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  • 1. Running head: COACHING PLAN FOR THE MATURE WORKER 1<br />Coaching plan:<br />Coaching the Mature Worker through Career Transition<br />Elizabeth R. York<br />Capella University<br />Abstract<br />A depressed economy, coupled with changes in the business and industrial environments, is leading organizations to displace experienced older (ages 40-70) workers. Older workers are facing increasingly widespread job insecurity and waves of involuntary job loss resulting from layoffs, downsizing, facility closings, and subsequent job displacement associated with significant periods of unemployment, and declines in earnings and job quality CITATION Bra08 t l 1033 (Brand, Levy, & Gallo, 2008). Examining some of the factors encountered by a male industrial worker, age 49, facing possible displacement due to organizational changes taking place within the organization for which he has worked for ten years, a coaching plan is developed to 1) mitigate some of the negative factors this worker is likely to encounter at displacement, 2) utilize this worker’s strengths, and 3) facilitate a successful transition from obsolescence to a career viability. This coaching plan includes establishing the coaching relationship, determining the client’s needs, factoring possible stressors, challenges and obstacles, creating a plan to utilize the client’s strengths while taking steps to enhance and strengthen the client’s weaknesses, support through the transition process, and follow up support with a goal of independence.<br />Introduction<br />A depressed economy, coupled with changes in the business and industrial environments, is leading organizations to displace experienced older (ages 40-60) workers. Older workers are facing increasingly widespread job insecurity and waves of involuntary job loss resulting from layoff, downsizing, facility closings, and subsequent job displacement associated with significant periods of unemployment, and declines in earnings and job quality CITATION Bra08 t l 1033 (Brand, Levy, & Gallo, 2008). Several studies have investigated depressive symptoms in relation to late-career job loss, resulting in findings that late-career job loss is a negative life event accompanied by substantial emotional stress and subsequent reduction in affective health CITATION Bra04 t l 1033 (Brand, 2004). Many workers in the 40 to 70 year age range are finding that the job security they once felt has fallen victim to a number of eliminating factors running the gamut from the effects of a depressed economy to technological advances that have rendered the job obsolete. Today, more and more workers who once looked forward to retirement are finding that this is no longer a viable possibility. Large portions of the world’s workforce are finding that their best chances for survival hinge on making a career transition. Whether by force or by choice, these workers often need guidance and assistance to facilitate this transition.<br />This project looks at one such worker, a man nearing the age of 50 who is facing a forced career transition. This paper outlines the coaching plan developed for this worker. The plan consists of assessing the worker’s strengths and looks at how these strengths can be used to mitigate the negative effects of the forced transition, such as depression, learned helplessness, grief and loss of self-esteem. This plan will address weaknesses in the worker’s skill set that may hinder his progress and success. Finally, this plan will include support and guidance to facilitate this worker through the transition process. The goal of the plan is successful re-entry into the workforce, the development of a viable career for the worker, and ultimately, independence from the coach.<br />Background and Literature Review<br />According to the United States Department of Labor (USDOL), 14.9 million people are currently unemployed. The national unemployment rate currently stands at 9.7 percent. The number of long term unemployed (those who have not worked in 27 or more weeks) has reached 6.1 million persons. The USDOL also reports that there are 1.2 million discouraged workers in the nation. Discouraged workers are those who are those who are no currently looking for work because they believe that no jobs are available to them CITATION Eco10 l 1033 (Economic News Release: Employment Situation Summary, 2010). The statistics listed by the USDOL are further defined according to age, sex and race, specifically Men aged 20 and above, Women aged 20 and above, and men and women aged 16-19 for white, African-American, and Asian workers CITATION Tab10 l 1033 (Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age, 2010). No statistics have been found to date that state whether all or a portion of these workers are ‘older’ workers, or even by what parameters or criteria an ‘older’ worker is defined. Further research is required to determine if the USDOL has specifically captured statistics that measure job displacement for ‘older’ workers. <br />Few will argue whether the United States, and many other countries around the globe are experiencing a depressed economy. Economic decline and depression has lead to wide-spread job displacement for hundreds of thousands of workers, many of whom range in age from 40 to 70. While in decades past these workers could look forward to retirement, this is no longer the case for the majority of these workers. Many organizations facing restructure are offering their long-term employees early retirement as a means of reducing workforces CITATION Bra04 t l 1033 (Brand, 2004). These organizations often use the early retirements to prevent layoffs and, perhaps more importantly, to protect their public image. However, costly emotional ramifications have been linked to imposed early retirements, and these have been found to be similar to those of individuals who have experienced involuntary job loss for other reasons CITATION Kri07 l 1033 (Nielsen, 2007). General Motors (GM) for example, wiped out over 2000 unionized workers earlier this year. Like many cities facing this type of action, the reduction of loss of businesses upon which they depend to help to shore up their economic structures can have tremendous negative impact on already fragile economies. These large numbers of workers are not easily absorbed into the local economies. Replacement jobs become even more scarce when large numbers of workers are dumped, and competition for those that remain becomes fierce. <br />Job displacement is widely considered a negative life event associated with subsequent economic decline and depression, as shown by numerous studies. The widespread job insecurity and waves of displacement have taken a severe toll on the well-being of the country’s workers CITATION Far96 l 1033 (Farley, 1996) CITATION Kal00 l 1033 (Kalleberg, 2000) CITATION Lev95 l 1033 (Levy, 1995) CITATION Wet95 l 1033 (Wetzel, 1995). Older workers’ share of job displacements has grown disproportionately in recent years CITATION Sch04 l 1033 (Schmitt, 2004). Recent estimates indicate that about one in five older workers lose their jobs over a 10- to 12-year period CITATION Joh05 l 1033 (Johnson, Mermin, & Uccello, 2005). There is also evidence to suggest that the negative economic and psychological effects of job displacement have been increasing among older workers CITATION Cou98 l 1033 (Couch, 1998) CITATION Wil06 l 1033 (William T. Gallo, 2006). Job disruptions among older workers may be particularly damaging, because late-career employment transitions are less common and older workers are likely to have accumulated nontransferable firm- and/or industry-specific skills, wages, and benefits. Leading to poor reemployment prospects and substantial economic hardship CITATION Doo99 l 1033 (Dooley & Catalano, 1999) CITATION Kes88 l 1033 (Kessler, Turner, & House, 1988) CITATION Pri02 l 1033 (Price, Choi, & Vinokur, 2002). Moreover, lost earnings can reduce wealth accumulated through pensions, Social Security, and other savings, thus threatening retirement security CITATION Bra08 t l 1033 (Brand, Levy, & Gallo, 2008).