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Europe presentation

  1. 1. Europe
  2. 2. Europe Area 10,180,000 km² (3,930,000 sq mi) Population 710,000,000 Density 70/km² (181/sq mi)
  3. 3. History of europe – Prehistory – Homo georgicus, which lived roughly 1.8 million years ago in Georgia, is the earliest hominid to have been discovered in Europe. Other hominid remains, dating back roughly 1 million years, have been discovered in Spain. Neanderthal man (named for the Neander Valley in Germany) first migrated to Europe 150,000 years ago and disappeared from the fossil record about 30,000 years ago. The Neanderthals were supplanted by modern humans (Cro-Magnons ), who appeared around 40,000 years ago. During the latter part of this period, a period of megalith construction took place, with many megalithic monuments such as Stonehenge being constructed throughout Europe. – In terms of human society, Prehistoric Europe was inhabited first by nomadic bands, subsequently followed by tribal cultures. Early city-states and states spread broadly from the Fertile Crescent outward around 5000 BC. This led to the various Persian empires and the city-states of Ancient Greece around 700 BC, followed by the Roman Republic that was founded around 500 BC in modern-day Italy. The Roman Republic evolved into the Roman Empire, whose fall in 476 AD led to the northward spread of organized states gradually throughout the rest of Europe over the following millennium.
  4. 4. More history… • Classical antiquity
  5. 5. temple • The Greek Temple of Apollo, Paestum, Italy • Ancient Greece had a profound impact on Western civilization. Western democratic and individualistic culture are often attributed to Ancient Greece.The Greeks invented the polis, or city-state, which played a fundamental role in their concept of identity. These Greek political ideals were rediscovered in the late 18th century by European philosophers and idealists. Greece also generated many cultural contributions: in philosophy, humanism and rationalism under Aristotle, Socrates, and Plato; in history with Herodotus and Thucydides; in dramatic and narrative verse, starting with the epic poems of Homer; and in science with Pythagoras, Euclid, and Archimedes. • Another major influence on Europe came from the Roman Empire which left its mark on law, language, engineering, architecture, and government. During the pax romana, the Roman Empire expanded to encompass the entire Mediterranean Basin and much of Europe.Stoicism influenced emperors such as Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius, who all spent time on the Empire's northern border fighting Germanic, Pictish and Scottish tribes. Christianity was eventually legitimized by Constantine I after three centuries of imperial persecution.
  6. 6. Dark ages
  7. 7. Dark ages… • Roland pledges fealty to Charlemagne, Holy Roman Emperor • During the decline of the Roman Empire, Europe entered a long period of change arising from what historians call the "Age of Migrations". There were numerous invasions and migrations amongst the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Goths, Vandals, Huns, Franks, Angles, Saxons, and, later still, the Vikings and Normans. Renaissance thinkers such as Petrarch would later refer to this as the "Dark Ages". Isolated monastic communities in Ireland, Scotland and elsewhere carefully safeguarded and compiled written knowledge accumulated previously; very few written records survive and much literature, philosophy, mathematics, and other thinking from the classical period disappeared from European popular currency. • During the Dark Ages, the Western Roman Empire fell under the control of Celt, Slav and Germanic tribes. The Celtic tribes established their kingdoms in Gaul, the predecessor to the Frankish kingdoms that eventually became France. The Germanic and Slav tribes established their domains over Central and Eastern Europe respectively. Eventually the Frankish tribes were united under Clovis I. Charlemagne, a Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty who had conquered most of Western Europe, was anointed "Holy Roman Emperor" by the Pope in 800. This led to the founding of the Holy Roman Empire, which eventually became centered in the German principalities of central Europe. The Eastern Roman Empire became known in the west as the Byzantine Empire. Based in Constantinople, they viewed themselves as the natural successors to the Roman Empire. Emperor Justinian I presided over Constantinople's first golden age: he established a legal code, funded the construction of the Hagia Sophia and brought the Christian church under state control. Fatally weakened by the sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, the Byzantines fell in 1453 when they were conquered by the Ottoman Empire.
