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Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
Autism
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Autism

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  • 1. AutismAutism Eric ReissEric Reiss Annotated BibliographyAnnotated Bibliography GED 641BGED 641B Professor DoyleProfessor Doyle 10/29/0310/29/03
  • 2. Turnbull, Turnbull, Shank, SmithTurnbull, Turnbull, Shank, Smith Exceptional LivesExceptional Lives.. Autism Ch. 10 pp 282-287Autism Ch. 10 pp 282-287  Referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)  Includes five disorders 1) Autistic Disorder 2) Rett’s Disorder 3) Childhood Disintegrative Disorder 4) Asperger’s Disorder 5) Pervasive Development Disorder Not Otherwise Specified  Symptoms  Poor Language Skills  Repetitive Behavior  Self-Injurious Behavior  Atypical Social Development  Sensory and Movement Disorders
  • 3. AUTISM DefinedAUTISM Defined IDEAIDEA(34 C.F.R., Part 300, 300.7[b] [1])(34 C.F.R., Part 300, 300.7[b] [1]) • Autism is a developmental disability that significantly affects a student’s verbal and nonverbal communication, social interactions, and education performance. It is generally evident before age 3. • Characteristics include engagement in repetitive activities & stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or changes in daily routines, & unusual responses to sensory experiences.
  • 4. AUTISM DefinedAUTISM Defined VermontVermont • Autism means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non verbal communication and social interactions, generally evident before the age of 3. • Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities & stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or changes in daily routines, & unusual responses to sensory experiences. • The term does not apply if a child’s educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance as defined in Rule 2362.1(h). • THE EPT shall obtain an opinion of a licensed physician as to the existence of autism and its effect on the student’s ability to function. •
  • 5. Jeremy JonesJeremy Jones  Higher Functioning young man with Autistism  Lives in Inner City of Kansas City  Loves Reading Maps  Obsessive about materials, rules of behavior, clothes, and toiletries  Rocks powerfully in furniture to test breaking point  Fixates on oscillating fans  Surfs TV in search of weather reports  Aloof from peers at school  Exhibits mild aggression  Needs familiar environment and routine
  • 6. No author,No author, Ascribe Higher Education News Service.Ascribe Higher Education News Service. San Diego StateSan Diego State University Researcher Paints Clearer Picture of Autism DevelopmentUniversity Researcher Paints Clearer Picture of Autism Development October 22, 2003 pp. N/AOctober 22, 2003 pp. N/A  Research conducted by Ralph Axel-Mueller finds:  Early-developing functions, such as moving fingers, uses up more brain resources in autistic children and “crowds out” later developing skills such as language.  Autism is likely based on elementary abnormalities that occur early in child’s development  Patients with autism exhibit a “scattering of brain functions.” i.e. brain activity occurs in areas not normally involved in simple tasks.  During development, simple tasks require more brain tissue  As a result, these parts of brain are not available for developing more complex functions.
  • 7. Hollander, Eric; Phillips, Ann T.; Yeh, Chin-Chin.Hollander, Eric; Phillips, Ann T.; Yeh, Chin-Chin. The LancetThe Lancet Targeted treatments for symptom domains in child andTargeted treatments for symptom domains in child and adolescent autismadolescent autism August 30, 2003 v362 i9385 p732August 30, 2003 v362 i9385 p732  Pharmacological Treatments for Autism  No Drugs are developed exclusively for autism  Drug treatment consists of prescribing drugs borrowed from the treatment of other disorders with overlapping symptoms  Certain drugs are useful in reduction of repetitive behaviors and mood disorders (serotonin-reuptake inhibitors)  A combination of drug and behavioral intervention can be complementary and effective  Where symptoms exist only in certain environments, behavioral intervention is more appropriate  With a history of unsuccessful behavioral intervention, drug intervention may be appropriate  For children, only severe cases, like severe aggression, should enter into drug trials.
