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Chapter 8 High Points in Applied Psychology






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  • Purpose was to identify early the gifted and cultivate them for their rightful roles of leadership in society. Over 80 years of tracking – longest longitudinal study on record, continuing after Terman’s death and still going.Results not what he expected.Quote in margin of his bookWednesday night studies in his on campus home

Chapter 8 High Points in Applied Psychology Chapter 8 High Points in Applied Psychology Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 8High Points in Applied Psychology
  • Main Points
    Hollingworth—ethics in research and applied psychology
    Women in applied psychology—Hollingworth, Anastasia, Goodnough
    Publishing of psychology—Cattell
    Mental Testing—Binet, Terman, abuses of testing
    Clinical Psychology—Witmer
    I/O psychology—Scott
    Case unto himself—Hugo Munsterberg
  • FDA raid on Coke
    Federal agents stop a truck full of Coke syrup
    syrup contains caffeine, a drug under the new FDA
    FDA claims caffeine is poisonous and habit-forming
  • FDA and COKE
    Coca Cola wants to test the effects of caffiene, ask James McKeenCattell, who says “NO”.
    Harry Hollingworth says “YES”
    He needed the money
    His teaching job had a low salary
    His wife LetaStetter couldn’t find teaching work because she was married
    She couldn’t sell her short stories
  • Harry insists on high standards
    Did not want to be accused of fudging results
    Coke allowed him to publish results, even if damaging to the company
    Coke agreed that findings could not be used in advertising
  • Coke research
    40-day research program
    Rigorous and sophisticated
    Involved 64,000 individual measurements
    Data on motor and mental functions
    Variety of caffeine levels
    No harmful effects found
    Coke wins court case, though verdict overturned by Supreme Court
  • Coke research
    Psychology wins, one can apply psychology without sacrificing integrity
    Toward a practical psychology
    Evolution took rapid hold in U.S.
  • Economic influences on applied psychology
    Contextual forces also compel applied psychology
    There are more Ph.D.s than labs to employ them
    Psychologists need to work, look outside universities
    Found practical work challenging and stimulating
    Human behavior can be studied outside lab
  • Economic influences on applied psychology
    Even some within universities receive pressure
    Less endowed universities in West and Midwest
    Need to prove psychology’s worth to administrators, legislators
    Survey shows administrators regard psychology with low worth
    Courses and labs under-funded, poorly equipped
    Push to prove worth by solving problems
  • Mental Testing
  • Mental Testing
    Interest in statistics characterizes new American psychology
    Focus on large groups, comparisons of them
    Statistics opened new research opportunities
    New opportunities pushed need for new analyses
    Graphic displays of data: Galton, Ebbinghaus, Hall, Thorndike
  • James McKeenCattell
    Influenced by Galton, Cattell stresses quantification, ranking, and ratings
    Although personally “mathematically illiterate”, made simple computation errors
    Developed order-of-merit ranking method
    Wundt hadn’t favored statistics
  • James McKeenCattell
    Karl Pearson refined correlation formula and “devised the chi-square test”, used more by Americans than anyone else
    1907, John Cover from Stanford U. advocates using experimental and control groups
  • James McKeenCattell
    Cattell also interested in Galton’s Eugenics
    Argued for sterilizing “delinquents and so-called defective persons”
    Promoted offering incentives to the “healthy and intelligent” who intermarry
    Promised his own children money if they married professor offspring
  • James McKeenCattell
    Goes to Columbia U as psychology professor and department chair, Stays 26 years
    Begins Psychological Review with Baldwin in 1894
    Purchases weekly journal Science
    Purchased from Alexander Graham Bell
    About to run out of money
    5 years later becomes official journal of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
  • James McKeenCattell
    Institutes reference books in 1906
    American Men of Science
    Leaders in Education
    Bought Popular Science Monthly in 1900
    Sells name in 1915
    Continues to publish as Scientific Monthly
  • James McKeenCattell
    Started weekly School and Society in 1915
    Organizing and editing these take time from research productivity which is thin at Columbia
    More doctorates given at Columbia under Cattell than from any other American grad program
    Cattell advocated independent work
    Gave students freedom
    Believed professor should have distance
  • James McKeenCattell
    Devotes life to publications and professional societies
    1921 founds the Psychological Corporation
    Stock purchased by APA members
    Provides psychological services to community
    Initially is a failure, very low profit first 2 years
    By 1969, $5 million in sales, bought by Harcourt Brace
    10 years later $30 million
  • James McKeenCattell
    Mental Tests
    Coins phrase in article published in 1890
    Administers series of tests to students at U of Penn, continues at Columbia
    Tests look more like Galton’s anthropometric lab, less like cognitive tests
    Cattell correlates test scores with academic performance, which are “disappointingly low”
    Concludes that these types of tests were not valid for measuring intelligence.
