Autism Spectrum DisorderAutism Spectrum Disorder
in the Classroomin the Classroom
Melissa B. KimbleMelissa B. Kimble
Sprin...
Why this topic?Why this topic?
 Through the movie Rain Man, there are
many misconceptions about “autism”.
 Diagnosis of “a...
Overview #1Overview #1
 Background information
 Characteristics of children with ASD
 Why inclusion of children with ASD?
Overview #2Overview #2
 Educational Strategies
• Children with Autistic Disorder
• TEACCH
• PECS
 Educational Strategies
–...
Autism Spectrum DisorderAutism Spectrum Disorder
(ASD)(ASD)
According to the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (2...
Three Common ASDsThree Common ASDs
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Pervasive Developmental
Disorder (PDD NOS) Autistic Diso...
Pervasive DevelopmentalPervasive Developmental
Disorder not otherwiseDisorder not otherwise
specified (PDD NOS)specified (...
Autistic DisorderAutistic Disorder
 always present before 3 years of age
 speech and social interaction regression,
usuall...
Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome
 referred to as a higher-functioning milder form
of autism
 less language difficult...
Who does if affect?Who does if affect?
 According to the CDC’s Autism and
Developmental Disabilities Monitoring
(ADDM) Net...
Causes, Cures andCauses, Cures and
TreatmentsTreatments
 NO known cause
 NO known cure
 enzyme therapy and gluten free/cas...
Characteristics of ASDsCharacteristics of ASDs
 broad range of communication,
socialization and behaviors
 different level...
Characteristics of ChildrenCharacteristics of Children
with Autistic Disorderwith Autistic Disorder
 completely non-verbal...
(Doyle, 2003)
Characteristics of ChildrenCharacteristics of Children
with Asperger’s Syndromewith Asperger’s Syndrome
 no ...
Why Inclusion of ChildrenWhy Inclusion of Children
with ASD?with ASD?
 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
• right...
Educational Strategies forEducational Strategies for
Students with ASDStudents with ASD
 no child learns the same
 instruc...
Educational Strategies -Educational Strategies -
Autistic DisorderAutistic Disorder
 may seem to be an overwhelming
unatta...
Educational Strategies -Educational Strategies -
Autistic DisorderAutistic Disorder
 Treatment and Education of Autistic a...
TEACCHTEACCH
Physical EnvironmentPhysical Environment
 Limit visual distractions
• paint in muted colors
• limit amount of...
TEEACHTEEACH
Visual SchedulesVisual Schedules
 help address the child’s difficulty with sequential
memory and organization...
TEEACHTEEACH
Visual SchedulesVisual Schedules
 use a “first-then” card
 use sectioned schedule to allow child to move
item...
TEEACHTEEACH
Teaching Methods #1Teaching Methods #1
 Work Stations
• helps students
• stay on task
• complete their work
•...
TEEACHTEEACH
Teaching Methods #2Teaching Methods #2
 Visual instructions
• detailed to help student to complete a
task in ...
The Picture ExchangeThe Picture Exchange
Communication System (PECS)Communication System (PECS)
 developed by Andrew Bondy...
PECS – Phase IPECS – Phase I
Basic ExchangeBasic Exchange
 first identify the wants of the child that they would
be willin...
PECS – Phase IIPECS – Phase II
Distance and PersistenceDistance and Persistence
 child must be making spontaneous requests...
PECS – Phase IIIPECS – Phase III
Discrimination TrainingDiscrimination Training
 more symbols are given to use from
• numb...
PECS – Phase IVPECS – Phase IV
Sentence BuildingSentence Building
 child has achieved making requests for different
items,...
PECS – Phase VPECS – Phase V
Extension ofExtension of
Sentence BuildingSentence Building
 builds on Phase IV
 start adding...
PECS – Phase VIPECS – Phase VI
Spontaneous andSpontaneous and
Responsive CommentingResponsive Commenting
 use of pictures ...
Educational Strategies –Educational Strategies –
Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome
 environment
 schedules
 instructi...
Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome
EnvironmentEnvironment
 needs minimal visual and auditory
distractions
 established...
Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome
SchedulesSchedules
 can use daily, weekly, monthly and activity
 allows them to kno...
Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome
Instructional Strategies #1Instructional Strategies #1
 highlight most important in...
Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome
Instructional Strategies #2Instructional Strategies #2
 prepare students
• give par...
Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome
Instructional Strategies #3Instructional Strategies #3
 use graphic and visual orga...
Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome
Instructional Strategies #4Instructional Strategies #4
 increase time on task
• use...
Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome
Instructional Strategies #5Instructional Strategies #5
 prepare for
instructional a...
Useful Website #1Useful Website #1
 Autism: Models and Classroom Instruction: Intervention Models:
The Picture Exchange Co...
Useful Website #2Useful Website #2
 Autism Spectrum Disorders Overview
• http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/overview.htm
• T...
Useful Website #3Useful Website #3
 Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
• http://www.newhorizons.org/spne...
Useful Website #4Useful Website #4
 Red Flags for Classroom Teachers: Identifying Students Who
May Have Features of an Aut...
Useful Website #5Useful Website #5
 Teaching Children with Autism: Visual Support: PECs
• http://www.polyxo.com/visualsupp...
Useful Website #6Useful Website #6
 Structured Teaching: Strategies for Supporting Students
with Autism?
• http://www.spec...
Additional WebsitesAdditional Websites
 http://www.unc.edu/~denson/6/autism.html
 http://www.wcs.edu/bhs/parents/autism_ne...
Useful Print Resources #1Useful Print Resources #1
 Asperger Syndrome and Six Strategies for Success
• Linn, A., & Myles, ...
Useful Print Resources #2Useful Print Resources #2
 Instructional Management Tips for Teachers of Students
with Autism Spe...
Useful Print Resources #3Useful Print Resources #3
 Provide Structure for Children With Learning and Behavior
Problems
• S...
ConclusionConclusion
 Children with ASDs have…
• a broad range of characteristics and levels of
functioning
• the right to...
References #1References #1
Autism: Models and Classroom Instruction: Intervention Models: The Picture
Exchange Communicati...
References #2References #2
Doyle, Barbara T. (2003). Red Flags for Classroom Teachers: Identifying
Students Who May Have F...
References #3References #3
Marks, Susan U., Shaw-Hegwer, Jennifer, Schrader, Carl, Longaker, Tricia,
Peters, Iris, Powers,...
References #4References #4
Written by Susan Stokes under contract with CESA 7 and funded by a
discretionary grant from the...
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Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Classroom

  1. 1. Autism Spectrum DisorderAutism Spectrum Disorder in the Classroomin the Classroom Melissa B. KimbleMelissa B. Kimble Spring 2008Spring 2008
  2. 2. Why this topic?Why this topic? Through the movie Rain Man, there are many misconceptions about “autism”. Diagnosis of “autism” is on the raise in the United States. Training is needed for educators on how to teach these special children.
  3. 3. Overview #1Overview #1 Background information Characteristics of children with ASD Why inclusion of children with ASD?
  4. 4. Overview #2Overview #2 Educational Strategies • Children with Autistic Disorder • TEACCH • PECS Educational Strategies – Children with Asperger’s Syndrome Useful resources
  5. 5. Autism Spectrum DisorderAutism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)(ASD) According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007), “ASD’s are developmental disabilities that cause substantial impairments in social interaction and communication and the presence of unusual behaviors and interests (n.p.)
  6. 6. Three Common ASDsThree Common ASDs Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD NOS) Autistic Disorder Asperger’s Syndrome
  7. 7. Pervasive DevelopmentalPervasive Developmental Disorder not otherwiseDisorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS)specified (PDD NOS) have severe impairment but do not meet the criteria set for any other autistic diagnosis diagnosis usually due to the age of onset or the combination of autistic features
  8. 8. Autistic DisorderAutistic Disorder always present before 3 years of age speech and social interaction regression, usually around 18 months of age have severe impairment in speech, communication, or social interaction may be completely non-verbal and “in their own world”
  9. 9. Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome referred to as a higher-functioning milder form of autism less language difficulties problems with appropriate speech and communication development social interaction difficulties can have very high IQs, do well academically, have a superior memory, yet lack the skills to care for themselves
  10. 10. Who does if affect?Who does if affect? According to the CDC’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network in 2007, 1 in 150 8-year old children across the US. does not discriminate ethnically, racially or economically boys – four times more likely than girls
  11. 11. Causes, Cures andCauses, Cures and TreatmentsTreatments NO known cause NO known cure enzyme therapy and gluten free/casein free diets have shown positive results medications for co-occurring disorders
