contributions Criticisms
    50. 50. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory
    51. 51. The Information Processing Theoretical Perspective
    52. 52. Contributions Criticisms
    53. 53. Biological Theories  Ethology  Neuroscience
    54. 54. Lorenz’s Ethological (or Evolutionary) Viewpoint  Duck and Dog (Imprinting) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LGBqQyZid04&featur e=related
    55. 55. Contributions Criticisms
    56. 56. Neuroscience
    57. 57. Systems Theories  Ecological Systems  Dynamic Systems
    58. 58. Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory (1979)  States that natural environments are the major source of influence on developing individuals. (Shaffer)  Also concedes that and individual’s biological characteristics interact with the environment to influence development. (Shaffer)
    59. 59. What’s your system?  Individual characteristics: Biological influences  Microsystem: People or institutions Direct relationships and interactions  Mesosystem: Connections or interrelations among microsystems in an individual’s life  Exosystem: People or institutions that the individual is not directly a part of by that have an indirect influence on that individual’s life  Macrosystem: Ideology, laws, and customs of the culture, subculture or social class  Chronosystem: Changes in the environment over time Sources: Shaffer; Cook & Cook
    60. 60. Contributions Criticisms
    61. 61. Dynamic Systems
    62. 62. Broad World Views  Contextual models  Mechanistic models  Organismic model
    63. 63. Mechanistic Model
    64. 64. Organismic Model
    65. 65. Contextual Model
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