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Chapter 2 Neurons [PPTX] - Slide 1

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Transcript of "Chapter 2 Neurons [PPTX] - Slide 1"

  1. 1. 1 CHAPTER TWO: NEUROSCIENCE AND BEHAVIOR
  2. 2. 2 Neurons: The Basic Units of the Nervous System • Why do psychologists study the brain and nervous system? • What are the basic elements of the nervous system? • How does the nervous system communicate electrical and chemical messages from one part to another?
  3. 3. 3 Structure of the Neuron • Neurons (Nerve cells) – Basic elements of the nervous system – As many as 1 trillion Figure 1 of Chapter 2
  4. 4. 4 The Structure of the Neuron • Dendrites – Clusters of fibers that receive messages from other neurons • Axon – Carries messages received by the dendrites to other neurons – Terminal buttons-send messages to other neurons • Myelin sheath – A protective coating of fat and protein that wraps around the axon like links of sausage
  5. 5. 5 How Neurons Fire • Transmits an electrical impulse along the axon – All-or-none law – Resting state – Action potential – Mirror neurons Figures 2 and 3 of Chapter 2
  6. 6. 6 Where Neurons Meet: Bridging the Gap • Synapse – The space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages Figure 4 of Chapter 2
  7. 7. 7 Where Neurons Meet: Bridging the Gap • Neurotransmitters – Chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to a dendrite of a receiving neuron • Excitatory messages – Increase the likelihood that neurons will fire • Inhibitory messages – Decrease the likelihood that neurons will fire • Reuptake – Reabsorption by the terminal button
  8. 8. 8 Neurotransmitters: Chemical Couriers • Acetylcholine (ACh) • Dopamine (DA) • Serotonin • Endorphins Figure 5 of Chapter 2
  9. 9. 9 Parts of the Nervous System Figure 6 of Chapter 2
  10. 10. 10 The Nervous System: Linking Neurons • Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems – Central nervous system • Brain • Spinal cord – Reflex » Sensory (afferent) neurons » Motor (efferent) neurons » Interneurons
  11. 11. 11 The Nervous System: Linking Neurons • Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems – Peripheral Nervous System • Somatic division – Voluntary movements • Autonomic division – Controls organs that function automatically
  12. 12. 12 The Central Nervous System & the Peripheral Nervous System Figure 7 of Chapter 2
  13. 13. 13 Activating the Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System • Sympathetic Division – Acts to prepare the body for action in stressful situations by engaging all of the organism’s resources to run away or confront the threat • “Fight or flight” • Parasympathetic Division – Calms the body after emergency ends
  14. 14. 14 Major Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System Figure 8 of Chapter 2
  15. 15. 15 The Evolutionary Foundations of the Nervous System • Evolutionary Psychology – The branch of psychology that seeks to identify how behavior is influenced and produced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors  Behavioral Genetics  Studies the effects of heredity on behavior  Behavioral genetics, gene therapy, and genetic counseling
  16. 16. 16 The Endocrine System: Hormones and Glands • The chemical communication network that sends messages throughout the body via the bloodstream – Hormones – Pituitary gland • “Master gland” Figure 9 of Chapter 2
  17. 17. 17 The Brain • How do researchers identify the major parts and functions of the brain? • What are the major parts of the brain, and for what behaviors is each part responsible? How do the two halves of the brain operate interdependently? • How can an understanding of the nervous system help us find ways to alleviate disease and pain?
  18. 18. 18 Techniques for Spying on the Brain • Electroencephalogram (EEG) • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
  19. 19. 19 Brain Scans Produced by Different Techniques Figures 10A, 10B,10C, and 10D of Chapter 2
  20. 20. 20 Major Structures in the Brain in Cross-section Figure 12 of Chapter 2
  21. 21. 21 The Central Core: Our “Old Brain” • Central Core – Hindbrain • Medulla – Breathing and heartbeat • Pons – Transmitter of motor information • Cerebellum – Balance Reticular formation • Reticular Formation – Passes through the midbrain and into the forebrain – Activates other parts of the brain to produce bodily arousal
  22. 22. 22 The Central Core: Our “Old Brain” • Central Core – Thalamus • Relay station for information about the senses – Hypothalamus • Maintains a steady internal environment for the body
  23. 23. 23 The Central Core: Our “Old Brain” • The Limbic System: Beyond the Central Core – Controls a variety of functions relating to emotions and self- preservation, like eating, aggression, and reproduction – Includes: • Amygdala • Hippocampus Figure 13 of Chapter 2
  24. 24. 24 The Cerebral Cortex: Our “New Brain” • Cerebral Cortex – Provides the ability to think, evaluate, and make complex judgments • Lobes – Frontal – Parietal – Temporal – Occipital Figure 14 of Chapter 2
  25. 25. 25 The Cerebral Cortex: Our “New Brain” • The Motor Area of the Cortex – Largely responsible for the body’s voluntary movement • The Sensory Area of the Cortex – Corresponds to body sensations • Somatosensory area – Touch – Pressure – The greater the amount of brain tissue devoted to a specific area of the body, the more sensitive that area of the body
  26. 26. 26 The Cerebral Cortex: Our “New Brain” • The Association Areas of the Cortex – Executive functions • Higher mental processes such as thinking, language, memory, and speech
  27. 27. 27 The Adaptable Brain • Neuroplasticity – The brain continually reorganizing itself • Neurogenesis – New neurons created in certain areas of the brain during adulthood
  28. 28. 28 Specialization of the Hemispheres: Two Brains or One? • Left and right symmetrical halves – Lateralized • Left – Verbal competence – Processes information sequentially • Right – Spatial relationships – Recognition of patterns and drawings – Music – Emotional expression – Processes information globally
  29. 29. 29 The Split Brain: Exploring the Two Hemispheres • Split-brain patients – The corpus callosum is surgically cut – The two hemispheres of the brain no longer communicate with each other – The patient cannot combine the information of both hemispheres Figure 16 of Chapter 2
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