  12. 12. Characteristics of ASDsCharacteristics of ASDs broad range of communication, socialization and behaviors different levels of functioning no two children alike
  13. 13. Characteristics of ChildrenCharacteristics of Children with Autistic Disorderwith Autistic Disorder completely non-verbal minimum verbal with echolalia lack of eye contact repetitive routines screaming violent behaviors defiant behaviors obsessed with order arm/hand flapping rocking no fear of danger climbing on top of or hiding under items refusal to stay in personal space seems to live in a fantasy world
  14. 14. (Doyle, 2003) Characteristics of ChildrenCharacteristics of Children with Asperger’s Syndromewith Asperger’s Syndrome no or few friends difficulty in group settings does not understand effect of their behavior on others appears egocentric uncaring or self-absorbed interests seem restricted and repetitive play appears scripted limited understanding of make- believe very bright, but socially inept under-sensitive to pain selective hearing difficulty with unexpected changes in environment does not respond with non-verbal cues socially interacts better with adults fine and/or gross motor difficulties talks about the same topic self-isolates very sensitive to sensory stimuli
  15. 15. Why Inclusion of ChildrenWhy Inclusion of Children with ASD?with ASD? Individuals with Disabilities Education Act • right to free appropriate public education • least restrictive environment No Child Left Behind • 2013-2014 all students must be “proficient” in math and reading Socialization • form relationships • understand the feelings of others
  16. 16. Educational Strategies forEducational Strategies for Students with ASDStudents with ASD no child learns the same instructional methods need to be flexible information and advice available to educators who want to be successful
  17. 17. Educational Strategies -Educational Strategies - Autistic DisorderAutistic Disorder may seem to be an overwhelming unattainable endeavor lack of communication skills makes the educator’s job more difficult important to not take the child’s actions or indifferences personally
  18. 18. Educational Strategies -Educational Strategies - Autistic DisorderAutistic Disorder Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) • physical environment • visual schedules • teaching methods The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) • six phases
  19. 19. TEACCHTEACCH Physical EnvironmentPhysical Environment Limit visual distractions • paint in muted colors • limit amount of visual clutter • cover shelves of classroom materials • store unneeded equipment or materials in another area • use natural lighting from windows • reduce fluorescent lighting • place student work areas on the wall or in the corner Limit auditory distractions • use more carpet • have lowered ceilings • turn off or mute P.A. system • use acoustical tiles • use headphones with electronic equipment
  20. 20. TEEACHTEEACH Visual SchedulesVisual Schedules help address the child’s difficulty with sequential memory and organization of time assist children with language comprehension provide structure to lessen their anxiety and possible related behaviors help the child to maneuver throughout the day provide opportunity for social engagement add in decision making gives sense of freedom while the teacher is still in control of overall situation
  21. 21. TEEACHTEEACH Visual SchedulesVisual Schedules use a “first-then” card use sectioned schedule to allow child to move items as needed i.e. “to do”, “in progress”, “finished”
  22. 22. TEEACHTEEACH Teaching Methods #1Teaching Methods #1 Work Stations • helps students • stay on task • complete their work • provides an incentive for completing work
  23. 23. TEEACHTEEACH Teaching Methods #2Teaching Methods #2 Visual instructions • detailed to help student to complete a task in the proper order • school work and/or life skills • leads to independence
  24. 24. The Picture ExchangeThe Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)Communication System (PECS) developed by Andrew Bondy and Lori Frost to help children with autism acquire functional communication skills and initiate communication Wallin (2004) informs that this system is “appropriate for individuals who do not use speech or who may speak with limited effectiveness”. six phases in the system • must be taught in order • student can work on two phases at a time
  25. 25. PECS – Phase IPECS – Phase I Basic ExchangeBasic Exchange first identify the wants of the child that they would be willing to make a request for use only one symbol at a time use two adults • one to entice the child with object wanted • one to hand the child the picture needed for exchange object is given in exchange for the picture • proper correspondence is needed • i.e. “Oh, you want a _______” goal: spontaneous request by using a picture symbol resist saying “What do you want?”