  8. 8. Middle ages Richard 1 and Philip II, during the Third Crusade
  9. 9. Middle ages • The Middle Ages were dominated by the two upper echelons of the social structure: the nobility and the clergy. Feudalism already developed in France in the Early Middle Ages, but soon spread throughout Europe. The struggle between the nobility and the monarchy in England led to the writing of the Magna Carta and the establishment of a parliament. The primary source of culture in this period came from the Roman Catholic Church. Through monasteries and cathedral schools, the Church was responsible for education in much of Europe. • The Papacy reached the height of its power during the High Middle Ages. The East-West Schism in 1054 split the former Roman Empire religiously, with the Eastern Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire and the Roman Catholic Church in the former Western Roman Empire. In 1095 Pope Urban II called for a crusade against Muslims occupying Jerusalem and the Holy Land. In Europe itself, the Church organized the Inquisition against heretics. In Spain, the Reconquista concluded with the fall of Granada in 1492, ending over seven centuries of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula. • Europe was devastated in the mid-14th century by the Black Death, which killed an estimated 25 million people - a third of the European population at the time.Successive epidemics led to increased religious fervor, a result of which was widespread persecution of Jews.
  10. 10. Early modern period The School of Athens by Raphael. Contemporaries such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci (centre) are portrayed as classical scholars.
  11. 11. Early modern period… • The Renaissance was a period of cultural change originating in Italy in the fourteenth century. The rise of a new humanism was accompanied by the recovery of forgotten classical and Arabic knowledge from monastic libraries and the Islamic world.The Renaissance spread across Europe between the 14th and 16th centuries: it saw the flowering of art, philosophy, music and the sciences, under the joint patronage of royalty, the nobility, the Roman Catholic Church and an emerging merchant class. Patrons in Italy, including the Medici family of Florentine bankers and the Popes in Rome, funded prolific quattrocento and cinquecento artists such as Raphael, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. • Political intrigue within the Church in the mid-14th century caused the Great Schism. During this forty-year period, two popes - one in Avignon and one in Rome - claimed rulership over the Church. Although the schism was eventually healed in 1417, the papacy's spiritual authority had suffered greatly. The Church's power was further weakened by the Protestant Reformation of Martin Luther, a result of the lack of reform within the Church. The Reformation also damaged the Holy Roman Empire's power, as German princes became divided between Protestant and Roman Catholic faiths. This eventually led to the Thirty Years War (1618-1648), which crippled the Holy Roman Empire and devastated much of Germany. In the aftermath of the Peace of Westphalia, France rose to predominance within Europe.
  12. 12. Early modern period… Map of Europe made by Gerardus Mercator
  13. 13. Early modern period… • The Renaissance and the New Monarchs marked the start of an Age of Discovery, a period of exploration, invention, and scientific development. In the 15th century, Portugal and Spain, two of the greatest naval powers of the time, took the lead in exploring the world. Christopher Columbus discovered the New World in the 1498, and soon after the Spanish and Portuguese began establishing colonial empires in the Americas. France, the Netherlands and England soon followed in building large colonial empires with vast holdings in Africa, the Americas, and Asia.
  14. 14. 18th and 19th centuries • The Age of Enlightenment was a powerful intellectual eighteenth century movement in which scientific and reason-based thought predominated. Discontent with the aristocracy and clergy's monopoly on political power in France resulted in the French Revolution and the establishment of the First Republic: the monarchy and many of the nobility perished during the initial reign of terror. Napoleon Bonaparte rose to power in the aftermath of the French Revolution and established the First French Empire that, during the Napoleonic Wars, grew to encompass large parts of Europe before collapsing in 1815 with the Battle of Waterloo. • Napoleonic rule resulted in the further dissemination of the ideals of the French Revolution, including that of nation-state, as well as the widespread adoption of the French model for administration, law and education. The Congress of Vienna was convened after Napoleon's downfall. It established a new balance of power in Europe centered on the five "great powers": the United Kingdom, France, Prussia, Habsburg Austria and Russia. This balance would remain in place until the Revolutions of 1848, during which liberal uprisings affected all of Europe except for Russia and Great Britain. The revolutions were eventually put down by more conservative elements and few reforms resulted. In 1867 the Austro-Hungarian empire was formed; and 1871 saw the unification of Italy and Germany as nation-states from smaller principalities. • The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain in the last part of the 18th century and spread throughout Europe. The invention and implementation of new technology resulted in rapid urban growth, mass employment and the rise of a new working class. Reforms in social and economic spheres followed, including the first laws on child labor , the legalization of Trade Unions and the abolition of slavery. Karl Marx's Manifesto of the Communist Party was published in London in 1848.