<br />Brand, Levy and Gallo’s found in their 2008 study of the effects experienced by older workers as a result of layoffs, that men have a significant increase in depression resulting from layoffs. Their research found this result to be consistent with the conclusion of Miller and Hoppe CITATION Mil n t l 1033 (1994) who reported higher depression among men who were selected for termination than among those whose jobs had been eliminated. When men are displaced, laid off or terminated, they are found to be less likely to seek help than women. Historically, men struggling with midlife challenges sought support from family and friends. Although in recent decades some men have found help through psychotherapy, far more sought no help at all. The advent of career and life coaching, however, may fill that gap that many men experience when determining the best course of action in the wake of involuntary unemployment CITATION Dan05 l 1033 (Fronczak, 2005). <br />This paper focuses on the development of a coaching plan for a male worker, age 50, facing possible involuntary unemployment. <br />Coaching the Mature Transitional Worker<br />This paper discusses the development of a coaching plan for a 50 year old male industrial worker. Initial interview with this worker revealed the following:<br />This worker has worked for his present organization since January 2008, a civilian contractor building torpedoes (both war-ready and exercise) for the United States Navy. Prior to this employment, this worker accomplished the same work for a similar contractor who had held the contract for seven years. At the end of the seven year contract period, the contract was opened to the public for bids. The holding contractor lost the bid for the contract, and it was subsequently awarded to the current contractor. The work being accomplished for this contract is similar, following protocols, procedures, and processes as set forth by the Navy. <br />The job performed by this worker is considered high-stress on many levels. Weapons production requiring the safe handling of ordnance is traditionally psychologically and physically stressful. Much of the work is physically taxing. the technicians perform highly technical procedures to stringent procedural protocols that are intellectually demanding, under strict supervision while meeting extremely tight deadlines. Some units are required to perform dangerous work under difficult safety protocols, such as those teams which disassemble spent weapons that have been recently returned from exercise sea runs. This work entails release of built of toxic gases and leftover fuels and requires that the workers wear cumbersome hazmat suits that restrict their movement and interfere with their line of sight, compounding the dangerous nature of the work. Inhalation and spill risks are inherent and constant, requiring the worker to perform arduous labor at a level of extremely high intellectual and psychological awareness. <br />This worker at times is required to work outdoors, preparing completed weapons for deployment to sea, loading them into large containers, lifting them on to flat-bed trucks, and securing them to ensure safe transport to the docks for loading into submarines. The work conditions vary at times from heavy, even hurricane force, winds and rain to humid 90-plus degree sun. Hazardous conditions include chemicals such as oils, solvents, paints and adhesives, dirt, dust, and salt or other corrosive elements. Work hours are generally long, sometimes up to 15 hours a day. Management styles also present less than ideal work conditions, as the workforce reports considerable conflict and other issues stemming from the management style. The majority of the upper- and mid-level managers have adopted their management style from previous military experience, a style that tends to be dictatorial, authoritarian, overbearing and even tyrannical at times. This management style is considered counterproductive by the majority of the workforce, and objects to the style. In an effort to gather supporting data for this worker’s coaching plan, this coach visited the worksite, spoke with other workers, and some of the managers, and spent time observing the working conditions. It is this coach’s observation, verified by the data gathered via discussions with both areas of the workforce, that many of the managers have little or no management training and are using a trial-and-error management process. Also, this coach observed that the worker’s are not allowed the opportunity to offer feedback to management and overall, management does not seem to trust the workers to accomplish their assigned tasks with accuracy or quality. As such, the workers tend to work under severe micro-management.<br />Another aspect of this work environment that is resulting in increased stress for the workforce stems from staffing issues. High turnover, terminated workers who are not replaced, layoffs resulting from eliminated positions, and general reductions-in-force have resulted in an atmosphere of anxiety that ranges from mild uncertainty to impending doom. Until recent months, workers were allowed some latitude when mistakes occurred. Today, even minor infractions or procedural non-compliances have lead to severe reprimand, suspension or termination. An atmosphere of generalized ambient fear has developed. Workers are clearly worried – many show signs of being distracted, preoccupied, irascible, and potentially provoked into hopelessness or depression. Studies have shown that this type of workplace ambiance results in negative emotional, psychological and physical effects throughout the workforce CITATION Sil09 l 1033 (Sills, 2009). In September of 2008, one worker, pushed to the edge after working another 15 hour day in a string of more than 10 days, dressed out in a hazmat suit under dangerous conditions, was told that he would be required to work a double shift. When the worker expressed reluctance to do so, citing that he was suffering from fatigue, he was told to either work the shift or not report to work the next day. The worker stayed as required and completed the second shift. Then he left the facility, called his wife of less than a month, drove to a park and hanged himself with his shoelaces on the window of his truck. He was found dead the next morning, but the management did nothing to acknowledge this worker’s contribution to the workforce or express sympathy or condolences to the family. <br />Absenteeism is extremely high, workplace violence ranging from verbal altercations to physical violence is pervasive, happening as often as three to four times per week, instances of workers abusing alcohol and drugs are common, and other signs of hostile work environment are visible. These and other negative effects are common in this type of work environment CITATION Bis02 l 1033 (Bishop, Goldsby, & Neck, 2002). <br />The worker for whom this coaching plan is being developed reports negative effects stemming from working in this environment. This worker reports a number of physical ailments and conditions that appear to be exacerbated by the work environment, including pervasive pain in knees, back, neck, shoulders and elbows, fatigue, inability to sleep, and lack of restful sleep, headaches, vision problems, skin problems related to chemical exposure, and bouts of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This worker reports Type II diabetes that may be exacerbated by stress as well as related rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, both of which may also be aggravated by stress. <br />This worker was asked to complete a number of tests for emotional conditions, including the CES-D Questionnaire for depression, the Fordyce Emotions Questionnaire, the Optimism Test, the Work-Life Questionnaire, and the VIA Survey of Character Strengths. In addition, this worker completed the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II. Results of these test, as well as analysis and conclusions are discussed later in this paper.<br />On a personal note, this worker is married to a woman with two adult children, a son, 22, who lives with the couple and a daughter, 19, living elsewhere. His workplace is within five minutes of his home, eliminating any extensive commute time. He rides a Harley-Davidson motorcycle, which due to financial difficulties is his only means of transportation. His wife owns a 15 year old car and uses it to commute to work a distance that requires more than 1 ½ hours each way. All members of the household are full-time students. This worker, realizing the need to seek employment that is less physically taxing and more secure, began attending University of Phoenix in 2005. Academically, this worker is experiencing challenges, and has failed two of his algebra courses, rendering his financial aid for the school in jeopardy. The son works sporadically, and uses his income to pay for his own needs, and does not support the household with funds. The wife was recently laid off from her position with the State due to cutbacks and reduction-in-force (RIF). Currently, this worker is the sole source of income for the family. Their household also includes a number of pets – two large dogs, two cats, two cockatiels and an eclectus parrot. The family rents their home, and the sum of their monthly bills ranges approximately $3500 per month. This worker is also making payments to the Internal Revenue Service for unpaid taxes from previous years, in the amount of $250 per month.