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  • NutritionThere are several ways of defining nutrition as stated below.By giving many points of view,the better one can understand its true meaning and significance to human beings."Nutrition is the science of foods and teir components (nutrients and other substances)including the relationship to health and disease; processes within the body; and the social.economic,cultural and psychological implications to eating"."Nutrition is the relationship of foods to the health of the human body and this concerns the actions,interactions and balances of nutrients.The process within the body include ingestion,absorption,metabolism of nutrients and excretion of end-products."Briefly and simply stated,nutrition is the study of foods in relation to health.One author (Rinzler,2004)has a three-word definition."nutrition equals life."All living cells need food and water to live.If human beings don't eat and drink,they will die.The primary components in food are the energy givers and the nutrients;both need water as the medium of their activities.It is the kind and quantity of the food and water that one consumes that determines the quality of life one desires
  • oA nutrient is any substance,organic or inorganic,that can supply energy,build and repair cells and tissues,and regulate life processes.Some nutrients are needed by animals.other than human being.oAn essential nutrient cannot manufactured in the body in adequate amounts needed for specific has to be supplied from food or from a nutritional supplement.The more appropriate term to use is "dietary supplement" versus "nonessential nutirents" that are manufactured in the body or have precursors from dieatary intake that can become essential nutrients.
  • Six Groups of Nutrients Individual NutrientsWater Water as such Fat/Lipids Essentially fatty acids: linoleic acid and linolenic acid Carbohydrates glucose and dietary fiberProtein Essential amino acids:arginine,histidine,isoleucine,leucine,lysinemethionine,phenylalanine,threonine,tryptophan,valineMinerals Major minerals:calcium,phosphorus,magnesium,sulfur,sodium,chlorine,potassium Minor minerals (Trace elements): iron,copper,manganese,zinc,cobalt,iodine,molybdenum,selenium,chromiumflourineVitamins Fat-soluble vitamins: A,D,E and K Water-soluble vitamins: vitamin C and B-complex:thiamin,riboflavin,niacin,pyridoxine,pantothenicacid,folic acid,biotin,B12,choline
  • Function:
  • Main Source:Water
  • Function:
  • Fat
  • Essential nutrients for human beings
  • Basic concepts of nutrients
  • Chapter 2
  • 8 Essential amino acids
  • Protein
  • Non-essential amino acids
  • Vitamins are divided into two:Water Soluble and Fat Soluble;
  • Vitamin B1 thiamine
  • Works with other vitamins,help release energy from carbohydrates,essential for growth and and involved in hormone synthesis
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicity
  • Toxicity
  • Nutrition

    1. 1. Nutrition
    2. 2. NutritionNutrition “Nutrition is the science of foods and their components (nutrients and other substances)including the relationship to health and disease; processes within the body; and the social.economic,cultural and psychological implications to eating". "Nutrition is the relationship of foods to the health of the human body and this concerns the actions, interactions and balances of nutrients. The process within the body include ingestion,absorption,metabolism of nutrients and excretion of end-products." Nutrition is the study of foods in relation to health. One author (Rinzler,2004)has a three-word definition. "nutrition equals life. "All living cells need food and water to live. If human beings dont eat and drink, they will die. The primary components in food are the energy givers and the nutrients; both need water as the medium of their activities. It is the kind and quantity of the food and water that one consumes that determines the quality of life one desires
    3. 3. Essential Nutrients A nutrient is any substance, organic or inorganic ,that can supply energy, build and repair cells and tissues, and regulate life processes. Some nutrients are needed by animals. Other than human being. An essential nutrient cannot manufactured in the body in adequate amounts needed for specific has to be supplied from food or from a nutritional supplement. The more appropriate term to use is "dietary supplement" versus "nonessential nutrients" that are manufactured in the body or have precursors from dietary intake that can become essential nutrients.
    4. 4. Essential Nutrients An essential nutrient is linked to a specific deficiency disease. For example, a child who lacks protein for extended periods of time develops the protein-deficiency disease known as kwasiorkor.persons who do not get enough vitamin C develop the vitamin C deficiency disease,scurvy.The main treatment of the deficiency disease is to supply the specific nutrient that was inadequate. However, other nutrients are also needed because of interrelationships among nutrients. Not all nutrients are essential for all species of animals. For example, vitamin C is an essential nutrient for human beings, but not for dogs. A dogs body makes Vitamin C it needs. The study of essentiality for a nutrient is a continuous process. The science of nutrition involves dynamic changes. To date, there are at least 45 individual nutrients essential fro human beings. Choline was the most recently added to the list only in 2002.It is possible that he future researchers may reveal additional nutrients. Changes in the list of essential nutrients are evident when one compares the Tables of Recommend Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for nutrients and readings from textbook since 1940.
    5. 5. Nutriture or Nutritional StatusNutriture, which means refers to the condition of how well-nourished the human body, depends on several criteria, suchas physical signs and symptoms of good nutrition, medicalhistory, blood and urine tests, anatomical changes seen inimaging or x-rays and other medical instruments, and historyof dietary intake up to current food habits. MalnutritionMal-means "bad", thus malnutrition is an undesirable state ofones health, which could either be an undernourishedindividual or someone who is overnourished.The former maybe caused by starvation, inadequate supply of one or morenutrients or/and energy, or it could be a secondary effect of ametabolic disorder or a medical condition that interfere withnutritional processes in the body. Examples of over-nutritionare cases of obesity or toxic effects from excessive intake ofspecific nutrients.