  15. 15. 20th century and present
  16. 16. 20th century and present • European military alliances in 1914; Central Powers purplish-red, Entente Powers grey and neutral countries yellow • The first half of the 20th century was dominated by two world wars and an economic depression. World War I was fought between 1914 and 1918. It started when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip. All European nations were drawn into the war, which was fought between two series of alliances: the Entente Powers (led by France, Russia and the United Kingdom, joined later by Italy and the United States) and the Central Powers (led by Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire). The war's casualties, both civilian and military, were around 40 million. World War I changed the map of Europe. Russia was plunged into the Russian Revolution, after which the Tsarist monarchy was replaced by the communist Soviet Union. Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire collapsed and broke up into separate nations, and many other nations had their borders redrawn or eliminated altogether. The Treaty of Versailles was harsh towards Germany, upon whom it placed full responsibility for the war and imposed heavy sanctions. • Economic instability, caused in part by debts incurred from the First World War, brought about the worldwide Great Depression during the 1930s, precipitated by the Wall Street Crash of 1929. Fascist movements developed throughout Europe during the economic crisis, placing leaders Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany, Francisco Franco of Spain and Benito Mussolini of Italy in power.
  17. 17. 20th century and present
  18. 18. 20th century and present • The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference. Seated are Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. • Hitler began slowly expanding Germany's size after coming to power, incorporating Austria with the Anschluss in 1938 and later Czechoslovakia after already annexing the Sudetenland in a move that was highly contested by the other powers but ultimately permitted in hopes of appeasing Hitler. His invasion of Poland in 1939, backed by Soviet troops, prompted France and the United Kingdom to declare war, starting World War II in Europe. In 1940 Germany quickly conquered the Low Countries, Denmark and Norway. Aided by their newly declared allies Italy, they occupied France, but failed in their bombing offensive on Britain. In 1941 they unexpectedly turned on their former Soviet allies with an ultimately unsuccessful invasion of the Soviet Union. Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor drew the United States into the conflict as allies of the British and Free French forces. By 1944 the Germans were being attacked on two fronts: by Soviet forces in the east and by British and U.S. forces in the west. Berlin finally fell in 1945, ending World War II in Europe. The war was the largest and most destructive in human history, with 60 million dead across the world, including between 9 and 11 million people who perished during the Holocaust.
  19. 19. 20th century and present The flag of Europe used by the Council of Europe and European Union
  20. 20. 20th century and present • World War I and especially World War II ended the pre-eminence of Western Europe in world affairs. After World War II the map of Europe was redrawn at the Yalta Conference and divided into two blocs, the Western countries and the communist Eastern bloc, separated by an "iron curtain". The United States and Western Europe established the NATO alliance and later the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe established the Warsaw Pact. The two new superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, became locked in a fifty-year long Cold War, centered on nuclear proliferation. At the same time decolonization, which had already started after World War I, gradually resulted in the independence of most of the European colonies in Asia and Africa. In the 1980s the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev and the solidarity movement in Poland accelerated the collapse of the Eastern bloc and the end of the Cold War. German was reunited, after the symbolic fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and the maps of Eastern Europe had once more to be completely redrawn. • European integration also grew in the post-World War II years. The Treaty of Rome in 1957 established the European Economic Community between six Western European states with the goal of a unified economic policy and common market. In 1967 the EEC, European Coal and Steel Community and Euratom formed the European Community, which in 1993 became the European Union. The EU established a parliament, court and central bank and introduced the euro as a unified currency. Beginning in the 1990s after the end of the Cold War, Eastern European countries began joining, expanding the EU to its current size of 27 European nations.
