Self-help is a central component of
• Adaptive Development is age-appropriate self-
care and other behaviors used to adapt
successfully to different circumstances.
• An infant responds to different people in
various ways. He may relax and smile, or
become wary and cry at a stranger. He is
adapting his behavior to distinct situations.
• Aids, autism, FAS, FAE, and vulnerable child
syndrome each affects adaptive development.
• Cognitive behavior modification can be helpful in
teaching adaptive behavior.
• All children, not only those assessed with
disabilities or delays should receive early
intervention, pre-school special education and
related services in adapted development if
approved by parents. IDEA calls for assessment in
development of IFSP’s and delivery services.
• No one disability is linked directly to this domain. Children
with delays or conditions affecting other domains may also
have needs for adaptive development.
• Some families disregard or excuse adaptive behavior
delays, feeling that the child has more important areas in
• ECSE staff must impress upon the families the importance
adaptive behavior plays in their child's success in all areas
of development. The more proficient the child becomes in
caring for his personal needs, the less likely he will be
placed in a Special Education class.
• Some states us standard deviation tests to
measure a child's developmental delays.
• These measures vary from state to state and
are not very accurate.
• The most appropriate measures are those that
look at behavior relating to specific situations.
• No condition is unique to adaptive behavior.
• Conditions that affect other domains also
affect adaptive development.
Faces of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
FAS is a complex of developmental effects caused by maternal use of
alcohol during pregnancy. The three symptoms are facial abnormalities,
permanent growth retardation, and neurological conditions.
Vulnerable Children Syndrome
• VCS includes children esposed prenatally to
• Research has shown that the child's postnatal life
may also contribute to the problem.
• Adult addicts do not provide adequate nutrients,
safe, clean environments, nor do the provide
intellectual or sensory stimulation.
• As these children age they test within normal IQ
ranges, although they have difficulty
concentrating, interacting with other children and
adapting to new environments.
Only a small minority of children exposed to HIV
mothers develop AIDS. If the mother takes the
medication AZT while pregnant, she dramatically cuts
the risk of transmitting the disease to the fetus.
An AIDS babies symptoms include respiratory infections,
failure to thrive, chronic diarrhea, and delays in linear
Children with AIDS
• Children with AIDS most often develop symptoms
during their second year.
• These children have motor or speech delays or
regressions, as well as delays or regressions in social
• Social stigma adds to the problem.
• Twenty to Forty percent of these children require
foster care or other arrangements because the mother
is too ill to care for them.
• Since the life expectancy for these children is
lengthening, ECSE needs to prepare to handle HIV
• Epilepsy is often caused by a traumatic brain
injury, (TBI) and produces irregular electric
discharges in the brain.
• Repeated seizures, if not treated, usually lead
to mental retardation.
• Epilepsy is a variety of disorders.
• About 85% of these cases can be controlled
• Autism is a condition affecting communication,
imagination, and socialization. Children avoid and
reject social interaction.
• Autism statistics are vague or unreliable
• Autism has three dimensions; impairment in
communication, imagination, and socialization.
• Echolalia (meaningless repetition) is common in
• The most common features of autism are
aversion of the eyes, and lack of response to
Causes of Autism
• The causes of autism are unknown.
• Some theories relate it to Fragile X syndrome,
perinatal brain damage, and genetic
• Autistic children do not understand the
concept of pretense and do not pretend when
they are playing.
• A frequent class of symptoms is a rigid
repetition of certain activities.
Congress and the laws.
• In 1990 Congress added autism as a distinct
category qualifying for assistance under Part
B. This addition recognized that autism is
different from social or emotional conditions.
• The symptoms do not disappear nor do
people outgrow autism.
• Psychotherapy and other traditional means of
dealing with emotional disturbance seldom
work with autistic children.
• Adaptive development in early childhood
evaluates the child's age and situation-
• Cultural variables must be considered in
evaluating the child.
• Young children with severe physical disabilities
may need help gaining access to parts of the
community, so that they can learn to get around
• Delays and deviations are assessed for parallel
play and disinterest in self dressing.
• IDEA looks to ECSE programs to assess each
child in this domain as in others.
• Children who’s primary needs lie in another
domain should also be assessed for adaptive
• Intervention means that all children can learn
• Effective intervention begins with IFAP’s and
IEP’s. One technique of instruction in adaptive
behavior is both lengthy and frequent.
• When children are learning self-care, self-
dressing, and self-eating behaviors they tend to
give their full attention to the task.
• Children may be taught sequence, color, number
and food groups.
• Research reveals that behavior that is reinforced
increases in frequency.
• Modeling is a technique used to teach many
• A technique important in adaptive development is
• Behavior modification may be helpful in the ability to
size up a situation, select appropriate behaviors to
match the situation, and flexibility to implement the
plan with modifications as the situation demands.
• A variation of behavior modification is called cognitibe
• The advantage of this modification is that it can be
used to alter the child's behavior and his thinking
behind the behavior.
Cognitive Behavior Modification
• This cognitive behavior modification can help
impulsive children, aggressive children, and
other children with emotional or behavior
• This approach focuses as much on faulty
thinking skills as it does on behavior. It
includes training children to self monitor,
problem solve, and relaxation.
• Modeling is a technique used to teach many
children adaptive behaviors.
• One benefit of integrating children with and
without disabilities is the availability of disabled
children to be exposed to children without
• It’s only by being with, observing and modeling
non disabled children, that a disabled child can
learn and model the behavior habitually.
Developmentally appropriate adaptive
• The child needs to do what’s expected of him in a
• The child needs to be able to think through and
analyze a situation.
• The next step is to identify alternative behaviors,
or options and determine which are acceptable in
• The child then formulates and carries out a plan
• While doing so she notices the reactions of
others and modifies her behavior accordingly.
• Mainstreaming autistic children is essential to
helping the child develop friendships.
• Facilitated communication is a technique that
relies on personal assistance.
• The results of facilitated communication are
• The research evidence has little to offer
parents other than their children need love,
want it, and respond positively to it.
• Give children with autism love.
• Offer a calm structured environment, be firm and
reassuring. Autistic children need structure.
• Teach children how to read other peoples body
language, how to make people be more friendly.
• Teach metacognotive skills. (understanding one’s
own and others thoughts).
• Teach by over teaching, Call attention to cues kids
may have overlooked.
• Use sign language, forcing children to watch you.
Children must master self-control
• Children are driven to master self-control
skills. Don’t do for the child. Let him keep
trying yo do things on his own as much as
• As a child moves towards independence
family and professionals are advised to think
through how minimal their support might be.
Cognitive Behavior Modification
• This modification combines direct instruction
with well-established techniques of promoting
• Children must assess each situation, weigh
alternative behaviors, determine which is
appropriate, implement that approach and
react to how it is received by others.
• ECSE Workers should emphasize the
acquisition during pre-school years of
adaptive behavior necessary for success in K-
• These childrenw abilities to care for
themselves and to respond appropriatley to
new situations is crucial to their success.
• Adaptive development allows ECSE programs
to serve young children who are neither
mentally or emotionally disturbed, but have
yet to acquire adaptive behavior, necessary for