Effects of a Scaffold on Quality of Goals Set By Undergraduate Students


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Webster, Miller, Hadwin (2012). Effects of a Scaffold on Quality of Goals Set By Undergraduate Students. Paper presented at CSSE, Waterloo, ON.

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Effects of a Scaffold on Quality of Goals Set By Undergraduate Students

  1. 1. Effects of a Scaffold on Quality of Goals Set By Undergraduate Students Elizabeth A. Webster, Mariel Miller, & Allyson F. Hadwin This research was funded by a SSHRC Standard Research Grant 410-2008-0700 (A. Hadwin) and a SSHRC Doctoral Fellowship (E. Webster).University Technology Integration &of Victoria 1 Evaluation Research Lab
  2. 2. Self-Regulated Learning  Active regulation of cognitions, motivation, and behaviours to accomplish goals  Successful self-regulated learners take control of their own learning by  Setting task-specific goals  Selectively using metacognitive, motivational, and learning strategies  Adapting in the face of challengesUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 2 Evaluation Research Lab
  3. 3. Winne & Hadwin’s Model of SRL Phase 1: Task Perceptions Phase 4: Monitoring Phase 2: Goal Large Scale & Setting & Adaptation Evaluating Planning Phase 3: Task EnactmentUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 3 Evaluation Research Lab
  4. 4. Properties of Effective Goals in SRL  Specific  Short-term  Challenging yet attainable  Learning vs. performance  Self-set vs. assignedUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 4 Evaluation Research Lab
  5. 5. Challenges with Goal Setting  Setting vague, long-term goals rather than goals to guide specific study episodes Get started! Organize myself or my time. Stay on top of my work and catch up on all my readings.University Technology Integration &of Victoria 5 Evaluation Research Lab
  6. 6. TASC Goals imeframe  2 hours or less  Monitor progress frequently ctions  Cognitive processing  Guide strategy choice tandard  Concrete criterion  Evaluate progress ontent/concepts  Specific course material  Identify and focus on specific elementsUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 6 Evaluation Research Lab
  7. 7. Goal-Related Perceptions  Goal efficacy  Perceived goal difficulty  Perceived goal attainmentUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 7 Evaluation Research Lab
  8. 8. Supporting Goal Setting  Our past research  Goal setting prompt State one goal you have for improving your learning next week.  Problem: goal quality not high enoughUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 8 Evaluation Research Lab
  9. 9. Purpose & Research Questions  Examine how students might be better supported in setting high quality studying goals 1. How does a scaffolded goal setting prompt contribute to goal quality and goal perceptions? 2. Do goal quality and goal perceptions change over time? 3. Are goal quality and goal perceptions related to academic performance?University Technology Integration &of Victoria 9 Evaluation Research Lab
  10. 10. METHODSUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 10 Evaluation Research Lab
  11. 11. Research Setting  ED-D 101: Learning Strategies for University Success  Lecture  Week 3: Goal setting module  Lab (10-20 students)  Weekly goal settingUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 11 Evaluation Research Lab
  12. 12. Personal Planning Tool (PPT)  Weekly diary  Cycle of planning & reflecting anchored in day- to-day studying practices  Supports SRL and promotes transfer of SRL cycles across study episodesUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 12 Evaluation Research Lab
  13. 13. GOAL PERCEIVED DIFFICULTY 1 = easy to 5 = extremely challenging GOAL EFFICACY 1 = cannot do it at all to 5 = highly certain I can do it]University Technology Integration &of Victoria 13 Evaluation Research Lab
  14. 14. PERCEIVED ATTAINMENT 1 = did not attain it at all to 5 = fully attained itUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 14 Evaluation Research Lab
  15. 15. Conditions Open-Ended Condition (PPT A) Scaffolded Condition (PPT B) For the task you selected above, set My goal is to define one goal for this week. Remember a explain good goal statement includes analyze information about: what action, what course content or concepts, when (day, What? (Course concepts or content) time, duration) & to what degree, _______________________________ amount, or standard. _______________________________ When? (day, time) _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ To what degree, amount, or standard? _______________________________ _______________________________University Technology Integration &of Victoria 15 Evaluation Research Lab
  16. 16. 97 Participants Open-Ended Scaffolded n 43 54 Female 60.5% 51.9% Age (SD) 19.1 yrs (2.6) 19.4 yrs (4.1) High school avg (SD) 81.1% (7.5) 80.9% (6.4) Term GPA (SD) 5.0/9.0 (1.7) 5.0/9.0 (1.3) 1st year 59.5% 50.0% Faculty of social 53.5% 44.4% scienceUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 16 Evaluation Research Lab
  17. 17. Timeline Goal Quality Coding Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 PPT A PPT A PPT A Intervention Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 PPT A PPT A PPT A PPT A PPT A PPT A PPT B PPT B PPT B PPT B PPT B PPT B Goal Quality Coding Week 10 Week 11 Week 12 PPT A PPT A PPT AUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 17 Evaluation Research Lab
  18. 18. Coding Goal Quality  565 goals  2 independent coders  Coded each TASC criterion  0 (absent), 1 (weak), or 2 (strong)  Overall quality score out of 8  Grouped goals into  Weak (0-2)  Moderate (3-4)  Good (5-6)  Excellent (7-8)  Discrepancies resolved through discussionUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 18 Evaluation Research Lab