  21. 21. Geography and extent
  22. 22. Geography and extent • Physiographically, Europe is the northwestern constituent of the larger landmass known as Eurasia, or Afro-Eurasia: Asia occupies the eastern bulk of this continuous landmass and all share a common continental shelf. Europe's eastern frontier is now commonly delineated by the Ural Mountains in Russia. The first century AD geographer Strabo, took the Tanais River to be the boundary, as did early Judaic sources. The southeast boundary with Asia is not universally defined. Most commonly the Ural or, alternatively, the Emba River serve as possible boundaries. The boundary continues to the Caspian Sea, the crest of the Caucasus Mountains or, alternatively, the Kura River in the Caucasus, and on to the Black Sea; the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles conclude the Asian boundary. The Mediterranean Sea to the south separates Europe from Africa. The western boundary is the Atlantic Ocean; Iceland, though nearer to Greenland ( North America) than mainland Europe, is generally included in Europe. There is ongoing debate on where the geographical centre of Europe is. • Because of sociopolitical and cultural differences, there are various descriptions of Europe's boundary; in some sources, some territories are not included in Europe, while other sources include them. For instance, geographers from Russia and other post-Soviet states generally include the Urals in Europe while including Caucasia in Asia. Similarly, numerous geographers consider Azerbaijan's and Armenia's southern border with Iran and Turkey's southern and eastern border with Syria, Iraq and Iran as the boundary between Asia and Europe because of political and cultural reasons. In the same way, despite being close to Asia and Africa, the Mediterranean islands of Cyprus and Malta are considered part of Europe.
  23. 23. Language
  24. 24. Language • European languages mostly fall within three language groups: the Romance languages, derived from the Latin language of the Roman Empire; the Germanic languages, whose ancestor language came from southern Scandinavia; and the Slavic languages. • Romance languages are spoken primarily in south-western Europe as well as Romania and Moldova which are situated in Eastern Europe. Germanic languages are spoken more or less in north-western Europe and some parts of central Europe. Slavic languages are spoken in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. • Many other languages outside the three main groups are spoken in Europe. The English language is unique among Germanic languages, having much of its vocabulary descended from Romance languages. The Celtic language group is also a distinct group like the Romance, Germanic and Slavic language groups, and though it has largely disappeared from daily use, there are still varying numbers of speakers of each of the six Celtic languages: Irish , Scottish Gaelic and Manx, and Welsh, Cornish and Breton. • Multilingualism and the protection of regional and minority languages are recognized political goals in Europe today. The Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and the Council of Europe's European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages set up a legal framework for language rights in Europe.
  25. 25. Religions
  26. 26. Religions • Christianity – Roman Catholicism: Countries or areas with significant Catholic populations are Andorra, Austria, west Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, France, south and west Germany, Hungary, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Latgale region in Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, south Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, central and south Switzerland, west Ukraine, and Vatican City. There are also large Catholic minorities in the United Kingdom (especially in Northern Ireland), and most European countries. – Eastern-Rite Catholicism also known as "Uniatism", is found in western Ukraine, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Armenia, Hungary, the Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Slovakia, southern Italy (Sardinia and Sicily) and Corsica, France. – Orthodox Christianity: The countries with significant Orthodox populations are Greece, Russia, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Armenia, Serbia, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, easternmost Hungary, a small minority in Southern Italy, Kazakhstan, sizable minorities in Albania, Latvia and Lithuania, small minority in Poland, Finland (Karelia). – Protestantism: Countries with significant Protestant populations include Denmark, Estonia, Finland, north and east Germany, Iceland, Latvia, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden; east, north and west Switzerland; and the United Kingdom. There are significant minorities in France, the northwestern Piedmont region of Italy, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and the Republic of Ireland, and a small minority in Poland.
  27. 27. Religions Islam: Countries with significant Muslim population are Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Greece, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Montenegro, several republics of Russia, Serbia, Turkey, Crimea in Ukraine, and, from Western Europe, France.
  28. 28. Religions • Other religions are practiced by smaller groups in Europe, including: • Judaism primarily in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Russia and Italy. At one time Judaism was practiced widely throughout the European continent, though it has dwindled in numbers since the expulsion, extermination, and exodus of Jews during the later portion of the second millennium. • Hinduism mainly among Indian immigrants in the United Kingdom. In 1998 there were an estimated 1,382,000 Hindu adherents in Europe alone • Buddhism thinly spread throughout Europe, about 3 million. • Indigenous European pagan traditions and beliefs, many countries (a fast-growing neopagan movement in France, Germany, ROI and UK is noted), and one neopagan faith Asatru recognized as a minority religion in Iceland (since 1973), Norway and Sweden. • Rastafari, communities in the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy and elsewhere. • Sikhism and Jainism, small membership rolls, both mainly among Indian immigrants in the United Kingdom. • Voodoo, mainly among black Caribbean and West African immigrants in the United Kingdom and France. • Traditional African Religions (including Muti), mainly in the United Kingdom and France.