  • 8. Behavioral TreatmentsBehavioral Treatments  T.E.A.C.C.H. Model  Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children  When used in residential treatment of adults, found a decrease in difficult behaviors over time  However, there was no difference in the acquisition of skills More on this model in the instructional practices section of the bibliography
  • 9. Curran, Laura Kresch; Newschaffer, Craig J.Curran, Laura Kresch; Newschaffer, Craig J. Public HealthPublic Health ReportsReports Autism: an emerging health problem.Autism: an emerging health problem. September-October 2003 v118 i5 p 393-397September-October 2003 v118 i5 p 393-397  Increasing Incidence of Autism?  Science still baffled over its etiology (genetic origin)  Diagnosis has been purely behaviorally bases  New criteria for diagnosis may account for the apparent increase in its prevalence  Currently estimated at 5-10 per 10,000  Prevalence in males is 3-4 times higher than females (unknown as to why)  1990, autism became a federally recognized category for special education classification  Since 1990, a 25% increase in number of children classified as autistic  People with autism need support to “navigate routine educational and social situations”
  • 10. Can Autism Be Prevented?Can Autism Be Prevented?  Since there is no known genetic origin, thus far no prevention methods have been developed  Since 1994, under IDEA, funding for screening and early intervention in toddlers has been available in all states
  • 11. WebsitesWebsites  www.autism-resources.com Links to other autism related websites (treatment options, personal experiences, autism organizations) FAQ’s (glossary of terms, definitions, related disorders, history, organizations, movements) Advice for parents with autistic children, includes an online mailing list (listserv) Book information for professionals, parents and children. Includes fiction and non-fiction selections
  • 12. www.autism-society.orgwww.autism-society.org  Autism Society of America (ASA) What is autism and other general information Sections on research, resources, events, news, and advocacy Includes a brief history of ASA and links to other sites Resources include: local ASA chapters, how to join or donate, parent training, vocational rehabilitation, list of special education departments, Insurance information A complete advocacy agenda with a written focus for 2003
  • 13. www.autism.comwww.autism.com  Center for the Study of Autism Categorized links to autism related websites: General Oregon Websites Related Disorders Nutrition Education/Intervention Research Web Cameras
  • 14. www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/autism.cfmwww.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/autism.cfm  National Institute of Mental Health Understanding autism (what it is, how it is caused, diagnosis, accompanying disorders, symptoms, brain functions) Treatment/Intervention (lists of different treatment methods with brief descriptions of each, education options, medication options.
  • 15. Instructional StrategiesInstructional Strategies  T.E.A.C.C.H. Highly structured visual teaching Visible daily schedules, individual work systems Predictable environment Repetitive tasks Reduce confusion and anxiety Finish task before beginning new one
  • 16. ScheduleSchedule  Focus on what you want child to do: 1. Use schedules, calendars, and lists to help sequence events 2. Use visual cues (objects, photos, icons, check lists) 3. Individualize instruction to meet child’s developmental level and skill level 4. Length of schedule based on developmental level and skill level 5. Visual Work System- what work? How much work? How does student know when work is finished? What comes next?
  • 17. Work Task ExamplesWork Task Examples  Consider location, distractions, boundaries, buzzing lights, motors, hallway sounds, visual distractions and smells 1. Visually clear what activities happen in which areas 2. Furniture and materials clearly organized 3. Locate student near teacher, facing teacher 4. In large groups, place student between two “model” students 5. Use visual barriers to limit distractions
  • 18. Communication SuggestionsCommunication Suggestions  Behavior is communication! Don’t take it personally! 1. Write behavior rules (list of what to do and what not to do) 2. Role play appropriate behavior in social situations 3. Use positive rewards 4. Use if/then pattern to aid in understanding 5. Teach student to be flexible i.e. a method to let student know there will be a change in the daily schedule or routine such as:  Let student know ahead of time when an activity will begin or end  Let student know ahead of time if you are going to touch or move the student  Don’t assume the student automatically understands you  Watch for likes, dislikes, and interests.

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