    6. 6. Essential nutrients for human beingsWaterFat/Lipids Vitamins FAT/LIPID CARBOHYDRATE WATER PROTEIN S S MINERALS VITAMINS Protein
    7. 7. Essential nutrients for humanWATER beings
    8. 8. Water is essential to life and nutritional health.Humans can live for several weeks without food,but we can survive only a few days withoutwater. Approximately 60% of the adult human body is composed of water Function:Transports nutrients and oxygen into cellsMoisturizes the air in lungsHelps with metabolismcushions our vital organHelps our organs to absorb nutrients betterRegulates body temperatureDetoxifiesProtects and lubricates our jointsPrevents dehydration
    9. 9. Deficiencies: dehydration Toxicity; kidney stones  dilution of important sodium imbalance electrolytes (mineral orthostatic hypotension salts) that may lead hyponatremia to erratic heart hypertension rhythm and death indigestion, constipation and heartburn Main Source: contributes to memory loss Water dry skin If youre not sure about your hydration level, look at your recommended eight urine. If its clear, youre in 8-ounce glasses of good shape. If its dark, youre water a day probably dehydrated
    10. 10. Fat Essential nutrients for human Essential nutrients for human beings beingsFats- are organic compoundsthat are made up of carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen. They area source of energy in foods. Fatsbelong to a group of substancescalled lipids, and come in liquidor solid form. All fats arecombinations of saturated andunsaturated fatty acids.
    11. 11. Fat Essential nutrients for human Essential nutrients for beings human beings Function: Fat is one of the 3 nutrients (along with protein and carbohydrates) that supply calories to the body. provides 9 calories per gram, essential for the proper functioning of the body. Fats provide essential fatty acids serves as the storage substance for the bodys extra calories fills the fat cells (adipose tissue) that help insulate the body an important energy source. helps for maintaining healthy skin and hair helps the body absorb and move the vitamins A, D, E, and K through the bloodstream.
    12. 12. Food SourcesThese are the biggest dietary cause of high LDL levels ("bad cholesterol").When looking at a food label, pay very close attention to thepercentage of saturated fat and avoid or limit any foods that are high.Saturated fat should be limited to 10% of calories.Saturated fats are found in animal products such as butter, cheese, whole milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty meats. They are also found in some vegetable oils -- coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils.(Note: Most other vegetable oils contain unsaturated fat and arehealthy.)
    13. 13. UNSATURATED FATShelp to lower blood cholesterol if used in place of saturated fats. However, unsaturated fats have a lot of calories, so you still need to limit them. Most (but not all) liquid vegetable oils are unsaturated. (The exceptions include coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils.)
    14. 14. (A) Monounsaturated Fats.These fats are also called MUFA – Monounsaturated fattyacids. As explained above they have only one doublebond between the carbon atoms.Examples of Monounsaturated fatty acids:Palmitoleic acid and Oleic acid.Natural Sources of Monounsaturated Fats.1) Whole milk products.2) Red meat.3) Fruits like olives and avocado.4) Nuts.5) Oils such as Tea seed oil, Olive oil, Canola Oil, Grape seed oil, Macadamia oil, Groundnut or peanut oil, Sesame oil, Corn oil, Safflower oil, Sunflower oil, Camellia.6) Whole Grain wheat cereal.7) Oatmeal.
    15. 15. A.Monounsaturated fats:When there is only onecarbon atom with adouble bond, it becomesmonounsaturated fat asshown above.B.Polyunsaturated fats:When there are more thanone carbon atoms with adouble bond, it is calledpolyunsaturated fat asshown above.
    16. 16. Benefits and Advantages of Monounsaturated Fats.help in lowering the low density lipoprotein (LDL) or the bad cholesterol in the blood.Help to maintain a healthy lipid profile.Disadvantages of MonounsaturatedFats.These fats are more vulnerable to rancidity than saturated fats.They are known to increase insulin resistance – that is makes insulin less effective
    17. 17. About (B) Polyunsaturated FatsOr polyunsaturated fatty acids have more than one double bondbetween the carbon atoms in their molecular structure as explainedand shown above. That is there are more than one carbon atomswhich do not have a hydrogen atom attached to them.Omega-3 fatty acids and Omega-6 fatty acids are twopolyunsaturated essential fatty acids which are not manufacturedby the body and have to be obtained from dietary sources.Food Sources of Polyunsaturated Fats.1) Whole Grain Wheat.2) Bananas.3) Sunflower seeds.4) Hemp seeds. Essential5) Peanut butter. nutrients6) Margarine. for7) Fish especially wild human salmon and fish oil. beings8) Nuts.9) Leafy green vegetables.10) Algae11) Krill
    18. 18. Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs)• Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) are necessary fats thathumans cannot synthesize, and must be obtainedthrough diet. EFAs are long-chain polyunsaturated fattyacids derived from linolenic, linoleic, and oleic acids.There are two families of EFAs: Omega-3 and Omega-6.Omega-9 is necessary yet "non-essential" because thebody can manufacture a modest amount on its own,provided essential EFAs are present. The numberfollowing "Omega-" represents the position of the firstdouble bond, counting from the terminal methyl group onthe molecule. Omega-3 fatty acids are derived fromLinolenic Acid, Omega-6 from Linoleic Acid, andOmega-9 from Oleic Acid.