  26. 26. PECS – Phase IIPECS – Phase II Distance and PersistenceDistance and Persistence child must be making spontaneous requests of a single adult expansion of vocabulary of symbols still only use one symbol at a time goal: make requests from further distances, different rooms and variety of people
  27. 27. PECS – Phase IIIPECS – Phase III Discrimination TrainingDiscrimination Training more symbols are given to use from • number can range for two to pages of symbols discriminates between symbols, makes choices about wants and about activities start off by asking “What do you want?” but fade use of phrase as student advances goal: make appropriate choices in response to questions and other stimuli
  28. 28. PECS – Phase IVPECS – Phase IV Sentence BuildingSentence Building child has achieved making requests for different items, to different people, in multiple settings teach using sentence strips to make longer requests an “I want’ picture in combination with another card in needed on the sentence strip in order to exchange for the item or activity goal: create sentences using pictures on a sentence strip
  29. 29. PECS – Phase VPECS – Phase V Extension ofExtension of Sentence BuildingSentence Building builds on Phase IV start adding in adjectives and other words to better describe items or activities • i.e. “I want ball.” to “I want blue ball.” goal: to refine requests made by using more detailed wording of sentences
  30. 30. PECS – Phase VIPECS – Phase VI Spontaneous andSpontaneous and Responsive CommentingResponsive Commenting use of pictures such as: “I see”, “I feel”, “I hear”, “I smell” goal: for student to comment on aspects of their environment
  31. 31. Educational Strategies –Educational Strategies – Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome environment schedules instructional strategies
  32. 32. Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome EnvironmentEnvironment needs minimal visual and auditory distractions established clear physical and visual boundaries organized classroom • remove clutter • use labels
  33. 33. Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome SchedulesSchedules can use daily, weekly, monthly and activity allows them to know what is expected • when it will happen and the order helps them stay on task • important not to deviate • any changes need to be made before giving to student use a “to do” list use “start”, “finish later” and/or “finish previous” • to help with stopping an activity before finished
  34. 34. Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome Instructional Strategies #1Instructional Strategies #1 highlight most important information • give the student flash cards • pre-teach with a take home summary sheet • use step-by-step list of instructions allow alternate modes of completing work • less written output • lists instead of essays • use class notes from peer • portable keyboarding device • Audio- or videotaping to show understanding of concept
  35. 35. Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome Instructional Strategies #2Instructional Strategies #2 prepare students • give parents outline of upcoming curriculum • i.e. books, video over book • send home extra set of textbooks • have students read about topic to be discussed ahead of time at home
  36. 36. Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome Instructional Strategies #3Instructional Strategies #3 use graphic and visual organizers • table with major headings • outline to fill-in blanks during lecture • timeline of key chronological ideas use mnemonic devices • have student practice visualization of key events • use rhythms or sayings • Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally – order of operations
  37. 37. Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome Instructional Strategies #4Instructional Strategies #4 increase time on task • use white board to track assignments • use work baskets • provide non verbal cues to refocus student maximize attending during whole-class instruction • give student a list of words to listen for in the lecture • relate material to student’s preoccupations • provide a duplicate of material being read aloud
  38. 38. Asperger’s SyndromeAsperger’s Syndrome Instructional Strategies #5Instructional Strategies #5 prepare for instructional and classroom transitions • provide specific beginning and ending points • use picture or written schedules Melissa’s Schedule 7:30-7:45 morning work 7:45-9:30 reading 9:30-9:45 restroom break 9:45-11:00 math 11:00-11:15 restroom break 11:15-11:45 lunch 11:45-12:15 recess
  39. 39. Useful Website #1Useful Website #1 Autism: Models and Classroom Instruction: Intervention Models: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) • http://www.emstac.org/registered/topics/autism/models/pecs.htm • The website discusses the TEEACH method and PEC system. It gives useful links to more detailed websites. The page also includes provides great definitions and answers to frequently asked questions. • This information can be beneficial to educators, parents, extended family members, daycare employees, community/youth leaders and anyone who has contact with a person with an ASDs.
  40. 40. Useful Website #2Useful Website #2 Autism Spectrum Disorders Overview • http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/overview.htm • This website gives summarized information about ASDs. It defines the disorder, tells who if affects, explains when it is detected and the causes. • This information can be beneficial to educators, parents, extended family members, daycare employees, community/youth leaders and anyone who has contact with a person with an ASDs.
  41. 41. Useful Website #3Useful Website #3 Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders • http://www.newhorizons.org/spneeds/autism/daily.htm • The author gives an abbreviated history, then proceeds to explain the propose of inclusion. • This information can be beneficial to educators, parents, extended family members, daycare employees, community/youth leaders and anyone who has contact with a person with an ASDs.
  42. 42. Useful Website #4Useful Website #4 Red Flags for Classroom Teachers: Identifying Students Who May Have Features of an Autism Spectrum Disorder • http://www.newhorizons.org/spneeds/autism/doyle_identifying.htm • This website offers characteristics to look for in students. It reiterates the importance of an early diagnosis. Although an educator should never try to diagnosis or label a child, it is still important to be proactive in getting children the help they need. • This information can be beneficial to educators, parents, extended family members, daycare employees, community/youth leaders and anyone who has contact with a person with an ASDs.
