Speech Acoustics 1
Clinical Application of Frequency
and Intensity Variables
• Frequency Variables
• Amplitude and Intensi...
Speech Acoustics 2
Frequency Variables
• Average Fo.
• Fo frequency Variability
• Maximum Phonational Frequency Range
Speech Acoustics 3
Frequency Variables continued
• Average Fundamental Frequency
– Variables
• Age and Gender
– Infants (3...
Speech Acoustics 4
Frequency Variables continued
• Frequency Variability
– Normal SD is plus/minus 20 to 35 dB
– Variables...
Speech Acoustics 5
Frequency Variables continued
• Maximum Phonational Frequency
Range (MPFR)
• Differs from Fo which refe...
Speech Acoustics 6
Frequency Variables continued
• Mean MPFR is around 2.5 octaves or 30
semitones.
• Not a great deal of ...
Speech Acoustics 7
Amplitude and Intensity Variables
• Average Amplitude Level
• Amplitude Variability
• Dynamic Range
• V...
Speech Acoustics 8
AmplitudeVariables continued
• Average Amplitude Level
– Refers to normal conversational levels
– Usual...
Speech Acoustics 9
AmplitudeVariables continued
• Amplitude Variability
– Changes in amplitude due to …
• Speaker’s mood a...
Speech Acoustics 10
AmplitudeVariables continued
• Dynamic Range
– Intensity difference between soft speech and the
loudes...
Speech Acoustics 11
AmplitudeVariables continued
• Voice Range Profile
– AKA VRP, phonetogram or FoSPL profile.
– Subject ...
Speech Acoustics 12
AmplitudeVariables continued
• Voice Range Profile continued
– VRP can be used to get an overall pictu...
Speech Acoustics 13
Voice Disorders
• Subjective measures
– Perceptual Scales
• Objective measures
– Amplitude
– Frequency...
Speech Acoustics 14
Neurological Disorders
• Examples include Parkinson’s Disease,
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), MS...
Speech Acoustics 15
Summary
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12production5.ppt

  1. 1. Speech Acoustics 1 Clinical Application of Frequency and Intensity Variables • Frequency Variables • Amplitude and Intensity Variables • Voice Disorders • Neurological Disorders
  2. 2. Speech Acoustics 2 Frequency Variables • Average Fo. • Fo frequency Variability • Maximum Phonational Frequency Range
  3. 3. Speech Acoustics 3 Frequency Variables continued • Average Fundamental Frequency – Variables • Age and Gender – Infants (350 to 500 Hz) – Ages 3 through 10 (270 to 300 Hz) – Adults » Males (120 Hz) » Females (220 Hz) • Individual differences
  4. 4. Speech Acoustics 4 Frequency Variables continued • Frequency Variability – Normal SD is plus/minus 20 to 35 dB – Variables that affect variablity • Emotions • Fatigue • Different grammatical constructions • Individual differences • Age (decreases through lifetime) • Neuromuscular or other disorders – Frequency variability can be used as a baseline when examining different voice disorders
  5. 5. Speech Acoustics 5 Frequency Variables continued • Maximum Phonational Frequency Range (MPFR) • Differs from Fo which refers to connected speech. • MPFR is the range of frequency that you can produce (provide example).
  6. 6. Speech Acoustics 6 Frequency Variables continued • Mean MPFR is around 2.5 octaves or 30 semitones. • Not a great deal of variability for age and gender. • Trained singers have higher MPFR. • Poor physical condition regardless of age may signal a problem with the speaker.
  7. 7. Speech Acoustics 7 Amplitude and Intensity Variables • Average Amplitude Level • Amplitude Variability • Dynamic Range • Voice Range Profile
  8. 8. Speech Acoustics 8 AmplitudeVariables continued • Average Amplitude Level – Refers to normal conversational levels – Usually around 65 to 80 dB SPL (or 45 to 60 dB HL) – No major age or gender effects. – May increase in background noise (Lombard effect) – Lower amplitude may be a result of a pathology.
  9. 9. Speech Acoustics 9 AmplitudeVariables continued • Amplitude Variability – Changes in amplitude due to … • Speaker’s mood and feeling • Message such as stress, duration, syllabic structure, etc. – SD is around 10 dB, but varies depending upon level of excitement. – Lack of amplitude variation = monotone, and may be difficult to understand.
  10. 10. Speech Acoustics 10 AmplitudeVariables continued • Dynamic Range – Intensity difference between soft speech and the loudest shout. – Normally between (30 and 115 dB SPL) – Tends to be greatest for people with a near normal Fo. – Trained signers may have greater dynamic range.
  11. 11. Speech Acoustics 11 AmplitudeVariables continued • Voice Range Profile – AKA VRP, phonetogram or FoSPL profile. – Subject sustains a vowel at different Fos, and increases/decreases voice amplitude. – Insert page 59.
  12. 12. Speech Acoustics 12 AmplitudeVariables continued • Voice Range Profile continued – VRP can be used to get an overall picture of amplitude and frequency. – Can be used to… • Determine normal vocal function • Monitor treatment for vocal disorder
  13. 13. Speech Acoustics 13 Voice Disorders • Subjective measures – Perceptual Scales • Objective measures – Amplitude – Frequency • Use in monitoring progress of treatment • Objective measures are more sensitive to changes.
  14. 14. Speech Acoustics 14 Neurological Disorders • Examples include Parkinson’s Disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), MS, strokes, brain tumors, TBI, etc. • Objective measures can be used to track course of disease or treatment.
  15. 15. Speech Acoustics 15 Summary

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