  • James McKeenCattell
    Cattell’s influence on American psychology
    Organizer, executive, and administrator
    Link between psychology and greater scientific community
    Ambassador of psychology with lectures, editing, promotion
    Developed order-of-merit ranking, used to rank American Men of Science (which did include women)
    Through his students: two were Woodworth and Thorndike
  • The Psychological testing movement In France and America
  • IQ tests
    Binet, Terman, and the IQ test
    first true test of mental ability is Alfred Binet’s (1857-1911)
    independently wealthy, self-taught French psychologist
    published over 200 articles and books, 4 plays
    disagreed with Galton, Cattell (sensorimotor approach)
    should assess memory, attention, imagination, comprehension
  • Binet
    1904 opportunity knocks
    French ministry of education appoints commission
    Learn about children having learning difficulties
    Binet and Théodore Simon (psychiatrist) appointed
    Investigated intellectual tasks across age groups
    Created 30-problem test
    Ordered by ascending difficulty
    Measured 3 functions: judgment, comprehension, reasoning
  • Binet
    3 years later
    revises and expands test
    introduces mental age: “age at which children of average ability can perform certain tasks”
    1911 3rd revision, but Binet dies
  • Goddard
    Test development moves to U.S.
    Translated by Henry Goddard (student of Hall)
    Works with mentally retarded children in New Jersey
    Goddard translates as “Binet-Simon Measuring Scale for Intelligence”
    Introduces the term ‘moron’ (Greek for ‘slow’)
  • Terman
    1916 Lewis Terman develops version that becomes standard
    The Stanford-Binet (he works at Stanford U.)
    Adopts the concept Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
    ratio of mental to chronological age
    IQ originated with German William Stern
    Legacy of Lewis Terman
  • Lewis M. Terman
    Faculty member at Stanford University
    Began an investigation of the strengths & weaknesses of the Binet-Simon intelligence test
    Led him to revise the original scale
  • Terman
    Terman’s Termites
    Genius Studies
    Over 85 Years and
    Still Running
    Hereditarian Aspect
    “I am less sure of this now(1951)! And still less sure in 1955”
  • World War I and Group Testing
    Titchener’s Experimentalists meet on day WWI erupts
    Yerkes is there, urges group to consider how to help war effort
    Titchener leaves, claiming because he is British
  • WWI testing
    U.S. army is mobilizing, how to assess/classify the recruits?
    Stanford-Binet not appropriate, designed for individual administration, too much training to do
  • WWI testing
    Yerkes, with 40 psychologists, develops group intelligence test
    Review large number of available tests
    Model based on Arthur Otis’ test which uses multiple choice
    Army Alpha and Army Beta (for illiterates) created
    Over 1 million tested, though too late for army to use
  • WWI testing
    These created publicity and sparked testing movement
    Tests for other concepts developed (i.e., personality)
    Previous personality tests not sufficient (Kraepelin, Jung’s word association tests)
    Woodworth’s Personnel Data Sheet measured neuroticism
    Testing now widely accepted in variety of settings (employment, schoolchildren, college applicants)
  • Education and applied testing
    Early 1920’s 4 million intelligence tests purchased per year
    Public education “reorganized around the concept..IQ”
    12 million of Luella Cole and Sidney Pressey’s tests alone given to schoolchildren
    Even Babe Ruth was tested to see why he was a great baseball player
  • Bad tests
    Poor tests also created
    Thomas Edison’s intelligence test
    Given to 36 college graduates
    Only got a few right
    Spurred 23 disparaging articles about the test in New York Times
    Contributed to a loss of faith in testing
  • Bad tests
    To regain credibility, terminology borrowed from medicine and engineering
    Subjects tested were “patients”
    Tests were “thermometers”, required training
    Tests promoted as X-ray machines into mind
  • Abuses of tests
    Racial differences in intelligence
    testing movement creates controversy still with us
    Henry Goddard
    1912 visits Ellis Island
    Believed that physicians there only identified 10% of feeble-minded
  • Abuses of tests
    Proposed psychologists conduct tests, using Binet test
    During his visit, he tests a young man
    Tests and diagnoses him as feeble-minded
    Interpreter said when he was newly arrived he would have failed as well, said test unfair to those unfamiliar with American culture
    Ertl-Hungarian who developed the NEA (Neural Efficiency Analyzer)
  • Abuses of tests
    Later testing on immigrants with limited English skills shows majority as feeble-minded, mental age less than 12
    87% of Russians
    83% of Jews
    80% of Hungarians
    79% of Italians
    Evidence used to create restrictive immigration laws
  • Abuses of tests
    Racial differences in intelligence boosted by results from Army Alpha and Army Beta
    Mental age of draftees only 13
    IQ of Blacks and immigrants lower than Whites
  • Reactions to test abuses
    Vocal critic was Horace Mann Bond
    African-American scholar, president of Lincoln University in PA
    Ph.D. from U. of Chicago