  29. 29. Religions Other religions with few (or under a million) adherents in Europe: Animism, Christian Scientists, Eco-religion, Gnosticism, Paganism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mennonites, Moravian Church, Mormonism or Latter-day Saints, Pantheism, Polytheism, theological relativism, Scientology, Seventh-day Adventists, Universal Life Church, Unitarians, Wiccan, and Zoroastrianism.
  30. 30. Official Religions • A number of countries in Europe have official religions, including Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, the Vatican City (Catholic), Greece (Eastern Orthodox), Denmark, Iceland, and Norway (Lutheran). In Switzerland, some cantons are officially Catholic, others Reformed Protestant. Some Swiss villages even have their religion as well as the village name written on the signs at their entrances. • Georgia has no established church, but the Georgian Orthodox Church enjoys de facto privileged status. In Finland, both the Finnish Orthodox Church and the Lutheran Church are official. England, a part of the UK, has Anglicanism as its official religion. Scotland, another part of the UK, has Presbyterianism as its national church, but it is no longer "official". In Sweden, the national church is Lutheranism, but it is also no longer "official". Azerbaijan, France, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain and Turkey are officially "secular".
  31. 31. Europe population • Belarus • Bulgaria • CzechRepublic • Hungary • Moldovab • Poland • Romania • Russiac • Slovakia • Ukraine • 10,335,382 • 7,621,337 • 10,256,760 • 10,075,034 • 4,434,547 • 38,625,478 • 21,698,181 • 106,037,143 • 5,422,366 • 48,396,470
  32. 32. • Åland (Finland) • Denmark • Estonia • Faroe Islands (Denmark) • Finland • Guernseyd • Iceland • Ireland • Isle of Mand • Jerseyd • Latvia • Lithuania • Norway • Svalbard and JanMayen Islands (Norway) • Sweden • United Kingdom • 26,008 • 5,368,854 • 1,415,681 • 46,011 • 5,157,537 • 64,587 • 307,261 • 4,234,925 • 73,873 • 89,775 • 2,366,515 • 3,601,138 • 4,525,116 • 2,868 • 9,090,113 • 61,100,835
  33. 33. • Albania • Andorra • Bosnia and Herzegovina • Croatia • Gibraltar (UK) • Greece • Italy • Macedonia • Malta • Montenegro • Portugal • SanMarino • Serbia • Slovenia • Spain • Vatican City • 3,600,523 • 68,403 • 4,448,500 • 4,437,460 • 27,714 • 10,645,343 • 58,751,711 • 2,054,800 • 397,499 • 616,258 • 10,084,245 • 27,730 • 9,663,742 • 1,932,917 • 45,061,274 • 900
  34. 34. • Austria • Belgium • France • Germany • Liechtenstein • Luxembourg • Monaco • Netherlands • Switzerland • Kazakhstan • Azerbaijan • Georgia • Turkey • 8,169,929 • 10,274,595 • 59,765,983 • 83,251,851 • 32,842 • 448,569 • 31,987 • 16,318,199 • 7,507,000 • 600,000 • 175,200 • 37,52 • 70,044,932
  35. 35. Total: •709,608,850 Population in Europe
  36. 36. Economy
  37. 37. Economy • As a continent, the economy of Europe is currently the largest on Earth. The European Union, or EU, an intergovernmental body composed of most of the European states, is one of the two largest in the world. Of the member states in the EU, Germany has the largest national economy, being 3rd largest globally, and the UK has the 2nd largest, at 5th place globally. Fifteen EU countries share a common unit of currency, the euro. Major economic sectors in Europe include agriculture, manufacturing, and investment. The majority of the EU's trade is with the United States, China, India, Russia and non-member European states.