    19. 19. Omega-3 derived from Linolenic AcidFUNCTION formation of cell walls, making them supple and flexible, improving circulation and oxygen uptake with proper red blood cell flexibility and function. reduce the risk of heart attack inhibit the growth of prostrate cancer reduced risk of breast cancer prevents hypertriglyceridemia prevents angina prevents atherosclerosis prevents bipolar disorder prevents cardiac arrhythmias prevents hypercholesterolemia prevents dementia prevents depression
    20. 20. Omega-3 deficiencies: to decreased memory and mental abilities, tingling sensation of the nerves, poor vision, diminished immune function, increased triglycerides and "bad" cholesterol (LDL) levels, impaired membrane function, hypertension, irregular heart beat, learning disorders, menopausal discomfort, itchiness on the front of the lower legs, and growth retardation in infants, children, and pregnant women. Depression Cardiovascular Disease Type 2 Diabetes Fatigue Dry, itchy skin Brittle hair and nails Joint pain
    21. 21. Sources of Omega 3: Flaxseed oil (flaxseed oil has thehighest linoleic content of any food), flaxseeds, flaxseedmeal, hempseed oil, hempseeds, walnuts, pumpkinseeds, Brazil nuts, sesame seeds, avocados, some darkleafy green vegetables (kale, spinach, purslane, mustardgreens, collards, etc.), canola oil (cold-pressed andunrefined), soybean oil, wheat germ oil, salmon,mackerel, sardines, anchovies, albacore tuna, andothers.
    22. 22. TRANS FATTY ACIDSThese fats form when vegetable oil hardens (a processcalled hydrogenation) can raise LDL levels. lower HDL levels ("good cholesterol").Sources commercial baked goods (donuts, cookies, crackers), processed foods, and margarines.HYDROGENATED AND PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED FATSThis refers to oils that have become hardened (such ashard butter and margarine). Partially hydrogenatedmeans the oils are only partly hardened. Foods madewith hydrogenated oils should be avoided because theycontain high levels of trans fatty acids, which are linkedto heart disease. (Look at the ingredients in the foodlabel.)
    23. 23. Omega-9 (Oleic Acid)Essential but technically not an EFA, because thehuman body can manufacture a limited amount,provided essential EFAs are present.Monounsaturated oleic acid lowers heart attack riskand arteriosclerosis, and aids in cancer prevention.Found in foods: Olive oil (extra virgin or virgin),olives, avocados, almonds, peanuts, sesame oil,pecans, pistachio nuts, cashews, hazelnuts,macadamia nuts, etc
    24. 24. TRANS FATTY ACIDSThese fats form when vegetable oil hardens (a processcalled hydrogenation) can raise LDL levels. lower HDL levels ("good cholesterol").Sources commercial baked goods (donuts, cookies, crackers), processed foods, and margarines.HYDROGENATED AND PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED FATSThis refers to oils that have become hardened (such ashard butter and margarine). Partially hydrogenatedmeans the oils are only partly hardened. Foods made withhydrogenated oils should be avoided because theycontain high levels of trans fatty acids, which are linked toheart disease. (Look at the ingredients in the food label.)
    25. 25. What are Carbohydrates? They provide storage and transport of energy assist in proper functioning of the immune system play major roles in fertilization, pathogenesis, blood clotting developmentFunction of Carbohydrates: The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, especially for the brain and nervous system. Glucose is the main component of carbohydrates and is used for energy. Carbohydrates are not essential nutrients for humans. The body can obtain all of its energy from protein and fats. However, the brain and neurons generally cannot burn fat and need glucose for energy. The body can make some glucose from a few of the amino acids in protein and also from triglycerides (fats).
    26. 26. There are two types ofcarbohydrate: Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients, a groupcomplex and simple that also includes protein and fat.
    27. 27. Importance of CarbohydratesEnergy Yielding Compounds D-Ribose, are the structural elements of nucleic acid and coenzymes. Act as intermediates in hexose monophosphate stant. D- Lyxose, a constituent of a lyxoflavin isolated from human muscle. D-glucose carried out by the blood and used in tissues. D-fructose can be changed to glucose in the liver and intestine and used in the body. Glycosides are important in medicine. Hexosamines is used as antibiotic. Monosaccharide are important constitute of nucleotides and nucleic acids. Disaccharides act as an intermediate in the digestion, important as a dietary constituent and major source of energy in the diet. Starch and glycogen serve as temporary stores of glucose in plants and animals respectively.
    28. 28. CarbohydratesFunctions of Carbohydrates Glucose act as energy yielding compounds, the major fuel of the tissue, constitutes the structural material of the organism, converted to other carbohydrates having highly specific functions. Glycogen acts as important storage of food material of the organism. Play a key role in the metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids. Act as protective function- mucosubstance. Act as intermediates in respiration and carbohydrates metabolism e.g., (trioses). Participate in lipid synthesis. Pentoses - Synthesis of nucleic acid; Some co- enzymes (e.g., NAD, FAD, FMN, etc.); ATP, ADP, AMP, and also synthesis of polysaccharides.
    29. 29. Carbohydrates DeficiencyHyperglycaemiaGlycosuriaGalactosemiaPentosuriaDiarrhoea and flatulenceKetosisUnder weight. Toxicity : Getting too many carbohydrates can cause excessive weight gain, which can lead to obesity and other health problems
    30. 30. Nutrient Distribution in the BodyNutrient Distribution in the Body  An easy way to remember the relative distribution of the six groups of nutrients is the "60-20-20 Rule". The figures below are rounded and are averages for an adult of normal weight.  Water is about 60% of total body weight.  Lipids are about 20% of total body weight.  About 20% of total body weight is a combination of mostly protein (Mainly muscle tissues or lean body mass) plus carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins.  An infant has more water than the above average.  An obese person has more fat relative to the others.  Women of the same age and height tend to have more body fat than males of the same age and height.
