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  • 1. Biopsychology
    the study of the biological basis of behavior
  • 2. Some definitions
    some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists
    • Nervous System - the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system
    • 3. consists of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
  • Nervous system
    Central Nervous system - CNS ; brain and spinal chord(SC)
    Peripheral Nervous system - PNS - Other parts of nervous system; nerves, support cells
  • 4. PNS
    Somatic System - SNS; Links SC to Body and sense organs / Voluntary muscles
    Autonomic System - ANS; Links SC to internal organs and glands / involuntary muscles
  • 5. ANS
    Sympathetic System - arouses the body; emergency stress response; fight or flight
    Parasympathetic System - Quiets the body; helps restore the body to rest.
  • 6. 1. The peripheral nervous system consists of:
    A. association areas.
    B. the spinal cord.
    C. the reticular formation.
    D. sensory and motor neurons.
  • 7. 2. As Allison reaches for a box in her garage, out jumps a big spider. Her heart immediately begins to race as she withdraws her hand, but soon she realizes that the spider is harmless, and she begins to calm down. Which part of her nervous system is responsible for bringing her back to a normal state of arousal?
    A. sympathetic nervous system
    B. somatic nervous system
    C. parasympathetic nervous system
    D. skeletal nervous system
  • 8. Neuron Structure
    Nucleus ~ Metabolism; Contains genetic material
    Membrane ~ semipermiable lipid w proteins
    Channel Proteins - allow passage of materials
    Signal proteins - signal something is ready to enter
    Golgi Apparatus ~ packages things for cell; e.g.. Neurotransmitters
    Mitochondria ~ makes energy for cell
  • 9. Neuron Structure
    Soma - Main body of cell
    Dendrites - receive information from the environment and other cells
    Axon - Fiber that carries information away from the soma
  • 10. Neuron Structure
    Myelin sheath - fatty insulation around axon that speeds transmission of information
    Axon terminals - Branching fibers at the end of axons that contain Neurotransmitters.
    Neurotransmitters - Chemicals that send messages between Neurons
  • 11. What is the longest part of a multipolar motor neuron?
    A. Soma
    B. Dendrites
    C. Axon
    D. Myelin Sheathe
  • 12. Neural transmission
    A neuron acts as both a battery and a wire sending an electrical impulse down the axon from the soma to the terminals
    This is possible due to complex proteins in the membrane
  • 13. Nerve impulse
    Resting Potential - The electrical charge of a neuron at rest
    Ions - an electrically charged molecule; e.g.. Sodium (Na+) , Chloride (Cl-)
    Threshold - the point at which a nerve impulse if fired
  • 14. Nerve impulse
    Ion Channels - Channels through the axon membrane through which ions travel
    Action potential - the nerve impulse
  • 15. Action potential
    Cell body end
    of axon
    Direction of neural impulse: toward axon terminals
    All or nothing event. If threshold is reached the channels open , if not it does not happen
  • 16. Action potential
  • 17. 3. Jack accidentally touches a hot stove. Such a strong stimulus:
    A. increases the intensity of a neuron’s action potential.
    B. Increases the frequency of action potentials.
    C. Creates a half strength action potential.
    D. Has no bodily effect
  • 18. Interneural communication
    Synapse - The microscopic space between two neurons
    Neurotransmitters - (NT) chemical released by a neuron, alters activity in another neuron
    Receptor sites - area on surface of cell that is sensitive to neurotransmitters
  • 19. Neurotransmitter/ReceptorLock and key
    Receiving cell
    Agonist mimics
    Receptor site on
    receiving neuron
  • 20. Reuptake
    • Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of reuptake. This process applies brakes on neurotransmitter action.
  • How Neurotransmitters Influence Us?
    Serotonin pathways are involved with mood regulation.
    From Mapping the Mind, Rita Carter, © 1989 University of California Press
  • 21. Dopamine Pathways
    Dopamine pathways are involved with diseases like schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease.
