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  2. 2. What Is Geography?The word derives from the Greek words gê ("the Earth") and graphein ("to write", as in "to describe"). The study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on the earth, including human life and the effects of human activity. The science which involves a combination of physical and cultural disciplines which are used to describe, explain and help us to understand our environment and our relationship to it.
  3. 3. Divisions of Geography Physical geography is the branch of geography dealing with the natural features of the earth, the home of humans. Consists of the systematic study of the origin, distribution, and significance of the major physical features of the earth such as landforms, climates, the oceans, and the natural resources.
  4. 4. Divisions of Geography Cultural geography is the branch of geography dealing with human culture and its impact on the earth. Such subjects as the distribution of population, various settlement patterns, and the features resulting from man’s productive activities in earning a living.
  5. 5. 7 CONTINENTS OF THE WORLD Europe Asia North America South America Australia Africa Antarctica
  6. 6. 5 OCEANS OF THE WORLD The planet is approximately 71% water and contains (5) five oceans, including the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Southern. For many years only (4) four oceans were officially recognized, and then in the spring of 2000, the International Hydrographic Organization established the Southern Ocean.
  7. 7. 5 OCEANS OF THE WORLD Pacific (155,557,000 sq km) Atlantic (76,762,000 sq km) Indian (68,556,000 sq km) Southern (20,327,000 sq km) Arctic (14,056,000 sq km)
  8. 8. Equator and Prime Meridian The Equator, that imaginary horizontal line at 0º degrees latitude at the center of the earth, divides the earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The vertical imaginary line called the Prime Meridian, at 0º degrees longitude, and its twin line of longitude, opposite the Prime Meridian at 180º longitude, divides the earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.
  9. 9.  Generally the Eastern Hemisphere includes most of Africa, about half of Antarctica, all of Asia and Australia/Oceania, and most of Europe. The Western Hemisphere includes about half of Antarctica and all of North and South America which includes the Caribbean and Central America as well as Greenland. The Northern Hemisphere includes all of North America, the northern reaches of South America, about two-thirds of Africa, all of Asia excluding (parts of Indonesia) and all of Europe. The Southern Hemisphere includes of most of South America, one- third of Africa, all of Antarctica, a small sliver of Asia (parts of Indonesia) and all of Australia/Oceania.
  10. 10. LATITUDE & LONGITUDE Latitude (shown as a horizontal line) is the angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds of a point north or south of the Equator. Lines of latitude are often referred to as parallels. Longitude (shown as a vertical line) is the angular distance, in degrees, minutes, and seconds, of a point east or west of the Prime (Greenwich) Meridian. Lines of longitude are often referred
  11. 11.  Minutes and Seconds For precision purposes, degrees of longitude and latitude have been divided into minutes () and seconds ("). There are 60 minutes in each degree. Each minute is divided into 60 seconds. Seconds can be further divided into tenths, hundredths, or even thousandths.
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