Job Analysis Job Design and Job AcquisitionMarissa D. TanDiscussant
A job analysis is the process used to collectinformation about the duties, responsibilities, necessaryskills, outcomes, and work environment of a particularjob. A JOB DESCRIPTION is often the outcome of asuccessful Job Analysis.Explanation: It is the formal process of identifying thecontent of a job in terms of activities involved andattributes needed to perform the work and identifiesmajor job requirements. Job analysis was conceptualizedby two of the founders of industrial/organizationalpsychology, Frederick Taylor and Lillian Moller Gilbreth inthe early 20th century. Job analyses provideinformation to organizations which helps to determinewhich employees are best fit for specific jobs.
industrial / organizationalpsychologists are often the professionals whoperform job analysis. These professionals use either a task-oriented or worker-oriented approach. The task-orientedapproach focuses on identifying each individual task involvedin performing the job well. The worker-oriented approachfocuses on the attributes need in a prospective employee toperform the job successfully. The Occupational InformationNetwork (O*NET) is an online website which provides analysesof a variety of jobs.Purpose : The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish anddocument the job relatedness of employment proceduressuch as training, selection,compensation, and performanceappraisal
trainingJob Analysis can be used in training/"needsassessment" to identify or develop:1. Training content2. Assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training3. Equipment to be used in delivering the training4. Methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video, classroom)
selection proceduresJob Analysis can be used in selection procedures toidentify or develop:1.Job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;2.Appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate;3.Minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants; . Interview questions;5.Selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations);6. Applicant appraisal/evaluation forms;7.Orientation materials for applicants/new hires
compensationJob Analysis can be used in compensation toidentify or determine:1. Skill levels2. Compensable job factors3. Work environment (e.g., hazards; attention;physical effort)4. Responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)5.Required level of education (indirectly related tosalary level)
performance reviewJob Analysis can be used in performance review toidentify or develop:1. Goals and objectives2. Performance standards3. Evaluation criteria4. Length of probationary periods5. Duties to be evaluated is the frequent outcome ofthe job analysis. Additional outcomes includerecruiting plans, position postings and advertisements,and performance development planning within yourperformance management system.
methods of job analysisSeveral methods exist that may be used individuallyor in combination. These include:1. Review of job classification systems2. Incumbent interviews3. Supervisor interviews4. Expert Panels5. Structured questionnaires6. Task inventories7. Check Lists8. Open-ended questionnaires9.Observation10.Incumbent work logs
observation methodsObservation methods consist of direct observation, workmethods analysis, technique of critical incident.1. Direct observationThis form is based on analysis of job in order to observe andmake records of behaviors/events/activities/tasks/dutieswhen something is happening.2. Work methoDs analysisThe form of analysis on work methods is applicable todescribe manual and repeated manufacturing jobs, forexample the jobs of assembly-line. Such analysis on workmethods consists of analysis of time, motion study andmicro-motion.
3. critical inciDent technique (cit moDel)The method of critical incident technique is applied todiscover behaviors towards working condition which canhelp classify performance into good and bad level.
interview method This tool is considered to be very useful to analysis ofjobs. In which questions are given to both incumbents andsupervisors under such form of individual or a group.Interview consists of structured Interviews, unstructuredinterview, open-ended questions questionnaire methoDsQuestionnaire methods includes 6 techniques as follows:1. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ model)2. Functional job analysis (FJA model)3. Work Profiling System (WPS model) MOSAIC model4. Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ model)5. Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS model)
OTHER METHODS OF JOB ANALYSIS1. Task Inventory2. Job element method3. Diary method4. Checklists and rating scales5. Competency profiling6. Examining Manuals/reference materials7. Technical conference8. Threshold Traits Analysis System (TTAS model)
What Aspects of a Job Are Analyzed?Job Analysis should collect information on thefollowing areas:1.Duties and Tasks2.Environment3.Tools and Equipment4.Relationships Supervision given and received5.Relationships with internal or external people6.Requirements
banK tellerGeneral PurposeAccurately and efficiently process and recordroutine transactions for bank customersincluding cashing checks, accepting depositsand withdrawals, processing loan payments andmoney transfers. Promote and advise on thebanks products and services.
banK tellerMain Job Tasks and Responsibilities■ receive and count working cash at beginning of shift■ identify customers, validate and cash checks■ accept cash and checks for deposit and check accuracy of deposit slip■ process cash withdrawals■ perform specialized tasks such as preparing cashiers checks, personal money orders, issuing travelers checks and exchangingforeign currency■ perform services for customers such as ordering bank cards and checks■ receive and verify loan payments, mortgage payments and utility bill payments■ record all transactions promptly, accurately and in compliance with bank procedures ■balance currency, cash and checks in cashdrawer at end of each shift■ answer inquiries regarding checking and savings accounts and other bank related products■ attempt to resolve issues and problems with customers accounts■ initiate new accounts■ explain, advise on and promote bank products and services to customers
Education and Experience *** College diploma or equivalent (Board Passer)■ some clerical, administrative, cash handling, sales or customer service experience preferred■ knowledge of customer service principles■ relevant computer skills■ on-the-job training usually providedKey Competencies ■ strong numerical ability ■ good listening and communication skills ■ customer service orientation ■ accuracy and attention to detail ■problem solving ■ honesty and integrity ■ judgment ■ stress tolerance ■ adaptability
job descriptionsare written statements that describe the: duties,responsibilities,most important contributions and outcomes needed from aposition, required qualifications of candidates, andreporting relationship and coworkers of a particular job.Job descriptions are based on objective informationobtained through job analysis, an understanding of thecompetencies and skills required to accomplish neededtasks, and the needs of the organization to produce work.They clearly identify and spell out the responsibilities of aspecific job. Job descriptions also include information aboutworking conditions, tools, equipment used, knowledge andskills needed, and relationships with other positions.
