View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
Biopsychology the study of the biological basis of behavior
Some definitions some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists
Nervous System - the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system
consists of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Nervous system Central Nervous system - CNS ; brain and spinal chord(SC) Peripheral Nervous system - PNS - Other parts of nervous system; nerves, support cells
PNS Somatic System - SNS; Links SC to Body and sense organs / Voluntary muscles Autonomic System - ANS; Links SC to internal organs and glands / involuntary muscles
ANS Sympathetic System - arouses the body; emergency stress response; fight or flight Parasympathetic System - Quiets the body; helps restore the body to rest.
1. The peripheral nervous system consists of: A. association areas. B. the spinal cord. C. the reticular formation. D. sensory and motor neurons.
2. As Allison reaches for a box in her garage, out jumps a big spider. Her heart immediately begins to race as she withdraws her hand, but soon she realizes that the spider is harmless, and she begins to calm down. Which part of her nervous system is responsible for bringing her back to a normal state of arousal? A. sympathetic nervous system B. somatic nervous system C. parasympathetic nervous system D. skeletal nervous system
Neuron Structure Cytoplasm Nucleus ~ Metabolism; Contains genetic material Membrane ~ semipermiable lipid w proteins Channel Proteins - allow passage of materials Signal proteins - signal something is ready to enter Golgi Apparatus ~ packages things for cell; e.g.. Neurotransmitters Mitochondria ~ makes energy for cell
Neuron Structure Soma - Main body of cell Dendrites - receive information from the environment and other cells Axon - Fiber that carries information away from the soma
Neuron Structure Myelin sheath - fatty insulation around axon that speeds transmission of information Axon terminals - Branching fibers at the end of axons that contain Neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters - Chemicals that send messages between Neurons
What is the longest part of a multipolar motor neuron? A. Soma B. Dendrites C. Axon D. Myelin Sheathe
Neural transmission A neuron acts as both a battery and a wire sending an electrical impulse down the axon from the soma to the terminals This is possible due to complex proteins in the membrane
Nerve impulse Resting Potential - The electrical charge of a neuron at rest Ions - an electrically charged molecule; e.g.. Sodium (Na+) , Chloride (Cl-) Threshold - the point at which a nerve impulse if fired
Nerve impulse Ion Channels - Channels through the axon membrane through which ions travel Action potential - the nerve impulse
Action potential Cell body end of axon Direction of neural impulse: toward axon terminals All or nothing event. If threshold is reached the channels open , if not it does not happen
3. Jack accidentally touches a hot stove. Such a strong stimulus: A. increases the intensity of a neuron’s action potential. B. Increases the frequency of action potentials. C. Creates a half strength action potential. D. Has no bodily effect
Interneural communication Synapse - The microscopic space between two neurons Neurotransmitters - (NT) chemical released by a neuron, alters activity in another neuron Receptor sites - area on surface of cell that is sensitive to neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitter/ReceptorLock and key Neurotransmitter molecule Receiving cell membrane Agonist mimics neurotransmitter Receptor site on receiving neuron Antagonist blocks neurotransmitter
Reflex Arc Sensory Neuron - carries sensory info to CNS Connector Neuron - links two others Motor Neuron - caries motor commands from CNS
Reflex Arc Acetylcholine - NT released to activate muscles effector cells - cells in muscles and glands capable of making a response
Phineas Gage Download and watch phineas gage.wmv
Anatomy of the Brain Subcortex-structures below the cerebral cortex Hindbrain-brainstem, subconscious activities; HR, breath Medulla- vital life functions, cranial nerves start here Cerebellum- posture and co-ordination
Anatomy of the Brain Reticular formation- attention, alertness Reticular activating system- bombards the cortex to keep it active and alert Midbrain-area that links the forebrain and hindbrain; RAS, substantia nigra (DA)
Anatomy of the Brain Forebrain- Highest brain areas; thalamus hypothalamus, cortex, corpus collosum Thalamus- “relay center” all sensory info (ex smell) to cortex Hypothalamus- regulates motivation and emotions
Anatomy of the Brain Limbic system- system in forebrain, liked with emotional response Hippocampus- Memory Amygdala- anger, aggression
4. After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. It is most probable that she has suffered damage to her: A. amygdala. B. angular gyrus. C. cerebellum. D. corpus callosum.
5. A new superhero emerges on the scene. This superhero is able to stay awake and vigilant for extended amounts of time. He helps the intelligence community by being able to stay in surveillance for extended amounts of time without losing concentration and can always be paying attention to what is happening. A study of this superhero’s brain might show that the ____________ is more advanced and developed than a non-superhero’s. A. frontal lobe B. amygdala C. reticular formation D. occipital lobe
6. If Dr. Barnes wanted to cause a cat to take on an attack posture, which of the cat’s brain structures should he electrically stimulate? A. amygdala B. hypothalamus C. hippocampus D. cerebellum
7. You are a neurologist in a large hospital. The wife of a construction worker visits you and describes that her husband has experienced a serious injury to his frontal lobe. She is perplexed by his behavior. Which of the following would you tell her is “normal behavior” for a person with frontal lobe damage? A. not much decline in memory or intelligence B. poor judgment C. irritability and other personality changes D. ALL of these are commonly seen in frontal lobe damage
8. Which of the following activities is NOT primarily a function of the left hemisphere? A. listening to a piano concerto B. reading your psychology book C. reading junk mail D. listening to a poetry reading
9. A split-brain patient’s right hemisphere is presented with a key. How is he most likely to respond? A. say the word “key” B. select a key from a group of objects presented to his left hand C. select a key from a group of objects presented to his right hand D. he will not be able to say “key” or to pick out a key from a group of objects with either hand
The Endocrine System Endocrine System is the body’s “slow” chemical communication system. Communication is carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands.
Hormones Hormonesare chemicals, synthesized by the endocrine glands, are secreted in the bloodstream. Hormones affect the brain many other tissues of the body. For example, epinephrine (adrenaline) increases heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar and feelings of excitement during emergency situations.
a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
Clinical Observation Clinical observations have shed light on a number of brain disorders. Alterations in brain morphology due to neurological and psychiatric diseases are now being catalogued. Tom Landers/ Boston Globe