    31. 31. Nutrient Distribution in the Body The Scope of Nutrition and Its Relationship with Other Disciplines Nutritional science comprises the body of scientific knowledge governing the nutritional requirements of humans for maintenance,growth,activity and reproduction. Nutrition builds on three fundamental areas of science: 1.The physical sciences, particularly the anatomy of the body, how growth and development of cells and organs, physical fitness and well- being are affected by nutrition.2.The biological sciences of biochemistry and physiology help us to see hownutrition relates with how the body works to promote health and wellnessthroughout the life cycle. Genetics explains the inherited traits of a person. Thestudy of genetic nutrition is in its infancy and may explain the familialtendencies of some diseases that may run in a family tree. 3.The behavioural sciences help us to better understand how nutrition is interwoven with our unique nature as human beings. Anthropology ,psychology and other social sciences provide the background of the cultural diversity of people how food habits are formed. Attitudes toward food and eating patterns develop throughout our life span from the aculturing influences of faily group. Ethnic/regional group,community,nation,even our world.
    32. 32. Nutrient Distribution in the BodyHow we perceive ourselves and our food, what we choose to eat, why we eat what we do and in whatmanner, all become integral part of human nutrition. As one saying goes," Tell me whatyou eat and I can tell you who you are".
    33. 33. A.Water is the most important nutrient. Followingwater, the nutrients of highest priority are those thatprove energy, which most be supplied from foods orcan be supplied from quantities stored in the body.B. Essential nutrients are needed throughout life; onlythe amounts of nutrients needed change. The clientsutilization of foods,eaten,stage of growth anddevelopment,sex,body size,weight,physical activity,and state of health influence nutrient requirements.C. No single food contains all the essential nutrientsin amounts needed for optimum health.
    34. 34. Basic concepts of nutrientsGood nutrition is essential for the following: Growth Normal organ development and functioning Normal reproduction Maintenance and replacement of worn- out cells and tissues Optimum activity level and working efficiency Resistance to infection and disease The ability to repair bodily damage or injury
    35. 35. Basic concepts of nutrients Proper nutrition means that all the essential nutrients are supplied and utilized in adequate balance to maintain optimal health and well -being. Most people are interested in how to be assured that they get proper nutrients in the amounts needed from daily meals and snacks. They probably recognized the six classes of nutrients- protein, carbohydrate,fat,vitamins,minerals and water although it may surprise some to learn that water considered a nutrient. All the nutrients most of us need can be obtained by eating variety of different type of foods. It is the nutrients in food, which are needed.However,in practice, nutrition educators speak in terms of foods that they can buy, prepare and serve and not in terms of the name of the nutrients.
    36. 36. Basic concepts of nutrients Nutrients are important chemical to perform one or more of the following functions:1.Furnish fuel needed for energy2.Provide materials to build,repair,and maintainbody tissues3.Supply substances that function in the regulation ofbody processes. The fundamental principles of nutrient interaction state that:1.Individual nutrients have many specific metabolicfunctions, including primary and supporting roles,and2.No nutrient ever works alone.
    37. 37. Basic concepts of nutrientsEach nutrient has certain special jobs to doin the building maintenance, and operationof the body. These jobs cannot be done byother nutrients-an extra supply of onecannot make up for a shortage of another.There are other jobs to be done in the bodythat require nutrients to work together asteams. To build bones, the nutrients vitaminD, calcium, and phosphorous interact. Onemember of the team cannot perform its jobunless all the others are present in the rightamounts.
    38. 38. Cumulative Effects Of NutritionCumulative Effects Of NutritionCumulative effects are the results of something that is done repeatedlyover many years.Example: Eating excessive amounts of saturated fats for many years contribute to atherosclerosis which leads to heart attacks. Years of overeating without increasing energy expenditure cause obesity and may predispose the individual to metabolic diseases like hypertension, Type 2(non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, gallbladder disease,gout,foot problems, certain cancer and even personality disorder.Individual at Risk from Poor Nutritional Intake Infants and preschool children- depend on their mothers selection of food. Adolescents- like to snack and eat at unusual hours, subject to "peerpressure,easily influenced by opinions of their friends who eat "junk" foods. Pregnant women-an expectant mother requires a diet that provide sufficient nutrients for the developing fetus,her own body. Elderly-psychological changes like aging affect nutrient intake and metabolism, lack of dentition, decreases taste senses and appetite,and lowered resistance o infections.
    39. 39. Chapter 2Common Nutrition Problems in the Philippines and Assessment Of Nutritional Status
    40. 40. The Role of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute in NutritionSurveys The Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition (PPAN) includes agenciesat national and local levels for carrying out programs and projectsfor nutrition improvement in the Philippines. Its research arm is theFood and Nutrition Research Institute Department of Science andtechnology (FNRI-DOST).Among its Tasks are to: Conduct nutrition researches on emerging nutritional problems and non-communicable nutrition-related diseases. Spearhead food and nutrition research and development activities. Develop information technology resources for efficient and effective use of food and nutrition researches. Report changes in the prevalence of under nutrition. Update the official statistics on the Philippine nutrition situation by conducting National Nutrition Surveys (NNS).It provides data on the per capita food consumption and energy and nutrient intakes among Filipino households
    41. 41. Two Main Nutrition Problemsbesetting the country: Protein Energy Malnutrition(PEM)-affecting young children. Micro-Nutrient Deficiencies- specifically iron -deficiency anemia, iodine deficiency disorders and Vit A deficiency.