JOB DESIGN is the process of defining how work will be performedand the tasks that will be required in a given job.JOB REDESIGN refers to changing the tasks or the way work isperformed in an existing job.This can be done most effectively through understanding the trade-offs between certainDesign Approaches:I.MECHANISTIC APPROACH This most often entails reducing the complexity of the work to providemore human efficiency that is, making the work so simple that anyone can betrained quickly and easily to perform it.The Mechanistic Approach focuses on designing jobs around the concepts ofTASK SPECIALIZATION, SKILL SIMPLIFICATION, AND REPETITION. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT was one of the earliest and best known styleof Mechanistic Approach. An example of this is the Time and Motion Studiesto identify the most efficient movements for workers to make.
II. MOTIVATIONAL APPROACH It focuses on the job characteristics that affect Psychological meaning and motivational potential and it views Attitudinal Variables (such as satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, job involvement) and Behavioral Variables (such as performance and attendance) as the most important outcomes of a Job Design. Job Design interventions emphasizing the Motivational Approach tend to focus on increasing the meaningfulness of jobs.
A model of how job design affects employee reactions is thee“JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL”. According to this model, jobs can bedescribed in terms of 5 characteristics:1.SKILL VARIETY-is the extent that a job that requires a variety of skillsto carry out the tasks.2.TASK IDENTITY- is the degree to which a job requires completingwhole piece of work from beginning to end.3. AUTONOMY-is the degree to which the job allows an individual to make decisions about the way the work will be carried out.4.FEEDBACK-is the extent to which a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself.5.TASK SIGNIFICANCE-is the extent to which a job has an importantimpact on the lives of other people.
III. BIOLOGICAL APPROACHThe Biological Approach to job design comes primarily from thesciences of Biology, (ex. The Study of Body Movements), workphysiology, and occupational medicine and it is usually referred toas ERGONOMICS.ERGONOMICS is concerned with examining the interface betweenindividuals’ physiological characteristics and the physical workenvironment.Goal: To minimize the physical strain on the worker by structuringthe physical work environment around the way the human bodyworks.Focus: Outcomes such as physical fatigue, aches, and pains,health complaints.
IV. PERCEPTUAL – MOTOR APPROACHThe Perceptual – Motor Approach to Job Design has roots in human –factors literature.Focus: Human mental capabilities and limitations.Goal: To design jobs in a way that ensures they do not exceedpeople’s mental capabilities and limitations. This approachgenerally tries to improve reliability, safety and user reactions bydesigning jobs to reduce information-processing requirements.
job evaluationjob evaluation is a practical technique, designed toenable trained and experienced staff to judge the size of onejob relative to others. It does not directly determine pay levels,but will establish the basis for an internal ranking of jobs.Explanation:Job evaluation evaluates selected job factors, which are regarded asimportant for the effective performance of the job, according to oneof several alternative methods. The resulting numerical gradings canform the basis of an equitable structure of job gradings. The jobgrades may or may not be used for status or payment purposes.Job evaluation is essentially one part of a tripartite subject, which iscollectively referred to as job study (other names exist). Thethree parts are Job Analysis; Job Evaluation - the information collectedis evaluated using a numerical scale or ranking and ratingmethodology; and Merit Rating - BSI definition (32542).
The two most common methods of job evaluation that havebeen used are:1.whole job ranKing , where jobs are taken as awhole and ranked against each other.2.the second method is one of awardingpoints for various aspects of the job. Inthe points system various aspects or parts of the job such aseducation and experience required to perform the job areassessed and a points value awarded - the higher the educationalrequirements of the job the higher the points scored. The mostwell known points scheme was introduced by Hay managementconsultants in 1951. This scheme evaluates job responsibilities inthe light of three major factors - know how, problem solving andaccountability. (POSITION RANKING)
Some Principles of Job Evaluation1. Clearly defined and identifiable jobs must exist. These jobs will be accurately described in an agreed job description.2. All jobs in an organization will be evaluated using an agreed job evaluation scheme.3.Job evaluators will need to gain a thorough understanding of the job4. Job evaluation is concerned with jobs, not people. It is not theperson that is being evaluated.5.The job is assessed as if it were being carried out in a fully competent and acceptable manner.6.Job evaluation is based on judgment and is not scientific. However if applied correctly it can enable objective judgments to be made.7.It is possible to make a judgment about a jobs contribution relative to other jobs in an organization.8.The real test of the evaluation results is their acceptability to all participants.9.Job evaluation can aid organizational problem solving as it highlights duplication of tasks and gaps between jobs and functions.10.Job Evaluation
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