<br />Establishing the Coaching Relationship<br />The coaching process is an experiential and individualized development process that builds a client’s capability to achieve short- and long-term organizational goals. It is conducted through one-on-one interactions, driven by data from multiple perspectives, and based on mutual trust and respect. The client and the coach work in partnership to achieve maximum impact. The coaching partnership is a win-win approach in which all partners plan the process together, communicate openly, and work cooperatively toward the ultimate accomplishment of overarching objectives CITATION The08 l 1033 (Forum, 2008).<br />Because of the intimate, collaborative nature of the coaching process, trust between the client and the coach is paramount. One 2004 study sought to answer the question, What coaching attributes, skills, and practices contribute to the most effective executive coaching interventions? The aim of the research was differentiate attributes, skills, and approaches that when present in a coach/client relationship lead to the most positive behavior change and performance outcomes on the part of the client. The results of this research support the premise that trust is the highest rated coaching attribute of primary importance to all rater groups signaling the primacy of the relational aspects of coaching as the first gate to moving forward with other interventions CITATION Deb05 l 1033 (Deborah M. Luebbe, 2005).<br />Methods for establishing trust between client and coach vary from individual to individual. The principles of Gestalt therapy may lend some support to establishing the client/coach relationship. Contact, how it occurs and develops, is fundamental to the principles of Gestalt CITATION MCh08 l 1033 (Chidiac, 2008), and has been described as the ‘lifeblood of growth’, i.e. changing of oneself and one’s experience of the world has relevance to the professional coach. The Gestalt belief that growth and development occur as a result of contact with the environment, and that contact can be understood as the process by which learning takes place. It stands to reason, then, that the quality of coach/client relationship determines the effectiveness of the coaching, and more precisely, whether the client is available to be taught – whether the client is interested and excited about a partnership for learning. Trust and safety are critical to achieving ultimate success, because interest, willingness, and receptiveness are a precondition of learning, without which, the client is not able to assimilate new information or knowledge CITATION Sim091 l 1033 (Simon, 2009). While many may enjoy the process of learning, few will move quickly into a relationship in which one feels forced to enter, or in which one feels diminished relative to someone else’s expertise. A client seeking the assistance of a coach is often functioning under a fragile self-esteem, one that is easily compromised in the presence of another who is hierarchically positioned to teach the client those things he or she believes he or she should already know CITATION Sim091 l 1033 (Simon, 2009). <br />In order for the coaching process to be successful, the client is required to place significant trust in the coach. He allows himself to be vulnerable and open. To ensure that the client remains receptive to feedback, new ideas, and learning, the coach must establish and maintain a psychologically safe and respectful environment CITATION Bac07 l 1033 (Bachelor, Laverdiere, Gamache, & Bordeleau, 2007). <br />Because of the sensitive and private nature of the process, the coach must be clear in presentation of issues, information, coaching goals, coaching activities, and ground rules of confidentiality. The American Psychological Association (APA) has set forth in the APA Code of Ethical Conduct, which articulates clear and precise guidelines for confidentiality as well as inarguable rules of engagement CITATION ETH09 l 1033 (Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, 2009). These guidelines call for psychologists to function at the highest levels of integrity and candor, and take steps to avoid the negative consequences that may result from the loss of reputation, or disrespect of the client’s privacy. While coaches, per se, are not required to adhere to these guidelines, it is recommended that coaches, nonetheless, operate at this level of integrity. The present, not enough research exists that supports a strictly monitored and licensed field of coaches, and additional study is recommended.<br />Coaching middle-aged men can be challenging. Because of cultural conditioning, they often believe that they ‘should have all the answers.’ CITATION Dan05 l 1033 (Fronczak, 2005) Meeting with this client turned out to be typical in some ways. The worker initially seemed anxious and guarded, while at the same time, expressing an interest in moving forward with the coaching. He described how excited he was to have found a coach with whom he could work out his career challenges, and even launched almost immediately into requesting solutions to what he perceived were his problems.<br />The temptation for any coach, when working with some new clients is to move directly into action. As men tend to be more direct, and even controlling, this temptation can be difficult to resist. However, it is important to remain cognizant that the relationship must be established first, before any action can be entered. It is important to first build a foundation upon which to begin the process of learning, to focus on building that connection with the client CITATION Sim091 l 1033 (Simon, 2009). <br />The process of establishing the contact with a client is often a subtle and nuanced process. The coach draws upon his or her full repertoire of abilities to be present, show interest in the client, and be open to contact. It is incumbent on the coach to maintain control of the interview and influence the pacing of the interaction. A skilled coach makes countless adjustments during the course of the interaction with the client, gauging actions and reactions upon the client’s actions and reactions. At times this may mean adjusting tone, eye-contact, or facial expression, and at times, adjusting the questions being asked. <br />Gestalt theory can be applied to contact between coach and client is also reflected in how a coach works with resistance, as is sometimes the case when working with middle-aged adult men. While it is not uncommon for a coach to be able to identify defensiveness and resistance in clients, the Gestalt tenet of supporting resistance offers a clear direction for the coach to follow. This means adherence to the paradoxical theory of change, a belief that genuine change occurs more easily when one fully accepts what one is, rather than simply striving to be different CITATION Bei70 l 1033 (Beisser, 1970). This tenet offers support for the premise that the coach can and should make every effort to gain agreement with the client. Actions to accomplish this include mirroring the client’s unconscious mannerisms, expressing empathy, sharing a personal experience that shows that the coach has personal knowledge of the effects of a particular circumstance, and other means of showing support.<br />For many reasons, Gestalt theory can be and has been successfully adapted to address growth and development in individuals, couples, families, groups, and organizations. This application of Gestalt theory to organizational behavior is logical, reasonable, and graceful CITATION Sim091 l 1033 (Simon, 2009). Its contribution to the field of coaching has been shown to be valid and valuable.<br />The Coaching Process/Methodology: Theoretical framework<br />A number of psychological theories speak to the driving forces behind man’s motivation to work. Coaching is most effective when it adheres to the tenets of one or more specific approaches to coaching. In general, coaching, falls within four main categories – executive coaching, career coaching, performance coaching and life/personal coaching. Of late, one more type of coaching is gaining popularity – newly assigned leader coaching. <br />For this worker, a number of coaching approaches may be viable, including the cognitive approach, the goal-focused approach, the adult-learning approach, and Gestalt theory approach. These will be fundamentally supported by the principles of positive psychology. This worker’s coaching plan will follow the basic actions required by career coaching, but will also draw from some of the principles and actions of performance coaching and newly assigned leader coaching. <br />Career coaching, which helps individuals identify what they want and need from their career, then make decisions and take necessary actions to accomplish their career objectives, will be the main focus of this coaching plan. Career coaching takes into consideration the other areas of the client’s life that require attention, and works to keep these elements in balance. This coaching plan will also benefit from some of the elements of performance coaching, including stress management, competencies analysis, and analysis of past performance gaps. Newly assigned leader coaching also offers some elements from which this workers could benefit, including leadership support, assimilation into a new position within a team, and gaining agreement and loyalty from a group or others. This plan will also gather feedback from the client, as well as his work environment to determine if particular behaviors require specific targeting coaching.