  43. 43. Useful Website #5Useful Website #5 Teaching Children with Autism: Visual Support: PECs • http://www.polyxo.com/visualsupport/pecs.html • This website gives detailed information about the phases in the PEC system. • This information can be beneficial to educators, parents, extended family members, daycare employees, community/youth leaders and anyone who has contact with a person with an ASDs.
  44. 44. Useful Website #6Useful Website #6 Structured Teaching: Strategies for Supporting Students with Autism? • http://www.specialed.us/autism/structure/str10.htm • This website defines structured teaching. It also explains each component in great detail and gives wonderful examples. • This information can be beneficial to educators, parents, extended family members and daycare employees.
  45. 45. Additional WebsitesAdditional Websites http://www.unc.edu/~denson/6/autism.html http://www.wcs.edu/bhs/parents/autism_newsletter.pdf http://www.cec.sped.org/AM/Template.cfm? Section=Home&Template=/templates/CECHomePage.cfm http://www.autismeducation.net/index.htm http://www.teacch.com/
  46. 46. Useful Print Resources #1Useful Print Resources #1 Asperger Syndrome and Six Strategies for Success • Linn, A., & Myles, B. • This article defines Asperger’s Syndrome and provides six strategies to help address the student’s needs. • SODA (Stop, Observe, Deliberate, Act) • This information can be beneficial to educators, parents, extended family members, daycare employees, youth leaders and anyone who has contact with a person with an ASDs.
  47. 47. Useful Print Resources #2Useful Print Resources #2 Instructional Management Tips for Teachers of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) • Marks, Susan U., Shaw-Hegwer, Jennifer, Schrader, Carl, Longaker, Tricia, Peters, Iris, Powers, Fran, Levine, Mark • This article outlines some instructional management techniques for general education teachers of children with ASD (mainly Asperger’s). It provides detailed descriptions and applicable ideas. • Although others may benefit from reading, this article is best suited for educators.
  48. 48. Useful Print Resources #3Useful Print Resources #3 Provide Structure for Children With Learning and Behavior Problems • Swanson, Terri C. • This article provides some great examples of how to use the environment, schedules, activities, routines and choices to help children with ASD be successful. • Although others may benefit from reading, this article is best suited for educators.
  49. 49. ConclusionConclusion Children with ASDs have… • a broad range of characteristics and levels of functioning • the right to an appropriate public education • the ability to be successful with the correct support
  50. 50. References #1References #1 Autism: Models and Classroom Instruction: Intervention Models: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). EMSTAC. Retrieved February 20, 2008 from http://www.emstac.org/registered/topics/autism/models/pecs.htm Autism Spectrum Disorders Overview. (2007, February 9). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved February 23, 2008 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/overview.htm Daily, Melissa. (2005). Inclusion of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. New Horizons for Learning. Retrieved February 20, 2008 from http://www.newhorizons.org/spneeds/autism/daily.htm
  51. 51. References #2References #2 Doyle, Barbara T. (2003). Red Flags for Classroom Teachers: Identifying Students Who May Have Features of an Autism Spectrum Disorder. New Horizons for Learning. Retrieved February 20, 2008 from http://www.newhorizons.org/spneeds/autism/doyle_identifying.htm Grossmann, M.D., Rami. (2008). PDD/Autism: A Clear Practical Approach for the Parents. Childbrain. Retrieved February 20, 2008 from http://www.childbrain.com/pdd.shtml Linn, A., & Myles, B. (2004, Fall). Asperger Syndrome and Six Strategies for Success. Beyond Behavior. Retrieved February 19, 2008, from Education Research Complete Database.
  52. 52. References #3References #3 Marks, Susan U., Shaw-Hegwer, Jennifer, Schrader, Carl, Longaker, Tricia, Peters, Iris, Powers, Fran, Levine, Mark. (2003, March/April). Instructional Management Tips for Teachers of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). TEACHING Exceptional Children. 35(4), 50-54. Retrieved February 17, 2008, from Education Research Complete datebase. Swanson, Terri C. (2005, January). Provide Structure for Children With Learning and Behavior Problems. Intervention in School & Clinic. (40)3, 182- 187. Retrieved February 19, 2008, from Education Research Complete database. Wallin, Jason M. (2004). Teaching Children with Autism: Visual Support: PECs. Retrieved February 24, 2008, from http://www.polyxo.com/visualsupport/pecs.html
  53. 53. References #4References #4 Written by Susan Stokes under contract with CESA 7 and funded by a discretionary grant from the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. (n.d.) Structured Teaching: Strategies for Supporting Students with Autism? CESA #7. Retrieved February 24, 2008 from http://www.specialed.us/autism/structure/str10.htm
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