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What is RTI?
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What is RTI?



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  • There are many models of RTI. This represents the Standard Treatment Protocol and has a great deal of research to support it.


  • 1. Changes to IDEA 2004 offer alternatives to IQ Discrepancy model (Atlas)
  • 2. RTI: Response to Intervention
    • A relatively new process designed to identify students with specific learning disabilities
    • Included as a possibility (not requirement) in IDEA 2004
    • Alternative to previously used IQ-Discrepancy Model
  • 3. IQ Discrepancy Model
    • Used for last several decades
    • Based upon a discrepancy between student’s IQ as measured by a standardized test and performance in content area tasks (reading or math)
        • IQ Discrepancy explained (Atlas)
  • 4. Problems with IQ Discrepancy Model
    • Tests are not able to identify this discrepancy until later grade levels (3 rd grade or later)
      • Child has been struggling all along and may have experienced years of frustration
      • Does not discriminate between lack of effective instruction and LD
      • Does not provide information to guide future instruction (what works; what doesn’t work)
      • “ Wait to Fail” process
        • Explanation of Wait to Fail (Atlas)
      • Does not capture ability outside of IQ
      • May not effectively identify ELL or Bilingual students
        • Expert explanation from IRIS
    • Most School Districts still use the IQ Discrepancy Model
    • The IQ-achievement discrepancy model is an already established practice.
    • It is relatively easy to employ.
    • A teacher does not have to spend a great amount of time in the identification process because a certified diagnostician or school psychologist conducts the IQ and achievement tests.
    • The identification procedure only requires a one-time assessment.
  • 5. RTI Components
    • Universal screening : All students are given a screening measure. Students at risk for academic failure are identified.
    • Tier 1 : Students receive effective instruction in the general education setting, using validated practices. Student progress is monitored on a weekly basis. (In some approaches, universal screening is considered part of Tier 1.)
    • Tier 2 : Students whose progress is less than desired receive different or additional support from the classroom teacher or another educational professional. Student progress continues to be monitored.
    • Tier 3 : Students whose progress is still insufficient in Tier 2 may receive even more intensive instruction, which can be provided in a variety of ways. Then, depending on a state's or district's policies, students may qualify for special education services based on the progress monitoring data, or they may receive either an abbreviated or comprehensive evaluation for the identification of a learning disability.
  • 6. Expected to help ~80-85% of students be successful Offered to ~15% of students not successful in Tier 1 ~5% of students – not special ed yet Explanation of RTI process (Atlas) Universal Screening ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION Assessments determine if interventions are successful or if students need more help
  • 7. Practice with RTI
    • From IRIS
  • 8. So…Why RTI?
    • Greater potential for early intervening than IQ Discrepancy model
      • No “wait to fail” long-term struggle for student
    • Continued targeted instruction in the classroom before special education i.d.
    • Greater potential to prevent false positives resulting from ineffective instruction or test language bias rather than LD
    • Uses ongoing classroom data rather than 1 time test (increasingly frequent monitoring)
    • Informs classroom practice
    "Of those with 'specific learning disabilities,' 80 percent are there [in special education] simply because they haven't learned how to read ...The reading difficulties may not be their only area of difficulty, but it is the area that resulted in special education placement." (President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education, 2002) Credit: IRIS
  • 9. Try It…
    • What are the two options for identifying students with learning disabilities? Briefly summarize each one.
    • List at least four benefits of using an RTI approach with struggling students.
    • Compton is a first-grade student at Rosa Parks Elementary School. His teacher, having administered a universal screening measure, has identified Compton as a struggling reader. Name and explain the first step in the RTI approach that she should consider when trying to help Compton.
    • Assume that your recommendation for Question 3 was implemented; unfortunately, Compton's progress continues to be insufficient. Name and explain the next step in the RTI approach.
    From IRIS
  • 10. Sources
    • The IRIS Center Special Education Resources for Inclusion, Scientifically-Validated and Evidence-Based Instructional Strategies, Peabody College of Education, Vanderbilt University
    • The Atlas Initiative for Public Education