    42. 42. Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM).According to the 2003 results of the 6th National survey, protein-energy malnutrition continues to persist in the country. Among preschool -age children (0-5 years old). 72 out of every 100 are normal. Out of 1000,276 are underweight;304 are short and 14 are overweight. Moreover 55 out of 1000 are thin. Among school-age children(6-10years old),72 out of every 100 are normal. Out of 1000,276 are underweight;365 are short and 13 are overweight. Among 11-19years old preadolescents and adolescents,155 out of 1000 are underweight while 35 are overweight. Among pregnant and lactating owmen,26.6% and 11.7%,respectively,are underweight. Among adults,12.3% are Chronic Energy Deficient (CED) and 23.9% are overweight to obese.
    43. 43. Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM).
    44. 44. Micro-nutrients Deficiencies Iron-Deficiency Anemia (IDA)IDA- condition in which the concentration ofhaemoglobin is below the level that is normal for agiven individual. Detected by measuring the bloodhaemoglobin level. Out of 10 Filipinos,3 are anaemic. About 2 out of 3 infants 6 months to and 11 months old while among<1 year and 1 year old chicldren,53 out of 100 are anaemic. Out of every 1000 pregnant women,439 are anaemic and 422 out od 1000lactating women are afflicted with IDA. Anemic pregnant women are prone to deliver low birth-weight babies and are likely to experience labor complications. Children with IDA have short attention span, reduced ability to learn and are usually irritable.
    45. 45. Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) that affect thebrain development especially amongchildren that also causes weak resistance.
    46. 46. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD)IDD refers to spectrum of physical and mentalabnormalities, caused by a simple lack of iodinein the body. Include goiter, mental retardation, deaf-mute condition,squint,difficulty with standing or walking normally and stunting the limbs. Iodine-deficient women frequently suffer abortion and stillbirths. About 1/3 of the Filipino population is at risk to IDD. About 11 out of 100 children have moderate to severe IDD. Incidence of moderate to severe IDD is 18% among pregnant and 23.7% among lactating women.
    47. 47. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) goiter
    48. 48. mental retardation
    49. 49. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD)deaf-mute condition
    50. 50. squint, difficulty with standing orwalking normally and stunting the limbs
    51. 51. Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD)VAD results in Xerophthalmia(dryness of theeye),night blindness(inability to see in the dimlight),eyes sensitive to bright light, rough dryskin and membranes nose and throat, lowbody resistance to disease, poor growth andblindness in severe cases.About 4 out of every 10 pre-schoolers are vitamin A-deficient.About 175 out of every 1000 pregnant women are vitamin A-deficient.About 1 out of every lactating women is vitamin A-deficient.
    52. 52. 1. Night Blindness. Difficulty low body resistance toseeing in the dark.2. Xerophthalmia (Dry Eyes).The disease, poor growthwhite of the eye loses its shineand begins to wrinkle.3. Bitots Spots Patches of little Vitamin Agray bubbles on the whites ofthe eye. Deficiency4. Corneal Ulceration Dullness ordamage to the cornea. (VAD)5. Keratomalcia Soft orbulging cornea.
    53. 53. Overweight and Obesity Almost 24 out of 100 adults are overweight and obese in the 2003 FNRI survey. 225 out of 1000 adults aged 20 years and over are hypertensive.About 37% of hypertensive persons have high cholesterol levels. Hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia are risk factors to atherosclerosis. 85 out of 1000 adults aged 20 years and over have elevated total cholesterol>_240g/ dL. Females tend to be more at risk to overweight and obesity than males. In 2003 FNRI survey prevalence of male adult obesity is 3% compared to 5.7% to females.Overweight prevalence in adult males is 17.9% which is lower than theprevalence in females at 21.5%. Older lactating women are more at risk to overweight and obesity than lactating women. The 2003 FNRI survey reports a 3.4% prevalence of diabetes mellitus. The death rate from diabetes mellitus increased, from 4.3 per 100,000 population in 1984,to 7.1% per 100,000 population in 1993 (PHS report,1999) Cataract ,neuropathy and cerebral stroke were the most frequently reported complications of diabetes (1998 study).
    54. 54. Causes of Under nutrition in the PhilippinesSigns of under nutrition appear when nutritionalreserves are depleted and nutrient energy intake areinsufficient to meet day-to-day needs or addedmetabolic stress.
    55. 55. Concluding RemarksBased non the results of the 2003 Nationalnutrition Survey of the FNRI,the prevalenceof VAD and IDA among children andwomen reproductive age continue to behigh, and for children, theyre even higherthan that of 1998.Iodine DeficiencyDisorder (IDD) has substantially declinedamong children and pregnant womenalthough remains high among lactatingwomen. To address on this problem ofmicronutrient supplementation, dietarydiversification and food fortification.
    56. 56. The main causes of malnutrition in the Philippines are:PovertyPoor food choicesLarge family sizeLow level of nutrition educationPoor distribution of food supplyFaulty infant feeding and weaning practicesPoor sanitation with widespread incidence of parasitism and infectious diseasesUrbanization and other environmental factors.