<br />This coach sees Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory as a viable application for this plan, combined with a humanistic approach. Maslow’s Theory speaks to the priorities by which an individual seeks to develop a fulfilled life, and ultimately reach a point of self-actualization. According to this theory, humans are motivated to seek fulfillment of their physiological needs of air, food, water, sleep, and clothing, and shelter first. Once this is accomplished, the individual will seek a position of security, including a safe living area, job security, medical insurance, and financial reserves. These needs are then succeeded by a need to fulfill social needs, including friendship, acceptance and belonging to a group, and love. Once these needs are met, the individual will move forward toward fulfilling these needs which support his or her self-image, self-respect, and personal pride. For most individuals, these needs are often dependent on others within the individual’s environment, as humans seek tend to seek agreement and praise as a means of determining their importance within the social structure and the world per se. These affirming elements can include external motivators such as recognition, attention and social status, or may be combined with internal motivators such as accomplishment or self-respect CITATION Hum10 l 1033 (Humanistic Psychology, 2010). <br />Finally, these needs having been met, the individual will work toward self-actualization. These are the qualities that one seeks when reaching for one’s full potential as a person. Unlike the lower level needs, the qualities of self-actualization are rarely fully satisfied. These needs are motivated by such qualities as truth, justice, wisdom, and meaning, and are gained through higher learning, peak life experiences and moments of profound harmony and happiness .<br />When this theory is applied for this worker, this coach determines that this worker is currently functioning between the first and second levels, with the third and fourth levels severely threatened, with the fifth level nonexistent. This workers safety needs are under the risk of loss – job security, medical insurance, financial reserves. The loss of medical insurance is of greatest concern for this worker, threatening his ongoing treatment of his Diabetes and his overall health and well-being, as well as that of his family. Loss of his current position will adversely affect his ability to provide for even his basic needs of food, water, and sleep. His self-esteem is taking a toll while his resulting psychological behaviors of hostility, anger and depression are threatening his ability to meet his social needs.<br />Positive psychology will provide a substantial supporting base for the plan. Studies have found that positive psychology may help men build the necessary resources and resiliency to buffer against midlife’s challenges. Enhancing positive emotions increases one’s thought-action repertoire and coping strategies. The integration of positive psychology and coaching may produce the necessary resources to prevent mid-life transition from developing into midlife crisis CITATION Dan05 l 1033 (Fronczak, 2005).<br />The main focus of this plan will be to help this worker reach a position of personal and professional security and ensure his ability to provide for his basic needs and those of his family; i.e. to ensure secure employment, with reduced or eliminated risk of unemployment. This plan is intended to maximize personal fulfillment, balance and meaning for this worker.<br />The Coaching Plan<br />Utilizing a Humanistic Approach, the coach and this worker will work collaboratively to develop a plan to mitigate this worker’s weaknesses while augmenting his strengths. Steps will be suggested by the coach that will present this worker’s skills and character strengths in the best light, affording the best chance to take advantage of opportunities presented for this worker to affect a transition CITATION The08 l 1033 (Forum, 2008). Following the Humanistic Approach, this worker will take the reins in his own advancement, which should help this worker to feel empowered and improve his self-esteem.<br />The following actions have been determined to be most viable for this coaching plan:<br />
    • Pre-coaching activities:
    • 2. Initial interview with client
    • 3. Establish trust and working relationship
    • 4. Present types of coaching and get feedback on client’s desires and needs;
    • 5. Gain commitment to change and coaching process
    • 6. Discuss contract and reach verbal agreement:
    • 7. Fees for services, testing materials, job hunting expenses, etc.;
    • 8. Expectations on both sides;
    • 9. Expected outcomes;
    • 10. Determine milestones and measures of success;
    • 11. Determine plan for mitigating unexpected outcomes;
    • 12. Determine timeframe and deadlines;
    • 13. Incorporate all elements of agreement into written document and sign;
    • 14. Assess client’s needs: The assessment phase of the coaching plan provides both the coach and the client important information upon which to base a developmental action plan. The assessment is customized and is made up a wide variety of assessment instruments. Assessment process will include:
    • 15. In-depth interview, and if possible, observation of the worker’s work environment.
    • 16. SWOT analysis: what is client’s perspective of his strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats;
    • 17. Gather data: Tests, assessments and questionnaires (See Appendices II – VII for results of these tests):
    • 18. CES-D Questionnaire to determine depression;
    • 19. Work-Life Questionnaire to assess overall satisfaction;
    • 20. Optimism test;
    • 21. Fordyce Emotions Questionnaire;
    • 22. VIA Survey of Character Strengths;
    • 23. Kiersey Temperament Sorter II;
    • 24. 360 Feedback to determine worker’s level of accuracy of perspective of the opinions of himself held by others;
    • 25. Cocreating the Coaching Plan:
    • 26. Goal Setting: these goals focus on achievements and changes that the client expects. Initial goals will be established when the coaching begins, and revised or refined as the coaching process progresses. Goals are based on valid and reliable data that exemplify how the client should learn new skills, change his behavior, work on priorities, or achieve specific results CITATION Gra07 l 1033 (Grant & Cavanagh, 2007). This portion of the coaching plan development will address:
    • 27. What does this client hope to accomplish through this action plan?
    • 28. What are the client’s expectations?
    • 29. Client’s weaknesses:
    • 30. What psychological or emotional challenges is this worker facing that required attention?
    • 31. What behavior or personality weaknesses will limit this worker’s successful transition?
    • 32. What areas of client’s skill set are weak? This may be the area where the client requires the deepest consideration. Often a worker is transferred, laid off or transitioned because his or her job has become obsolete due to advances in technology. This worker has expressed a long-dormant desire to study cinema, specifically film production and direction, and script writing. This is a departure from the skill set he currently has, and will require return to school.
    • 33. Steps for upgrading client’s skill set or changing to a different skill set:
    • 34. Attend adult education:
    • 35. Choose school, degree program or specialty;
    • 36. meet with guidance counselor to discuss curriculum;
    • 37. Obtain transcripts and documents as needed;
    • 38. Apply for financial aid via FAFSA;
    • 39. Lateral transfer to position that will offer training in other areas;
    • 40. Online schooling or skill training;
    • 41. Client’s strengths:
    • 42. What character strengths can this worker utilize?