    Published many books and articles arguing that environment not genes caused differences in test scores: Blacks from north scored higher IQs than Whites from south
  • Reactions to test abuses
    Many responded that tests were biased, controversy faded
    1994 The Bell Curve by Herrnstein and Murray
    Argued that Blacks are inferior in intelligence to Whites
    Evidence now shows with current good intelligence tests, no cultural bias
  • Women’s contributions
    Contributions of Women to the testing movement
    Women often barred from academic positions
    many found applied employment instead
    Florence Goodenough, Ph.D. from Stanford
    created Draw-A-Man test, a version of which still used
    worked for 20 years at Institute of Child Development at U. of Minnesota
  • Women’s contributions
    Maude Merrill James, wrote Stanford-Binet revision with Terman
    Thelma Thurstone, helped develop Primary Mental Abilities test with her husband
    Psyche Cattell (daughter of James McKeen Cattell) extended age for Stanford-Binet test to 3-month-old infants
  • Women’s contributions
    Anne Anastasi
    An authority on testing
    Earned Ph.D. at 21
    Wrote more than 150 articles and books
    One was popular testing textbook
    APA president, 1971
  • Women’s contributions
    Many honors (i.e., National Medal of Science)
    Retired from Fordham
    Unable to have children, felt “free to concentrate on her career without guilt or conflict”
    Lillian Wolfe PHD Yale University, Terman’s student
    Not given tenure at Ole Miss because she was married to J. B. Wolfe
  • Problems in Applied Psychology
    Such applied work is disadvantageous to attaining prominence
    Little time, support, no grad students to do publishable research
    In an organization, good work not recognized outside
    Their good work largely invisible
    Applied work denigrated by some as “women’s work”
    No woman elected president of American Association for Applied Psychology although 1/3 of membership were women by 1941
  • The Clinical Psychology Movement
  • Witmer
    Lightner Witmer (1867-1956)
    taught psychology at U. of Penn., filled Cattell’s position when he left for Columbia U.
    “Described as contentious, antisocial, and conceited”
    1896: opened world’s first psychology clinic
    His clinical psychology is not psychotherapy, instead more narrowly defined in scope, more closely “school psychology”
    offered first college course in clinical psychology
    started and edits (for 29 years) first clinical journal: Psychological Clinic
  • Witmer
    Within months, Witmer is teaching methods for treating the mentally challenged
    Publishes article in Pediatrics “recommending that psychology be applied to practical affairs”
    Presents paper on topic at APA, using “clinical psychology” for the first time
    1907: founds journal Psychological Clinic
  • Witmer
    1908: establishes boarding school for retarded/disturbed children
    1909: expands university clinic
    Retires from U. of Penn. in 1937
  • Witmer
    Clinics for Child Evaluation
    He develops his own “diagnostic and treatment approaches”
    His first case, the 14-year old boy
    Assessed cognitive functioning
    Determined that his reading ability deficient
    Diagnosed with visual/verbal amnesia
    Child couldn’t remember words
    Witmer developed remedial program
    Some improvement, but not proficiency
  • Witmer
    Referred children had broad range of problems
    He developed standard assessments/treatments
    Added physicians, social workers, psychologists to staff
    Assessments involved physical examinations
    Witmer recognized the influence of physical deficits on emotional and cognitive functions
    Tested for malnutrition, visual and hearing deficits
  • Witmer
    At first, Witmer believed genetics played key role, later realized the importance of environmental factors
    Saw need for enrichment in early life
    Believed in having families, schools involved in treatment
  • Clinical Psychology
    The profession of clinical psychology
    by 1914 almost 20 psychology clinics are in U.S.
    Two books provide impetus to field
    Clifford Beers (1908), a former mental patient, on the need to deal humanely with the mentally ill
    Hugo Münsterberg (1909), describing treatments for mental disorders
  • Clinical Psychology
    first child guidance clinic 1909, aim to treat child disorders early
    Sigmund Freud, whose ideas broadened the definition of clinical psychology to include psychotherapy
    Still, clinical psychology grew slowly
    As late as 1918 no graduate programs in clinical
    By 1940, clinical psychology still minor
  • Clinical Psychology
    Situation changes during World War II
    Army establishes training programs for several hundred clinical psychologists
    Needed to treat emotionally disturbed soldiers
  • Clinical Psychology
    After WWII need for clinicians even greater
    Veteran’s Administration (VA) responsible for over 40,000 psychiatric patients (veterans)
    3 million other veterans needed vocational/personal counseling
    Over 300,000 needed help adjusting to physical disabilities
    VA funded graduate programs, paid tuition for those willing to work for VA
  • Clinical Psychology
    This changes clinical psychology
    Before war, dealt mostly with children
    After war, adults with severe emotional problems
    The VA is still the largest employer of psychologists in U.S.