    57. 57. Quick check list on the signs ofgood nutrition: Alert responsive general appearance Shiny, lustrous hair, healthy scalp Smooth, slightly moist, good color skin, face and neck; reddish pink mucous membranes Bright clear eyes, no fatigue circles Moist lips with good color (not pale)no crack at the corners Good pink color tongue, no swelling or bleeding ,firm Straight teeth, no crowding, clean, no discoloration;wellshaped jaw General smooth, slightly moist skin, good color Flat abdomen, no swelling, no bloating No tenderness of legs and feet, no weakness and swelling
    58. 58. No tenderness of legs and feet, no weakness and swellingNo skeletal malformationsNormal weight for height, age and body fluidErect posture, arms and legs straight, abdomen I n, chest outWell developed firm musclesNervous control: good attention span for ageCheerful disposition: does not cry easily, not irritable nor restlessGood appetite and digestion; normal regular urination and bowel movementHas general vitality; energetic; vigorous and does not easily get tiredSleeps well at night
    59. 59. The ABCDof NutritionalAssessment
    60. 60. A nthropometric Assessment-method ofmeasuring the variation of physical dimensions and thegross composition of the body.Procedures can assist in the identification of mild;moderate as well as severe states of malnutrition.2 Types of MeasurementGrowth and Body Composition-subdivided intomeasurements of fat-free mass and body fat, the twomajor components of total body mass. Procedures are simple and safe techniques. Equipment required is inexpensive and portable. Little training needed for personnel to perform the measurement.
    61. 61. B iochemical Assessment Based on laboratory analysis of blood and urine Common biochemical indices; serum, albumin, serum albumin/globulin ratio, total iron binding capacity, total lymphocyte count, complete blood cell profile, lipid profile, nitrogen balance,creatinine, creatinine-height index, urinary ketones, urinary nitrogen, and other constituents in the urine. Procedures need skilled personnel and analytical equipment that are expensive. Results are objective and useful for diagnoses and therapy.
    62. 62. C linical Assessment Includes Medical History -nutrition. Drastic recent major surgery, chewing and swallowing difficulty, habitual intake of oral contraceptives, antibiotics, and other drugs with nutrient-drug interaction; and socioeconomic factors such as poverty, lack of education and inadequate or poor food habits. Vital Signs( height, weight, blood pressure readings and pulse rate) by nurse or physician assistant. Physical examination Physician completes head to toe PE.
    63. 63. D ietary Assessment A 24-hour food recall-asking client to recall actual intake for the past 24 hours. To determine an overall usual eating pattern of the individual followed by a food frequency questionnaire to verify and clarify data. Food frequency questionnaire- uses a list of specific food items to record intakes over a given period(day, week, month year).Questionnaire can be semi-quantitative when subjects are asked to quantify usual portion sizes of food items without the use of food models. Three ,five or seven day records -are prepared by the client or patient for the next days intakes. One advantage of several days is to cover lost days when the informant may have different meal patterns over the weekend or when not in school or work. Weighed food record-is a more involved method that needs care and accuracy. All food consumed over defined period is weighed. this method is used more for metabolic balance studies or for controlled laboratory experiments.
    64. 64. Concluding RemarksBased non the results of the 2003 Nationalnutrition Survey of the FNRI,the prevalenceof VAD and IDA among children andwomen reproductive age continue to behigh, and for children, theyre even higherthan that of 1998.Iodine DeficiencyDisorder (IDD) has substantially declinedamong children and pregnant womenalthough remains high among lactatingwomen. To address on this problem ofmicronutrient supplementation, dietarydiversification and food fortification.
    65. 65. The human body is a intricate structure composed of cells, tissues, and organs.
    66. 66. Human body composed of :various tissues ( muscle, bone and adipose) BONES ADIPOSE
    68. 68. various glands(pancreas, thyroid gland, pituitary gland)
    69. 69. cell
    70. 70. Function
    71. 71. ProteinFood SourcesWhen proteins are digested, amino acids areleft. The human body needs a number ofamino acids to break down food. Aminoacids need to be eaten in large enoughamounts for optimal health.Amino acids are foundin animal sources such as meats, milk, fish, and eggs Plant sources such as soy, beans, legumes, nut butters some grains (such as wheat germ).
    72. 72. Protein Deficiency Abdominal enlargement, excessive loss in urine and disease to lower urinary tracts- Vomiting Diarrhea Nephrosis Lassitude Oedema Kwashiorkor (Protein malnutrition) Marasmic - Kwashiorkor Negative nitrogen balance.
    73. 73. Amino acids are classified into two groups:Essential amino acids cannot be made by thebody. As a result, they must come from food.The nine essential amino acids are: histidine,isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine,phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, andvaline.Nonessential amino acids"Nonessential" means that our bodies producean amino acid, even if we dont get it from thefood we eat.They include: alanine, asparagine, asparticacid, glutamic acid,arginine, cysteine, glutamine, tyrosine, glycine,ornithine, proline, and serine.
    74. 74. 8 Essential amino acidsTryptophan - a precursor for serotonin and melatonin. It is plentiful in chocolate, oats, bananas, dried dates, milk, cottage cheese, meat, fish, turkey and peanuts.Lysine - Lysine deficiency can result in a deficiency in niacin (Vitamin B)and this can cause the disease pellagra. beneficial in treating and preventing herpes. Lysine sources include green beans, lentils, soybean, spinach and amaranth.Methionine - supplies sulphur and other compounds required by thebody for normal metabolism and growth. belongs to a group of compounds called lipotropics that help the liver process fats. It is found in fish, whole grains, and dairy.Valine: needed for muscle metabolism, tissue repair, and for themaintenance of proper nitrogen balance in the body. found in high concentration in the muscle tissue. one of the three branched chain amino acids, which means that it can be used as an energy source by muscle tissue. helpful in treating liver and gallbladder disorders, and it is good for correcting the type of severe amino acid deficiencies that can be caused by drug addiction. Dietary sources of valine include dairy products, grain, meat, mushrooms, peanuts, and soy proteins.