    From Mapping the Mind, Rita Carter, © 1989 University of California Press
  • 22. Neurotransmitters
    • Acetylcholine [ah-seat-el-KO-leen]
    • 23. a neurotransmitter that, among its functions, triggers muscle contraction
    • 24. Endorphins [en-DOR-fins]
    • 25. “morphine within”
    • 26. natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters
    • 27. linked to pain control and to pleasure
  • 28. Reflex Arc
    Sensory Neuron - carries sensory info to CNS
    Connector Neuron - links two others
    Motor Neuron - caries motor commands from CNS
  • 29. Reflex Arc
    Acetylcholine - NT released to activate muscles
    effector cells - cells in muscles and glands capable of making a response
  • 30. Phineas Gage
    Download and watch phineas gage.wmv
  • 31. Anatomy of the Brain
    Subcortex-structures below the cerebral cortex
    Hindbrain-brainstem, subconscious activities; HR, breath
    Medulla- vital life functions, cranial nerves start here
    Cerebellum- posture and co-ordination
  • 32. Anatomy of the Brain
    Reticular formation- attention, alertness
    Reticular activating system- bombards the cortex to keep it active and alert
    Midbrain-area that links the forebrain and hindbrain; RAS, substantia nigra (DA)
  • 33. Anatomy of the Brain
    Forebrain- Highest brain areas; thalamus hypothalamus, cortex, corpus collosum
    Thalamus- “relay center” all sensory info (ex smell) to cortex
    Hypothalamus- regulates motivation and emotions
  • 34. Anatomy of the Brain
    Limbic system- system in forebrain, liked with emotional response
    Hippocampus- Memory
    Amygdala- anger, aggression
  • 35. 4. After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. It is most probable that she has suffered damage to her:
    A. amygdala.
    B. angular gyrus.
    C. cerebellum.
    D. corpus callosum.
  • 36. 5. A new superhero emerges on the scene. This superhero is able to stay awake and vigilant for extended amounts of time. He helps the intelligence community by being able to stay in surveillance for extended amounts of time without losing concentration and can always be paying attention to what is happening. A study of this superhero’s brain might show that the ____________ is more advanced and developed than a non-superhero’s.
    A. frontal lobe
    B. amygdala
    C. reticular formation
    D. occipital lobe
  • 37. 6. If Dr. Barnes wanted to cause a cat to take on an attack posture, which of the cat’s brain structures should he electrically stimulate?
    A. amygdala
    B. hypothalamus
    C. hippocampus
    D. cerebellum
  • 38. Cerebral Cortex
    Frontal lobe - move, smell, higher mental functions
    Parietal lobe - spatial perceptual skills, sensation
    Temporal lobe - auditory , emotional experience
    Occipital lobe - Vision
  • 39. The Cerebral Cortex
    • Motor Cortex
    • 40. area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
    • 41. Sensory Cortex
    • 42. area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
  • 43.
  • 44. Two hemispheres
    Cerebral hemispheres - right and left halves of the cerebrum
    Corpus callosum - bundle of fibers that connect the two hemispheres
  • 45.
  • 46. 7. You are a neurologist in a large hospital. The wife of a construction worker visits you and describes that her husband has experienced a serious injury to his frontal lobe. She is perplexed by his behavior. Which of the following would you tell her is “normal behavior” for a person with frontal lobe damage?
    A. not much decline in memory or intelligence
    B. poor judgment
    C. irritability and other personality changes
    D. ALL of these are commonly seen in frontal lobe damage
  • 47. 8. Which of the following activities is NOT primarily a function of the left hemisphere?
    A. listening to a piano concerto
    B. reading your psychology book
    C. reading junk mail
    D. listening to a poetry reading
  • 48. 9. A split-brain patient’s right hemisphere is presented with a key. How is he most likely to respond?
    A. say the word “key”
    B. select a key from a group of objects presented to his left hand
    C. select a key from a group of objects presented to his right hand
    D. he will not be able to say “key” or to pick out a key from a group of objects with either hand
  • 49. The Endocrine System
    Endocrine System is the body’s “slow” chemical communication system. Communication is carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands.
  • 50. Hormones
    Hormonesare chemicals, synthesized by the endocrine glands, are secreted in the bloodstream. Hormones affect the brain many other tissues of the body.
    For example, epinephrine (adrenaline) increases heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar and feelings of excitement during emergency situations.
  • 51. Researching The Brain
    • Lesion
    • 52. tissue destruction
    • 53. a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
  • Clinical Observation
    Clinical observations have shed light on a number of brain disorders. Alterations in brain morphology due to neurological and psychiatric diseases are now being catalogued.
    Tom Landers/ Boston Globe
  • 54. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    • an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface
    • 55. these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp
  • Researching The Brain
    • CT (computed tomography) Scan
    • 56. a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body; also called CAT scan
    • 57. PET (positron emission tomography) Scan
    • 58. a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
    • 59. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
    • 60. a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
  • PET Scan
  • 61. MRI Scan
  • 62.
    • Functional MRI scan shows the visual cortex activated as the subject looks at faces
  • 10. Which technique is most useful for seeing which regions of the brain are most active while a person reads a poem?
    A. EEG
    B. fMRI
    C. EKG
    D. CAT