    Today, clinical is largest area of psychology, in a variety of settings
  • The Industrial-Organizational Psychology Movement
  • Walter Dill Scott
    Born on family farm near Normal, Illinois
    discovered efficiency by reading books while horses rested between plow lines in the field
    picked up odd jobs to earn tuition
    won scholarship to Northwestern, took tutoring jobs for extra money
    met woman who would become his wife
  • Scott
    Advertising and human suggestibility
    writes about the sense organs as “windows of the soul”, how advertising must “awaken in the reader as many different kinds of images as the object itself can excite”
    consumers often not rational, so can be influenced easily
  • Scott
    should use “emotion, sympathy, and sentimentality”
    believed women more suggestible than men
    recommends using direct commands: text example is “Use Pears Soap”
    promoted using return coupons to make consumer actively engaged
  • Scott
    Employee selection
    devised rating scales, group tests
    interviewed army officers and business managers
    they ranked subordinates on several variables
    then he ranked job applicants based on these variables
    other psychological tests, such as for intelligence, interested not in just general intelligence, but in how person applies their intelligence
  • Scott
    Scott often barely mentioned in history of psychology
    because of applied work
    applied work often traditionally derogated by academicians
    Scott and others believed they also did good scientific work
  • The impact of the World Wars
    WWI broadened “scope, popularity, and growth of I/O psychology”
    Scott had tested 3 million soldiers
    after war, industry seeks I/O practitioners
  • WWI
    WWI also impacts I/O in Europe, English and Germans
    develop “selection techniques for military personnel and [design] military equipment”
    create national institutes to support I/O work
  • WWII
    WWII also creates big boom
    by 1941 German military employed 500 psychologists
    for Americans, equipment more complex, required higher skills, training
    spurred human factors engineering, active today in a large variety of fields
  • The Hawthorne Studies and Organizational Issues
    primary focus of I/O psychologists in 1920’s was selection
    1927, start of multi-year research program at the Western Electric plant in Hawthorne, IL
    extends field to human relations, motivation, morale
    research begins by seeking effects of physical environment on productivity
  • Hawthorne Effect
    psychologists found that more profound effects on productivity came from the social-psychological factors
    for example, just being watched by the researchers increased production
  • Organizational Psychology
    leads to study of “behavior of leaders, informal work groups, employee attitudes, communication patterns...and other factors”
    causes “industrial psychology” to be renamed “industrial & organizational psychology”
  • Hugo Munsterberg
    Born in Danzig Prussia (1863-1916)
    Skilled student, gymnasium graduate
    Student of Wundt, had a theory of emotion that stated muscular sensations were the basis of emotions, similar to James
    Fell out with Wundt, got Ph.D. however 1885, M.D. in 1887
  • Hugo Munsterberg
    Came to Harvard to head the department
    Wrote a book “Principles of Psychology”
    Published in Harper’s, The Atlantic Monthly, and New York Times
    Began Applied and Clinical Psychology
  • Hugo Munsterberg
    Chose subjects who would be beneficial to science
    Directive in approach
    Suggested they would get better
    Used Hypnosis
    Rejected Freud, the subconcious mind he said “there is none”
    Wrote a book on psychotherapy
  • Hugo Munsterberg
    Forensic Psychology
    Wrote book “On the Witness Stand”
    Staged experiments to show the unreliability of eyewitness testimony
    Criticized lawyers for not accepting psychology (one reason he was the most hated psychologist in America)
    Investigated an accused murderer in Idaho (18 Murders) with association measures, reaction times etc. Concluded he was telling the truth (at least subjectively) and was roundly criticized for this.
  • Hugo Munsterberg
    Forensic psychology
    Did an experiment with women
    Found that they were not capable of rational discussions in groups and recommended that they not be on juries. Very controversial (another reason he was disliked)
  • Hugo Munsterberg
    Industrial Psychology
    Published Psychology and Industrial Efficiency in 1913
    Topics included selecting “man for job”, worker efficiency, and marketing , sales, and advertising procedures
    Did one experiment were professional telephone operators were included in new employees, he picked them out with some success
  • Hugo Munsterberg
    Spokesman for Germany
    Argued for “fair play”
    Harvard was offered $10 million to fire him, they didn’t
    He offered to leave if the donor gave him $5 million and Harvard $5 million, it was refused
    Even dachshunds were attacked as unpatriotic
    He died in 1916 while giving a lecture at Ratliffe
  • Hugo Munsterberg
    Applied Psychology
    Clinical Psychology
    Industrial Psychology
    Forensic Psychology
    Shortcomings—failed to win people over to him in many cases