English 28   classical mythology introduction
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English 28 classical mythology introduction

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    English 28   classical mythology introduction English 28 classical mythology introduction Presentation Transcript

    • Classical Mythology
    • Greeks • Once lived a savage, brutal, and ugly life. • The myths – creation of great poets • The Iliad – attributed to Homer – First written record of Greece – Contains the oldest Greek literature
    • • In Greece, man first realized what mankind was. • The Greeks made their gods in their own image. • Before, gods had no semblance of relaity • Pre- Greek – worshipped sphinx ( a lion’s body with a woman’s face) • In Egypt – god for them was a rigid figure, a woman with a cat’s head, suggesting inflexible, inhuman cruelty.
    • • All the art and all the though of Greece is centered in human beings. • Human gods naturally made heaven a pleasantly familiar place. • On earth, too, the deities was exceedingly and humanly attractive. • The miracle of Greek mythology – a humanized world, men freed from the paralyzing fear of an omnipotent Unknown.
    • The terrifying irrational has The terrifying irrational has NO PLACE in classical NO PLACE in classical mythology; same with Magic, mythology; same with Magic, witches (Circe and Medea are witches (Circe and Medea are the only witches, but they are the only witches, but they are young and of surpassing young and of surpassing beauty – delightful, not beauty – delightful, not horrible.), no astrology, horrible.), no astrology, magical priest, and even magical priest, and even ghosts. ghosts. The Greeks were NOT AFRAID The Greeks were NOT AFRAID of the dead. of the dead.
    • The early Greek mythologists The early Greek mythologists transformed a world full of transformed a world full of fear to a world full of beauty. fear to a world full of beauty.
    • However, the gods often acted However, the gods often acted in a way no decent man or in a way no decent man or woman would. woman would. They could act cruelly or They could act cruelly or contemptibly. contemptibly.
    • Other Dark Spots: Other Dark Spots: There were beast-gods. There were beast-gods. Satyrs – goat-men (wood-dwelling Satyrs – goat-men (wood-dwelling creature with the head and body of a man creature with the head and body of a man and the ears, horns, and legs of a goat and the ears, horns, and legs of a goat Centaur – half man, half horse (a creature Centaur – half man, half horse (a creature with the head, arms, and torso of a man with the head, arms, and torso of a man joined to the body of a horse at its neck. joined to the body of a horse at its neck.
    • Mythical Monsters: Mythical Monsters: Gorgon --monstrous woman with snakes for hair Gorgon monstrous woman with snakes for hair who turned those who looked at her into stone who turned those who looked at her into stone Hydra --a monster that had nine heads and was Hydra a monster that had nine heads and was killed by Heracles. When one head was cut off, killed by Heracles. When one head was cut off, another grew instantly in its place. another grew instantly in its place. Chimaera --a female fire-breathing monster, Chimaera a female fire-breathing monster, typically represented as a combination of a lion's typically represented as a combination of a lion's head, goat's body, and serpent's tail head, goat's body, and serpent's tail
    • Greek Mythology – is largely made up of stories about gods and goddesses. Myth – real myth has nothing to do with religion -An explanation of something in nature - it is an early science.
    • The Lesser Gods of Olympus Eros – God of Love ( Cupid in Latin) According to Hesiod – he is the “fairest of the deathless gods” Plato – “Love – Eros – makes his home in men’s hearts, but not in every heart, for where there is hardness, he departs. His greatest glory is that he cannot do wrong nor allow it; force never comes near him. For all men serve him of their own free will. And he whom Love touches not walks in darkness.”
    • The Lesser Gods of Olympus Eros – in other accounts he was not Aphrodite’s son, but merely her occasional companion. In the latter poem, he was her son and invariably a mischievous, naughty boy, or worse. - Often represented as blindfolded Anteros - avenger of slighted love; sometimes the one who opposes love Himeros – Longing Humen – God of the Wedding Feast
    • The Lesser Gods of Olympus Hebe – Goddess of Youth - daughter of Zeus and Hera - married to Hercules Iris – Goddess of the Rainbow and a messenger of the gods, in the Iliad the only messenger.