    75. 75. Leucine: Leucine is a branched chain essential amino acid stimulates muscle protein synthesis major fuel involved in anabolic (tissue building) reactions During times of starvation, stress, infection, or recovery from trauma, the body mobilizes leucine as a source for gluconeogenesis (the synthesis of blood sugar in the liver) to aid in the healing process. It has recently been suggested that leucine may have beneficial therapeutic effects on the prevention of protein wasting, as it occurs during starvation, semi- starvation, trauma, or recovery after surgery.Leucine is found in cottage cheese, sesame seeds, peanuts, dry lentils, chicken, and fish.Isoleucine: Isoleucine is a branched chain amino acid important for blood sugar regulation, muscle development and repair, haemoglobin development, and energy regulation. Deficiencies of isoleucine result in possible dizziness, headaches, fatigue, depression, confusion and irritability.Isoleucine is found in eggs, fish, lentils, poultry, beef, seeds, soy,wheat, almonds and dairy.
    76. 76. Threonine: important for antibody production. It can be converted into glycine and serine. Deficiencies are rare but can result in skin disorders and weakness. Dietary sources of threonine include dairy, beef, poultry, eggs, beans, nuts, and seeds.Phenylalanine: Phenylalanine serves in the body as a precursor to the catecholamine family of hormones. These hormones include adrenaline and noradrenaline, which are activating substances in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Deficiencies are rare but can include slowed growth, lethargy, liver damage, weakness, oedema, and skin lesions. Food sources or phenylalanine are dairy, almonds, avocados, lima beans, peanuts, and seeds.
    77. 77. Protein
    78. 78. ProteinEssential amino acids have been defined as thoseamino acids that our body cannot synthesize on itsown. Essential amino acids must therefore beobtained from our diet.
    79. 79. ProteinTwo amino acids, histidine and cysteine, are essential to thenew born infants, and histidine may even be essential for adults.Nonessential amino acidsthose that the body can manufacture on its own.
    80. 80. Non-essential amino acidsAlanine During exercise, muscle tissue breaks down and toxins are released. Alanine works to remove these toxins so the liver is able to metabolize them and eliminate them from the body. help to keep cholesterol levels in check.Asparagine A requirement in amino acid transformation helps the nervous system maintain its equilibrium. acts as a detoxifier in the system and regulates metabolism.Aspartic AcidSimilar to asparagine, aspartic acid helps to elevate metabolic levels. Due to its effect on cellular energy, it is sometimes used to combat fatigue and depression. acts as a synthesizer for other amino acids.
    81. 81. Cysteine Non-essential amino acidsLike alanine, cysteineworks as a detoxifier in the body, but alsoperforms as an antioxidant, combating free-radicals.strengthens stomach lining and is essential to healthy hair, skin and nails.CystineCreated from the formation of two cysteine molecules, regarded as a more stable amino acid,works as a powerful antioxidant andhelps to form strong connective tissues.responsible for the creation of glutathione,a vital liver detoxifierused in topical treatments to maintain youthful-looking skin.Glutamine also aiding in the production of glutathione, the most abundant amino acid in the bloodstream. proper brain function and digestion may possibly help to suppress hunger.
    82. 82. Glycine Non-essential amino acids A glucogenic amino acid supplies beneficial glucose the body needs for energy. proper cell growth and function crucial to digestive health. makes up a large portion of collagen which helps skin retain its elasticity and healing properties.Histidine Important in the production of red and white blood cells helps to repair body tissue. Histamine is produced by histidine during an allergic reaction responsible for sexual arousal. detoxifier.Proline In order for the body to create new, healthy cells, it produces proline. regeneration of skin and helps to reduce sagging and wrinkles. proponent of collagen and cartilage helps keep muscles and joints pliable.
    83. 83. Non-essential amino acidsSerine Also derived from glycine, serine is essential to brain function particularly the chemicals that determine mood and mental stability. found in all cell membranes, also aids in muscle formation and immune health.TaurineLike glutamine, Taurine is a free amino acid that travels through the bloodstream detoxifier and digestion aid. improve brain function and athletic performance.Threonine A protein balancer in the body, helps to form tooth enamel, stabilize blood sugar levels and assists in healthy liver function. acts as a stress reducer and skin rebuilder.
    84. 84. Non-essential amino acidsSources of Non-Essential Amino AcidsAlthough these nonessential amino acids arereadily available in a healthy human body,they can also be found in whole foods like nuts, grains, meats, fruits and vegetables, or can be added to the body through supplements should there be a deficiency.Careful monitoring of supplements is advised toavoid altering the normal balance of citric acidin the system causing the liver and kidneys tofunction improperly.
    85. 85. VitaminsVitamins are essential organicsubstances that are needed in smallamounts in the diet for the normalfunction, growth, and maintenance ofbody tissues. Vitamins are divided into two groups: Water Soluble and Fat Soluble Essential nutrients for human beings
    86. 86. Water-soluble vitamins consist of the Bvitamins and vitamin C.dissolve easily in water and,in general, are readily excreted from the body, to the degree that urinary output is a strong predictor of vitamin consumption Because they are not as readily stored, more consistent intake is important.Many types of water-soluble vitamins are synthesized by bacteriaWater-soluble vitamins are easily lost with overcooking.
