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  1. 1. Chapter 3: Structure of the Nervous System
  2. 2. Lecture Overview Overview of Brain  Anatomy Terms  Blood supply and CSF Development of the Brain Central Nervous System  Five divisions Peripheral Nervous System  Somatic Nervous System  Autonomic Nervous System 3.3
  3. 3. The Two Nervous Systems CNS: Brain and Spinal Cord  Conduit for info to and from brain PNS: Cranial and spinal nerves  Run to target organs and muscles (efferent)  Carry sensory info (afferent) 3.4
  4. 4. Neuroanatomy Terms CNS Nucleus:- cluster of cell bodies Tract:- bundle of axons (nerve fibers) PNS Ganglion:- cluster of cell bodies Nerve:- bundle of axons (nerve fibers) But note exceptions… 3.5
  5. 5. Neuroanatomy Terms Directional  Anterior (rostral)  Posterior (caudal)  Ventral (inferior)  Dorsal (superior) Location in brain:  Ipsilateral: same side of brain  Contralateral: opposite side of brain  Bilateral: both sides  Unilateral: one side 3.5
  6. 6. Anatomical Planes  Three anatomy planes  Sagittal:  (mid- vs para-sagittal)  Coronal (transverse)  Horizontal 3.6
  7. 7. The Meninges Dura mater-outer (thick) layer Arachnoid-middle layer Overlies the arachnoid space (CSF) Blood vessels run through arachnoid layer Pia mater- inner layer Overlies every detail of the outer brain 3.7
  8. 8. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Brain floats in CSF (1400 g--> 80 g) CSF produced by choroid plexus of the ventricles  Lateral  Third  Fourth Ventricles are an access point for drug studies Loss of CSF produces headaches  e.g. spinal cord punctures Hydroencephalus 3.8
  9. 9. Overview of the CNS Forebrain Telencephalon Cerebral Cortex Basal Ganglia Limbic System Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus Midbrain Mesencephalon Tectum Tegmentum Hindbrain Metencephalon Cerebellum Pons Myelencephalon Medulla Oblongata 3.9
  10. 10. Cerebral Cortex Grooves in cortex: Sulci (small) Fissures (large) Bulges in cortex are termed gyri 6 layers of cortical cells 3.10
  11. 11. Cortical Lobes 3.12
  12. 12. Mapping of the Cortex Fritsch and Hitzig (1870) Penfield (1950’s) at Montreal Sensory cortex Motor cortex “Homunculus”: Map of external body region that serve various areas of cortex “Brodmann’s areas” based on architectural features 3.11
  13. 13. Limbic System Hippocampus (learning and memory) Amygdala (emotion) Septum (rage after lesions) Fornix Mammillary Bodies 3.13
  14. 14. Basal Ganglia “Ganglia” is a misnomer (term refers to collections of cell bodies in periphery. Basal ganglia consists of: Globus pallidus Caudate nucleus  Putamen Basal ganglia are involved in the control of movement. 3.14
  15. 15. The Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Controls muscle action, gland secretion Some afferent info back to CNS Autonomic NS Parasympathetic: “Digestion” Sympathetic: “Fight or Flight” 3.16
  16. 16. Somatic Nervous System Spinal Nerves (31 pair)  Afferents and efferents  8 Cervical  12 Thoracic  5 Lumbar  5 Sacral  1 Coccygeal Cranial Nerves  Three types: Motor only, sensory only, mixed function  “On old olympus towering tops, a french-speaking German viewed some hops” 3.18
  17. 17. The Autonomic Nervous System • Sympathetic division • Associated with energy expenditure • Derives from thoracolumbar sp. cord • Parasympathetic division • Associated with energy conservation • Derives from cranial-sacral sp. cord 3.19
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