    • 43. What skill strengths can be transferred to another type of work?
    • 44. Resume: Update:
    • 45. Update and restructure goals and objectives;
    • 46. Include up-to-date work history information;
    • 47. Restructure to highlight current skills and character strengths;
    • 48. Add additional training in progress and projected completion dates;
    • 49. Opportunities:
    • 50. What opportunities exist in this worker’s present organization?
    • 51. What opportunities exist in other organizations?
    • 52. Overlooked opportunities that this worker has not considered;
    • 53. Milestones and measures of success: Each coaching plan is unique and specific to the client. Men, in general tend to exhibit some resistance to the coaching process, even when they have initiated the coaching process and engaged the coach CITATION Dan05 l 1033 (Fronczak, 2005). As such, it may be difficult or impossible to determine a reasonable timeframe by which this worker should work through the coaching process. This worker’s perspective of success will be the determining factor of milestones and measures.
    • 54. Identify accomplishments that will be used to signify success:
    • 55. Short-term milestones
    • 56. Mid-term milestones
    • 57. Long-term milestones
    • 58. Determine plan for mitigating effects of unexpected negative outcomes;
    Implementing the Plan<br />Once the coach and the client have agreed upon a viable plan of action, it becomes incumbent upon the client to implement the processes, actions and strategies as outline in the plan. The coach and the client will reconvene at least weekly to discuss those actions that have been started, those that have been completed, and what the outcomes has resulted from each action. The coach and client will agree upon not only a schedule for weekly face-to-face meetings, but additional support via phone as well. This phone support will occur either according to scheduled times or as needed as determined by the outcomes of the actions. The coach will take steps during the contracting process to include a number of hours for phone consultation, and will process these fees accordingly.<br />Measuring the Plan’s Success<br />Goal achievement is measured both qualitatively and quantitatively CITATION The08 l 1033 (Forum, 2008). After a specified time, in accordance with the timeframes set forth in the coaching plan, the client will be assessed for learning progress. New skills and capabilities will be tested or verified, via certification or progress reports from instructors as appropriate. The worker will be retested for changes in behavior, outlook, perspectives, ideas, attitudes, and overall emotional state and life satisfaction. Weaknesses or skills areas will be measured against initial assessment data and those which are showing little or no change will be reevaluated and a adjustments made to mitigate the current outcomes. <br />The specific timeframe will be determined by the client. While skills assessments and progress reports are excellent indicators of increases and improvements in skills, these instruments speak only to the capabilities portion of this worker’s transition. Retesting for emotional improvement in areas such as optimism, depression, personal confidence and personal satisfaction will be evident by increases in scores of the CES-D Questionnaire for Depression, the Work-Life Questionnaire to assess overall satisfaction, the Optimism test and the Fordyce Emotions Questionnaire. Increases in these scores is expected.<br />Ultimately, the most reliable measure of success is two-fold: 1) when the client sees measurable change and growth, and 2) when the client is no longer dependent upon the coach for support, assistance or guidance. When the client feels confident that he or she can function successfully in his or her personal and professional world without the assistance of the coach, and is willing to sever ties to the coach.<br />Transitioning from Active Coaching through Long-Term Development and Closure<br />Upon completion of the coaching plan, the client and coach will then take steps to ensure that the client will be able to continue his development. For this worker, that continued development may mean continuing to attend school, pursuing an advanced degree in whatever area he intends to pursue. As expressed earlier in this paper, this worker has expressed a desire to work in the film industry. He will be required to return to school to learn this skill set, and transitioning from dependence on the coach to independence can and should take place long before he has achieved the goal of a degree. However, the client should have gained confidence to move forward without the support or assistance of the coach. As a former client, though, the coach will be available for refresher coaching sessions as needed, at an agreed-upon rate for ongoing services.<br />The transition process will include joint preparation of a long-term development plan identifying future areas of focus and action steps. The coach will also recommend a range of resources relevant to the client’s long-term development needs. <br />In most cases, transitioning includes handing off the monitoring of the long-term plan to the client for self-regulation. The coach will continue to contact the client periodically to review progress towards objectives and for goal reassessment. Ultimately, a successful coaching process serves as a catalyst for the client’s long-term development. The client will be asked to agree to recontact the coach upon completion of any long-term training or education, to discuss relevance to the job market, changes that may have occurred in his goals or perspectives. Future discussions will be opportunities to discuss gaps that might have emerged over time. The client will be asked to agree to be held accountable for adhering to the original action plans and to any subsequent plans that were developed close to the end of the coaching process. He will also be asked to provide feedback to the coach on performance, strengths and development needs. Finally, the client will be asked to keep the coach informed as to is later development in the workplace, changes in job status, and any other evidence of growth and progress.<br />Conclusion<br />The coaching process is a complex one. It is intended to facilitate a client’s movement from a position of uncertainty to one of confidence, improved performance, and greater independence. Many professionals are now recognizing the value of engaging a coach to help them reach these goals. For individuals such as the man who is the subject of this paper, the stigma of working with a coach is subsiding, and is approaching being seen as normal, or in some cases, even high-prestige. Coaching provides timely and target strategies for improving one’s less-developed sides and using one’s strengths to one’s own advantage. Today the benefits of coaching are being recognized and organizations as well as individuals are becoming more accepting and supportive of coaching in recent years CITATION The08 l 1033 (Forum, 2008).<br />A skilled coach can be of enormous benefit to the worker who is facing the challenge of weathering the storm of a depressed economy, professional complacency, and the changes that advances in technology have brought. Although the field is still developing, and as with all specialized concentrations, continues to evolve in response to changes in society, in business and in organizational practice. The overarching principles of coaching, in its many forms, are still being defined and refined. Moreover, the success or failure of a coaching process depends on the willingness and acceptance of the client, and the skills, capabilities and expertise of the coach.