    87. 87. Vitamin B1 thiamine Food sources functions as the coenzyme Pork/pork products,thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) beef, liver, yeast/bakedin the metabolism of products, enrichedcarbohydrate and in and whole grainconduction of nerve cereals, nuts, andimpulses. seeds
    88. 88. Toxicity :none reported
    89. 89. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) works with the other B vitamins important for body growth and red blood cell production helps in releasing energy from carbohydrates.
    90. 90. Milk, eggs, mushrooms, Infants: 0.3 – 0.4 mg Children: 0.5 – 0.6 mg whole grains, enriched Adolescents: 0.9 – 1.3 mggrains, Men: 1.3 mg Women: 1.1 mg Pregnant Women: 1.4 mg green leafy vegetables, Lactating Women: 1.6 mgyeast,liver, and oily fish
    91. 91. Niacin Vitamin B3Works with other  Pellagra: vitamins,  diarrhea,help release energy  dematitis, from carbohydrates, dementia,essential for growth  death and involved in hormone synthesis
    92. 92. Meat, poultry, fish, Infants: 2 – 4 mg NE Children: 6 – 8 mg NEyeast, enriched and Adolescents: 12 – 16 mg NEwhole grain breads Men: 16 mg NE Women: 14 mg NEand cereals, Pregnant Women: 18 mg NEpeanuts, Lactating Women: 17 mg NEmushrooms, milk,and eggs Toxicity(tryptophan)
    93. 93. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5 ) Deficiency Function Infants: 1.7 – 1.8  headache,  help to fight mg Children: 2 – 3  fatigue , allergies mg Adolescents:  impaired  beneficial in 4 – 5 mg Men &  muscle the Women: 5 mg  coordination, maintenance Pregnant Women:  abdominal of healthy 6 mg cramps skin, muscles Lactating  vomiting. Toxicity and nerves Women: 7 mg Sources  Paresthesia  diarrhea  Meat ,  digestive  Broccoli Toxicity  disturbances and  ,avocados water retention
    94. 94. important role in the secretion of hormones,such as cortisone because of the role it playsin supporting the adrenal gland. used in the creation of lipids, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones and to fight allergies and arebeneficial in the maintenance ofhealthy skin, muscles and nerves.helpful to fight wrinkles as well asgraying of the hair.
    95. 95. Biotin (Vitamin B 8) Biotin containing coenzymes participate in key reactions that produce energy from carbohydrate and synthesize fatty acids and protein.Infants: Dermatitis, Raw egg yolk, liver,convulsions, hair peanuts, certain Infants: 5 – 6 μgloss (alopecia), vegetables Children: 8 – 12 μgneurological Adolescents: 20 –disorders, Whole grains, 25 μg Men &impaired growth eggs, nuts and Women: 30 μg seeds, widely Pregnant Women: distributed in 30 μg Lactating small amounts Women: 35 μg
    96. 96. FUNCTION DEFICIENCY Make antibodies. Antibodies are needed to fight many diseases.  Dermatitis, Maintain normal nerve function  anemia, Make hemoglobin. Hemoglobin  convulsion, carries oxygen in the red blood  depression, cells to the tissues.  confusion, Break down proteins. Keep  Decline in blood sugar (glucose) in normal immune ranges function
    97. 97. Sources  Avocado  Banana  Legumes (dried beans)  Meat  Nuts  Poultry  Whole grains  Sunflower seeds,  Spinach Toxicity Infants: 0.1 – 0.3 mg Children: 0.5 – 0.6 mgNone from foods, excess Adolescents: 1.0 -1.3 mg Men &intake above 100 mg/day Women (19 – 50 years): 1.3 mgfrom supplements causes Men over 50 years: 1.4 mg Womenneuropathy (nerve over 50 years: 1.3 mg Pregnant Women: 1.9 mg Lactatingdestruction) and skin lesions Women: 1.2 mg
    98. 98. Vit. B9 Folic acid /folate helps tissues grow and cells  Megaoblastic work. (macrocytic) before and during anemia, pregnancy helps  abdominal pain, prevent certain birth diarrhea, defects, including spina bifida.  birth defects such as helps prevent anemia. tube defects.
    99. 99. Sources Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals, enriched grain products, green vegetables, liver, legumes, oranges. The use of fortified foods are encouraged for all women of child bearing age (15-45 years). None (up to 5 mg/day); intake from fortified food and supplements over 1000 μg/day,Infants: 65 – 80 μg not including food; folate masksChildren: 150 – 200μg vitamin B 12 deficiencyAdolescents: 300 – 400 μg allowing progression of neurological damage.Men & Women: 400 μg/day Supplements containing >400Pregnant Women: 600 μg μg available by prescriptionLactating Women: 500 μg only.
    100. 100. Cyanocobalamin, hydroxycobalamin,methylcobalamin  Pernicious Anemia: FUNCTION  macrocytic anemia, Vitamin B12, like the other B  nervous system vitamins, is important for disturbances;  paresthesia (tingling and metabolism. numbness in limbs), helps in the formation of red  difficulty walking, blood cells and in the  loss of bowel and maintenance of the central bladder control, nervous system.  dementia
    101. 101. Meat, fish, poultry, ready- to-eat fortified breakfast cereals, eggs, fermented dairy products (cheese, yogurt, etc). The use of fortified foods and supplements are recommended for adults 51 and overAcne-like rash [causality is notconclusively established].
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