  19. 19. Goal Quality Level of % quality Description Example (N = 565) (score) •Few or no properties of TASC My goal is to balance my work with my own spare time. I plan Weak goals on reading ahead in both my Soc and Poli textbooks before 14.0% next class. I dont have a specific time for this task to be done (1) •Often planning goals or too as long as I strive myself to read ahead before the next class. vague •At least two properties of TASC On monday my task is to go to the library and find useful goals resources for my essay. The following day I will give myself an Moderate 36.5% •Often behavioural in nature hour to read over my sources and choose which sources will (2) be useful. By thursday night my goal is to have an outline and and/or to-do lists thesis statement for my essay. •At least three properties of For PSYC test 2 on Friday, re-create a table of brain structures TASC goals (brain areas, hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain) and organize Good specific functions for each of those brains. Explain in my words 34.3% •Overall goal is good (3) how each function works and relate each other. •Missing one property or weak in two properties •All four properties of TASC Friday from 10:30 to 12:30, I will analyze the different DC goals Motor Speed vs Torque plots obtained from the lab 3 data and Excellent 15.2% •Overall goal is strong be able to explain (in-depth) the effects of using terminal (4) voltage, field current, and series resistance in speed control of DC motors.University Technology Integration &of Victoria 19 Evaluation Research Lab
  20. 20. FINDINGSUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 20 Evaluation Research Lab
  21. 21. Q1: Did Scaffolding Affect Goal Quality and Goal Perceptions?  No difference between open-ended and scaffolded conditions at end of semester  RM MANOVA assessing change over time in goal quality, goal efficacy, perceived difficulty, perceived attainment  Mean scores at beginning (Weeks 1/2/3) and end (Weeks 10/11/12) of the semester  No interaction  F(4, 91) = .83, p = .512, partial 2 = .04University Technology Integration &of Victoria 21 Evaluation Research Lab
  22. 22. Q2: Did Goal Quality and Goal Perceptions Change Over Time?  Main effect of time  F(4, 91) = 27.04, p < .001, partial 2 = .54 Beginning End Repeated-measures ANOVA (T1, T2, T3) (T10, T11, T12) Partial M SD M SD F p 2 Goal qualitya 2.23 0.60 2.81 0.76 74.84 <.001 .44 Goal efficacyb 3.97 0.58 4.09 0.70 2.52 .116 .03 Perceived 3.25 0.65 3.42 0.71 4.55 .036 .05 difficultyb Perceived 3.74 0.77 4.03 0.87 8.09 .005 .08 attainmentb Note. N = 96. aGoal quality scored on a scale from 1 to 4. bRated on a scale from 1 to 5.University Technology Integration &of Victoria 22 Evaluation Research Lab
  23. 23. Distribution of Goal Quality at Beginning and End of Semester 179 156 124 97 Weak/Moderate Good/Excellent Beginning EndUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 23 Evaluation Research Lab
  24. 24. Q3: Were Goal Quality and Goal Perceptions Related to Term GPA? Term GPA r p Goal quality Beginning .40 <.001 End .37 <.001 Goal efficacy Beginning .24 .020 End .15 .152 Perceived difficulty Beginning -.02 .836 End .08 .425 Perceived attainment Beginning .26 .011 End .20 .046 Note. N = 96.University Technology Integration &of Victoria 24 Evaluation Research Lab
  25. 25. DISCUSSIONUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 25 Evaluation Research Lab
  26. 26. Supporting Goal Setting  Higher goal quality associated with higher term GPA  Students can learn to set high quality goals  Instruction in effective goal setting  Weekly practice  Evolving goal setting promptUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 26 Evaluation Research Lab
  27. 27. Original Revised Prompt Prompt State one goal you have for improving For the task you selected above, set one your learning next week. goal for this week. Remember a good goal statement includes information about: what action, what course content or concepts, when (day, time, duration) & to what degree, amount, or standard. This week while studying for my psychology midterm I will make a mind map of the different fields of psychology. I will cover their main ideas, main For this week my goal is to create a conecpt map for psychologists, and other key terms. This will help me to Econ 205 making connections from chapters 8 visually see the differences so that I can compare and (monopolys) and 9 (oligopolies). Using the connections, contrast them during the test when the question comes I will formulate a paragraph summarizing the chapters up. I will do this Friday morning for 2 hours. The mind using at least 5 of the connections mentioned in the map will be colourful and contain pictures as well as concept map. I will do this goal from 7-8PM Thursday words. night. My goal for this week is to work on my math practice Friday from 10:30 to 12:30, I will analyze the different problems and readings for an hour and half every day in DC Motor Speed vs Torque plots obtained from the lab order to begin to understand how to use matrices when 3 data and be able to explain (in-depth) the effects of solving algebraic problems, and i wish further my using terminal voltage, field current, and series understanding of chapter 8 probability concepts. resistance in speed control of DC motors.University Technology Integration &of Victoria 27 Evaluation Research Lab
  28. 28. Current Goal Setting PromptUniversity Technology Integration &of Victoria 28 Evaluation Research Lab
  29. 29. THANK YOU!University Technology Integration &of Victoria 29 Evaluation Research Lab