<br />But certainly, the progress of coaching as a specialty warrants respect and continued observation of the trends.References<br /> BIBLIOGRAPHY l 1033 Anonymous. (2008, Mar 31). New psychology study results reported from University of Sydney. Psychology & Psychiatry Journal , 12.<br />Bachelor, A., Laverdiere, O., Gamache, D., & Bordeleau, W. (2007). Clients' collaboration in therapy: Self-perceptions and relationships with client psychological functioning, interpersonal relations, and motivation. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training , 44 (2), 175-192.<br />Bandera, A. (1978). Social Learning Theory of Aggression. Journal of Communication , v28 (3), 12-29.<br />Beisser, A. (1970). The paradoxical theory of change. In J. Fagan, & I. L. Shepard (Eds.), Gestalt Therapy Now (pp. 77-80). Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.<br />Bishop, J. W., Goldsby, M. G., & Neck, C. P. (2002). Who goes? Who cares? Who stays? Who wants to? The role of contingent workers and corporate layoff practices. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17 (4), 298-316.<br />Blass, R. B. (2010). Psychoanalytic Controversies: How does psychoanalytic practice differ from psychotherapy? The implications of the difference for development of psychoanlaytic training and practice. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis , 91, 15-21.<br />Bluckert, P. (2005). Critical Factors in Executive Coaching - the Coaching Relationship. Industrial and Commercial Training , 37, 336-340.<br />Bono, J. E., Purvanova, R. K., Towler, A. J., & Peterson, D. B. (2009). A Survey of Executive Coaching Practices. Personnel Psychology , 62 (2), 361-404.<br />Brand, J. E. (2004). Enduring Effects of Job Displacement on Career Outcomes. Doctoral dissertation . University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Sociology.<br />Brand, J. E., Levy, B. R., & Gallo, W. T. (2008). Effects of Layoffs and Plant Closings on Subsequent Depresson Among Older Workers. Research on Aging , 30, 701-721.<br />Chidiac, M. (2008). A Gestalt perspective of coaching: A case for being more yourself. Development and Learning in Organizations , 22, 15-16.<br />Couch, K. A. (1998). Late Life Job Displacement. The Gerontologist , 38, 7-17.<br />Deborah M. Luebbe, P. (2005). The three-way mirror of executive coaching. Union Institute and University. Union Institute and University.<br />Dooley, D., & Catalano, R. (1999). Unemployment, Disguised Unemployment, and Health: The U.S. Case. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health , 72 (s), 16-19.<br />Economic News Release: Employment Situation Summary. (2010, March 5). Retrieved March 6, 2010, from United States Department of Labor - Bureau of Labor Statistics: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm<br />Employment Situation Summary. (2010). Retrieved March 6, 2010, from United States Department of Labor: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm<br />Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (2009, August 19). Retrieved August 19, 2009, from APA Online - Ethics: http://www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html#preamble<br />Farley, R. (1996). The New American Reality: Who We Are, How We Got Here, Where We Are Going. New York, NY: Russell Sage.<br />Forum, T. E. (2008). The Executive Coaching Handbook: Principles and Guidelines for a Successful Coaching Partnership (4th ed.). The Executive Coaching Forum (TECF).<br />Fronczak, D. B. (2005). Coaching Men at Midlife. Clinical Psychology. San Francisco, CA: The California School of Professional Psychology.<br />Grant, A. M., & Cavanagh, M. J. (2007). The Goal-Focused Coaching Skills Questionnaire: Preliminary Findings. Social Behavior and Personality , 35 (6), 751-760.<br />Humanistic Psychology. (2010). Retrieved March 17, 2010, from Abraham-Maslow.com: http://www.abraham-maslow.com/m_motivation/Humanistic-Psychology.asp<br />Jarvis, P. (2006). Towards a Comprehensive Theory of Human Learning. New York, NY: Routledge.<br />Johnson, R., Mermin, G. B., & Uccello, C. E. (2005). When the Nest Egg Cracks: Financial Consequences of Health Problems, Marital Satus Changes, ad Job Layoffs at Older Ages. Center for Retirement Research. Boston College.<br />Kalleberg, A. L. (2000). Changing Contexts of Careers: Trends in Labor Market Structures and Some Implications for Labor Force Outcomes. In A. C. Kerkhoff (Ed.), Generating Social Stratification: Toward a New Research Agenda (pp. 343-358). Boulder, CO: Westview.<br />Kessler, R. C., Turner, J. B., & House, J. S. (1988). Effects of Unemployment on Health in a Community Survey: Main, Modifying, and Mediating Effects. Journal of Social Issues , 44, 69-85.<br />Levy, F. (1995). Incomes and Income Inequality. In R. Farlery (Ed.), State of the Union: America in the 1990s (pp. 1-57). New York, NY: Russell Sage.<br />Miller, M. V., & Hoppe, S. K. (1994). Attributions for Job Termination and Psychological Distress. Human Relations , 47, 307-328.<br />Moen, F. (2009). Coaching and the effects on performance psychology. International Journal of Evidence-based Coaching and Mentoring , 7 (2).<br />Nielsen, K. (2007). GM Layoffs: Coping with Unexpected Change. Retrieved March 15, 2010, from Plus50Lifestyles.com: http://www.plus50lifestyles.com/work10.htm<br />Price, R., Choi, J. N., & Vinokur, A. D. (2002). Links in the Chain of Adversity Following Job Loss: How Financial Strain and Loss of Personal Control Lead to Depression, Impaired Functioning, and Poor Health. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology , 7, 302-312.<br />Schmitt, J. (2004). The Rise in Job Displacement, 1991-2004. Challenge , 47, 46-68.<br />Seligman, M. E. (2002). Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment. New York, NY: The Free Press: A Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.<br />Sills, J. (2009, Jul/Aug). Working Through Fear. Psychology Today , 42 (4), pp. 58-60.<br />Simon, S. N. (2009). Applying Gestalt Theory to Coaching. Gestalt Review , 13 (3), 230-241.<br />Table A-2. Employment status of the civilian population by race, sex, and age. (2010, March 5). Retrieved March 6, 2010, from United States Department of Labor - Bureau of Labor Statistics: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.t02.htm<br />Wetzel, J. R. (1995). Labor Force, Unemployment and Earnings. In R. Farley (Ed.), State of the Union: America in the 1990s (pp. 133-154). New York, NY: Russell Sage.<br />William T. Gallo, e. a. (2006). The Effect of Recurrent Involuntary Job Loss on the Depressive Symptoms of Older Workers. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health , 80, 109-116.<br />Appendix I<br />Coaching approaches – An overview<br />Humanistic perspective: this type of coaching works from a core belief in the basic goodness present and in and respect for humanity. It is founded upon existential psychology, or the realization and understanding of one’s existence and social responsibility. Humanistic theory is fostered on the principles that support Maslow’s Hierarch of Needs Theory, and provides an understandable mechanism for examining an individual’s need for conflict in order to create peace CITATION Hum10 l 1033 (Humanistic Psychology, 2010). <br />Behavior-based coaching: this approach stems from the premise that human behavior flows from a combination of affective, cognitive, behavioral, and spiritual elements. The focus is on behavior, but the whole person is addressed, as it assumes that one’s behavior is the evidence of and results from his or her experiences, perspectives, desires, beliefs and thoughts CITATION Bon09 l 1033 (Bono, Purvanova, Towler, & Peterson, 2009).<br />Adult-Development Theory: Often applied in executive coaching, this approach is based on the premise that individuals develop and mature at different rates, reaching various stages in their lives at different points and different ages. This approach is often useful with executives as it looks at one’s tendency to develop into a more complex and multi-faceted being as experiences culminate CITATION Dan05 l 1033 (Fronczak, 2005).