    • The Lesser Gods of Olympus Two Lovely Sisters – Muses and Graces Graces:: daughters of Zeus and Eurynome (child Graces daughters of Zeus and Eurynome (child of the titan, Ocean) of the titan, Ocean) 1.Aglaia (Splendor) 1.Aglaia (Splendor) 2.Euphrosyne (Mirth) 2.Euphrosyne (Mirth) 3.Thalia (Good Cheer) 3.Thalia (Good Cheer) --Saidto be always together, a triple incarnation of Said to be always together, a triple incarnation of grace and beauty grace and beauty --Consideredas “queens of song” Considered as “queens of song” --Dancedenchantingly to Apollo’s lyre Danced enchantingly to Apollo’s lyre
    • The Lesser Gods of Olympus Two Lovely Sisters – Muses and Graces Muses ::nine in number; daughters Muses nine in number; daughters Zeus and Mnemosyne or Zeus and Mnemosyne or Memory Memory -- Not distinguished from each Not distinguished from each other other -- Are all of one mind, their hearts Are all of one mind, their hearts are set upon song and their are set upon song and their spirit is free from care spirit is free from care -- When they sing, men forget When they sing, men forget their dark thoughts and their dark thoughts and remembers not their troubles remembers not their troubles 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. 6. 6. 7. 7. 8. 8. 9. 9. Clio ––Muse of History Clio Muse of History Urania ––Muse of Astronomy Urania Muse of Astronomy Thalia ––Muse of comedy Thalia Muse of comedy Terpsichore ––Muse of Dance Terpsichore Muse of Dance Calliope ––Muse of Epic Calliope Muse of Epic Poetry Poetry Erato ––Muse of Love Poetry Erato Muse of Love Poetry Polyhymnia – Muse of songs Polyhymnia – Muse of songs to the gods to the gods Euterpe – Muse of Lyric Euterpe – Muse of Lyric Poetry Poetry Melpomene ––Muse of Melpomene Muse of Tragedy Tragedy
    • The Lesser Gods of Olympus Themis – Right or Divine Justice Dike – Human Justice Nemesis – Righteous Anger
    • Gods of the Waters Poseidon – Lord and Ruler of the Sea (Mediterranean) Poseidon – Lord and Ruler of the Sea (Mediterranean) and the Friendly Sea (Black Sea). Underground rivers and the Friendly Sea (Black Sea). Underground rivers were his. were his. Ocean – a Titan, Lord of the river Ocean, a great river Ocean – a Titan, Lord of the river Ocean, a great river encircling the earth. Tethys,,Ocean’s wife; Oceanids,, encircling the earth. Tethys Ocean’s wife; Oceanids the nymphs of this great river, were their daughters; the nymphs of this great river, were their daughters; gods of all the rivers were their sons. gods of all the rivers were their sons.
    • Gods of the Waters Pontus – which means Deep Sea, son of Mother Pontus – which means Deep Sea, son of Mother Earth and the father of Nereus, a sea-god Earth and the father of Nereus, a sea-god Nereus – the Old Man of the Sea ((the Nereus – the Old Man of the Sea the Mediterranean); wife is Doris, a daughter of Mediterranean); wife is Doris, a daughter of Ocean Ocean --had 50 lovely daughters, the nymphs of had 50 lovely daughters, the nymphs of the Sea, called Nereids, one of whom Thetis, the Sea, called Nereids, one of whom Thetis, was the mother of Achilles. Poseidon’s wife, was the mother of Achilles. Poseidon’s wife, Amphitrite, was another. Amphitrite, was another.
    • Gods of the Waters Naiads – water nymphs; dwelt in brooks Naiads – water nymphs; dwelt in brooks and springs and fountains and springs and fountains Triton – trumpeter of the Sea; his trumpet Triton – trumpeter of the Sea; his trumpet was a great shell; son of Poseidon and was a great shell; son of Poseidon and Ampitrite. Ampitrite. Proteus – Poseidon’s son, sometimes his Proteus – Poseidon’s son, sometimes his attendant; has power of foretelling and attendant; has power of foretelling and changing his shape at will. changing his shape at will.
    • The Underworld Hades or Pluto and his wife Hades or Pluto and his wife Persephone ruled the Persephone ruled the Underworld. Underworld. Underworld – lies beneath the Underworld – lies beneath the secret places of the earth (in secret places of the earth (in the Iliad) the Iliad) -- The way to it leads over the The way to it leads over the edge of the world across Ocean edge of the world across Ocean (in the Odyssey). (in the Odyssey). Two Main Divisions of Underworld Tartarus - the prison of the Sons of Earth Erebus – it is where the dead pass as soon as they die.
    • Three Judges: 1.Rhadamanthus 2.Minos 3.Aeacus - They pass sentence and send the wicked to everlasting torment and the good to a place of blessedness called the Elysian Fields. Three other rivers: 1.Phlegethon – the river of fire 2.Styx – the river of unbreakable oath by which the gods swear 3.Lethe – the river of forgetfulness
    • The Erinyes (the Furies) – punish evildoers; pursue sinners on the earth Sleep and Death- brothers