<br />Cognitive Coaching: Grounded in cognitive therapy, this approach is based on the principle that one’s moods are strongly related to and often triggered by one’s cognitions, i.e. perceptions, mental attitudes, and beliefs. Contrasting with Freudian analysis, cognitive therapy does not focus on repressed ideas, but rather, assists the client in identifying errors in thinking that may be limiting success, and helps the client work toward finding and adopting more accurate cognitions that will result in healthier behavior patterns CITATION Moe091 l 1033 (Moen, 2009).<br />Psychoanalytically Informed Coaching: By far the most comprehensive level of coaching, this approach provides an in-depth insight into human nature, and encourages understanding an executive’s inherently complex sense of self, as well as that of the coach. This approach requires a coach to work with a client in a collaborative processes by using one’s self as an instrument of knowing and requires development of reflective insight that permits locating and interpreting self-experience generated within the coaching context and in daily life CITATION Rac l 1033 (Blass, 2010). <br />Goal-Focused Approach: This approach is based on the premise that all human behavior is a continual process of moving toward or away from mental goal representations through a process of feedback control. It assumes a process of self-regulation and an ability to direct interpersonal and intrapersonal resources toward attainment of goals CITATION Ban78 l 1033 (Bandera, 1978). This approach is being used increasingly by coaches to help client’s set and reach personal and workplace goals CITATION Gra07 l 1033 (Grant & Cavanagh, 2007).<br />Adult Learning Approach: This approach is based on the principles of andragogy, the art and science of how adults learn. As adults learn differently than children, this includes such theories as transformative learning, reflective practice, and experiential learning. Moreover, it considers learning styles from an adult perspective, and correlates them with such adult-relevant factors as life-course development and values and motivation CITATION Pet06 l 1033 (Jarvis, 2006).<br />Positive Psychology: The intent and focus of positive psychology is to develop sound theories of optimal functioning and to find empirically supported ways to improve lives of ordinary and extraordinary people CITATION Mar02 l 1033 (Seligman, 2002). This approach is based on emerging trends in psychology study the value of positive emotion, flow, hope therapy, and strengths utilization. This differs from traditional psychology theory and practice as it shifts attention away from pathology and pain and refocuses it on clear-eyed concentration on strength, vision, and dreams CITATION Ano08 l 1033 (Anonymous, 2008).<br />Gestalt Theory: Although historically applied to psychotherapy for individuals, Gestalt theory offers a theoretical approach to learning. Gestalt principles explore and define the relationship between the self and environment, and include field theory, ground relativity, paradoxical change, experiment, cycle of experience, and inter-personal contact. Gestalt theory advocates creative choice, optimism, and the premise that growth and development result from contact and awareness CITATION Sim091 l 1033 (Simon, 2009).<br />Appendix II<br />CES-D QuestionnaireCES-D Questionnaire     CES-D ScoreMarch 13, 201048 0 to 6098 %98 %98 %98 %98 %98 %<br />Here is your score on the CES-D Questionnaire, which measures symptoms of depression, for comparison to the various happiness measures.<br />This test is scored so that higher scores indicate greater symptoms of depression. Before interpreting your score, you should know that a high score is not the same thing as a diagnosis of depression. Some people who get high scores are not in fact depressed, and people with low scores can still have a "depressive disorder." A full-blown diagnosis of depression depends on other things, such as how long your symptoms have lasted and whether they have some primary source other than depression. A diagnosis can be made only after a thorough interview with a qualified psychologist or psychiatrist.<br />If you scored from 0 to 9, you are in the nondepressed range, below the mean of American adults; 10 to 15 puts you in the mildly depressed range; and 16 to 24 puts you in the moderately depressed range. If you scored over 24, you are in the severely depressed range.<br />If you scored in the severely depressed range, please seek treatment. If you believe that you would kill yourself if you had a chance, regardless of the rest of your answers, please see a mental health professional right away. If you scored in the moderately depressed range (and you do not often think about killing yourself), take the test again in two weeks. If you still score in that range, we recommend making an appointment with a mental health professional.<br />Appendix III<br />Work-Life Questionnaire <br />Here are your scores on the Work-Life Survey. For how to interpret your scores, see the book Authentic Happiness.<br />   Work-Life Questionnaire      It's a JobMarch 13, 20103 0 to 3100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %   Work-Life Questionnaire      It's a CareerMarch 13, 20103 0 to 3100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %100 %   Work-Life Questionnaire      It's a CallingMarch 13, 20100 0 to 334 %33 %33 %57 %40 %31 %   Work-Life Questionnaire      Satisfaction with JobMarch 13, 20102 1 to 712 %13 %12 %18 %13 %7 %<br />ppendix IV<br />Optimism TestHere are your scores on the Optimism Test. The following two sections will explain the two basic dimensions of optimism. There are two crucial dimensions to your explanatory style: permanence and pervasiveness.For further information see the book Authentic Happiness.Permanence-Good EventsPeople who believe good events have a permanent cause are more optimistic than those who believe they have temporary causes.If your score is 7 or 8, you are very optimistic about the likelihood of good events continuing; 6, moderately optimistic; 4 or 5, average; 3, moderately pessimistic; and 0, 1, or 2, very pessimistic.   Optimism Test     Permanent - Good EventsMarch 13, 20102 0 to 810 %10 %9 %12 %10 %9 %<br />Permanence-Bad EventsPeople who give up easily believe the causes of the bad events that happen to them are permanent, the bad events will persist, are always going to be there to affect their lives. People who resist helplessness believe the causes of bad events are temporary. If your score is 0-1, you are very optimistic on this dimension; 2 or 3, moderately optimistic; 4 average, 5 or 6 quite pessimistic; and if you got a 7 or 8 you are very pessimistic.Optimism Test     Permanent - Bad EventsMarch 13, 20103 8 to 068 %65 %72 %65 %65 %69 %<br />Pervasiveness-Good EventsThe optimist believes good events will enhance everything he does, while the pessimist believes good events are caused by specific factors.If your score is 7 or 8, you are very optimistic; 6, moderately optimistic; 4 or 5, average; 3, moderately pessimistic; and 0, 1, or 2, very pessimistic    Optimism Test     Pervasive - Good EventsMarch 13, 20100 0 to 81 %2 %1 %1 %1 %3 %<br />Pervasiveness-Bad EventsPeople who make universal (pessimistic) explanations for their failures give up on everything when a failure strikes in one area. People who make specific (optimistic) explanations may become helpless in that one part of their lives, yet march stalwartly on in others. If your score is 0-1, you are very optimistic on this dimension; 2 or 3, moderately so; 4 average, 5 or 6 quite pessimistic; and if you got a 7 or 8 very pessimistic   Optimism Test     Pervasive - Bad EventsMarch 13, 20104 8 to 083 %85 %88 %80 %79 %87 %<br />HopefulnessWhether or not we have hope depends on the two dimensions of Permanence and Pervasiveness taken together. Finding permanent and universal causes of good events along with temporary and specific causes for misfortune is the art of hope finding permanent and universal causes for misfortune and temporary and specific causes of good events is the practice of despair.If your score is 10 to 16, you are extraordinarily hopeful; 6 to 9, moderately hopeful; from 1 to 5, average, from minus 5 to 0, moderately hopeless; and below minus 5, severely hopeless.   Optimism Test     HopefulnessMarch 13, 2010-5 -16 to +163 %4 %2 %4 %3 %4 %<br />Appendix V<br />Fordyce Emotions Questionnaire<br />Average HappinessThe average score (out of 10) is 6.92<br />Percent of Time HappyThe average score on time is happy, 54.13 percent; unhappy, 20.44; and neutral, 25.43<br />   Fordyce Emotions Questionnaire      Average HappinessMarch 13, 20104 0 to 1020 %24 %20 %23 %20 %15 %<br />  Fordyce Emotions Questionnaire     Percent of Time HappyMarch 13, 20101080100 to 10010%13%11%12%9%9%<br />Appendix VI<br />VIA Survey of Character StrengthsHere are your scores on the VIA Survey of Character Strengths. For how to interpret and use your scores, see the book Authentic Happiness. The ranking of the strengths reflects your overall ratings of yourself on the 24 strengths in the survey, how much of each strength you possess. Your top five, especially those marked as Signature Strengths, are the ones to pay attention to and find ways to use more often.Your Top Strength Creativity, ingenuity, and originalityThinking of new ways to do things is a crucial part of who you are. You are never content with doing something the conventional way if a better way is possible.Your Second Strength Appreciation of beauty and excellenceYou notice and appreciate beauty, excellence, and/or skilled performance in all domains of life, from nature to art to mathematics to science to everyday experience.Your Third Strength Humor and playfulnessYou like to laugh and tease. Bringing smiles to other people is important to you. You try to see the light side of all situations.Your Fourth Strength Kindness and generosityYou are kind and generous to others, and you are never too busy to do a favor. You enjoy doing good deeds for others, even if you do not know them well.Your Fifth Strength Bravery and valorYou are a courageous person who does not shrink from threat, challenge, difficulty, or pain. You speak up for what is right even if there is opposition. You act on your convictions.Strength#6 Honesty, authenticity, and genuinenessYou are an honest person, not only by speaking the truth but by living your life in a genuine and authentic way. You are down to earth and without pretense; you are a "real" person.Strength#7 Curiosity and interest in the worldYou are curious about everything. You are always asking questions, and you find all subjects and topics fascinating. You like exploration and discovery.Strength#8 Judgment, critical thinking, and open-mindednessThinking things through and examining them from all sides are important aspects of who you are. You do not jump to conclusions, and you rely only on solid evidence to make your decisions. You are able to change your mind.Strength#9 Love of learningYou love learning new things, whether in a class or on your own. You have always loved school, reading, and museums-anywhere and everywhere there is an opportunity to learn.Strength#10 GratitudeYou are aware of the good things that happen to you, and you never take them for granted. Your friends and family members know that you are a grateful person because you always take the time to express your thanks.Strength#11 Perspective (wisdom)Although you may not think of yourself as wise, your friends hold this view of you. They value your perspective on matters and turn to you for advice. You have a way of looking at the world that makes sense to others and to yourself.Strength#12 Citizenship, teamwork, and loyaltyYou excel as a member of a group. You are a loyal and dedicated teammate, you always do your share, and you work hard for the success of your group.Strength#13LeadershipYou excel at the tasks of leadership: encouraging a group to get things done and preserving harmony within the group by making everyone feel included. You do a good job organizing activities and seeing that they happen.Strength#14 Social intelligenceYou are aware of the motives and feelings of other people. You know what to do to fit in to different social situations, and you know what to do to put others at ease.<br />Strength#15 Fairness, equity, and justiceTreating all people fairly is one of your abiding principles. You do not let your personal feelings bias your decisions about other people. You give everyone a chance.Strength#16 Zest, enthusiasm, and energyRegardless of what you do, you approach it with excitement and energy. You never do anything halfway or halfheartedly. For you, life is an adventure.Strength#17 Capacity to love and be lovedYou value close relations with others, in particular those in which sharing and caring are reciprocated. The people to whom you feel most close are the same people who feel most close to you.Strength#18 Forgiveness and mercyYou forgive those who have done you wrong. You always give people a second chance. Your guiding principle is mercy and not revenge.Strength#19 Industry, diligence, and perseveranceYou work hard to finish what you start. No matter the project, you "get it out the door" in timely fashion. You do not get distracted when you work, and you take satisfaction in completing tasks.Strength#20 Caution, prudence, and discretionYou are a careful person, and your choices are consistently prudent ones. You do not say or do things that you might later regret.Strength#21 Hope, optimism, and future-mindednessYou expect the best in the future, and you work to achieve it. You believe that the future is something that you can control.Strength#22 Modesty and humilityYou do not seek the spotlight, preferring to let your accomplishments speak for themselves. You do not regard yourself as special, and others recognize and value your modestyStrength#23 Self-control and self-regulationYou self-consciously regulate what you feel and what you do. You are a disciplined person. You are in control of your appetites and your emotions, not vice versa.Strength#24 Spirituality, sense of purpose, and faithYou have strong and coherent beliefs about the higher purpose and meaning of the universe. You know where you fit in the larger scheme. Your beliefs shape your actions and are a source of comfort to you.<br />Appendix VII<br />Kiersey Temperament Sorter II<br />My personality type: Idealist.Idealists as a temperament, are passionately concerned with personal growth and development. Idealists strive to discover who they are and how they can become their best possible self--always this quest for self-knowledge and self-improvement drives their imagination. And they want to help others make the journey. Idealists are naturally drawn to working with people, and whether in education or counseling, in social services or personnel work, in journalism or the ministry, they are gifted at helping others find their way in life, often inspiring them to grow as individuals and to fulfill their potentials.Idealists are enthusiastic, they trust their intuition, yearn for romance, seek their true self, prize meaningful relationships, and dream of attaining wisdom. Idealists pride themselves on being loving, kindhearted, and authentic. Idealists tend to be giving, trusting, spiritual, and they are focused on personal journeys and human potentials. Idealists make intense mates, nurturing parents, and inspirational leaders. Idealists are relatively rare, making up no more than 15 to 20 percent of the population. But their ability to inspire people with their enthusiasm and their idealism has given them influence far beyond their numbers.<br />