(Legal Foundation & Professional
Code of Ethics)
Did you know that…
- For every 100 Filipino children
who enters grade I,
only 66 will finished grade VI,
60 will go to high school,
40 will graduate,
25 will go to college,
13 will complete a degree
and only 1-2 will get a stable job
Legal Bases of
1987 Constitution of the Philippines
Education Act of 1982
Republic Act 4670- Magna Carta for
Public School Teachers
RA 7836 – Philippine Teachers
Professionalization Act of 1994
Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers
DEPED Memorandum and Circulars
CHED Memorandum and Circulars
1987 Philippine Constitution
Article XIV - Education, Science, Technology, Arts,
Culture and Sports
Section 1 . Ensures the right of all citizens to quality education at
all levels. The State shall take appropriate steps to make education
accessible to all.
Section 2 stipulates:
the establishment and maintenance of a complete
adequate and integrated system of education
relevant to the needs of the people and society.
free and compulsory public elementary education
free secondary education
scholarship grants and incentives
and indigenous learning system
RIGHTS OF THE TEACHERS
R.A. 4670 Magna Carta of Public School Teachers
Right to be informed of the charges
Right to full access to the evidence
in the case
Right to defend himself and be
defended by a representative of his
Right to appeal to clearly designated
Right to a married couple, both of whom are school teacher,
to be employed in the same localities whenever possible.
Republic Act 4670
Magna Carta for Public School Teachers
Elementary school teachers
Secondary school teachers
18 units in major subject
1. Study Leave (Sabbatical Leave)
2. Indefinite Leave
3. Maternity leave with pay for 60 days
4. Vacation leave with pay
5. Enjoy one range salary raise upon retirement.
Republic Act 4670
Magna Carta for Public School Teachers
Hours of Work and Remuneration
1. enjoy academic freedom in the discharge of
professional duties regarding teaching and classroom
2. enjoy free physical exam and medical treatment or
3. salary scale – gradual progression from a minimum
to a maximum salary by means of regular increments,
granted automatically every after 3 years
4. granting of cost of living allowance
5. additional compensation for service in excess of 6
hrs of actual
classroom teaching, hardship
allowance and automatic retirement promotion
Monetary and other Benefits
Basic salary based from the salary standardization law
Clothing Allowance – P4,000/yr
Productivity Pay – P2,000/yr
Proportional Vacation Pay – salary for April and May
13th Month Pay – midyear and end of the year
Bonus – P5,000/yr as part of the 13th month pay
Study leave (sabbatical leave) with pay equivalent to 100% of salary after 7 years of
Maternity leave with pay for 60 days
Paternity leave with pay for 7 working days
(Paternity Act of 1996- RA 8187)
- salary loan – 1 mo; 3 mos; 5 mos; 8 mos
- policy loan
- pag-ibig loan
- emergency loan
- calamity loan, etc…
Education Act of 1982
The Act provided for the establishment
and maintenance of an integrated system
It provided for the establishment of the
Board of Higher Education; Bureau of
Elementary Education, Secondary
Education, Continuing Education,
Technical and Vocational Education
It provided for the training of the nation’s
manpower in the middle-level skills
required for national development
RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF THE STUDENTS
Education Act of 1982
Right to receive competent instruction, relevant
Right to freely choose their field of study
Right to school guidance and counseling services
Right to access to his own school records,
Right to the issuance of official documents within
thirty days from request.
Right to publish a school newspaper
Right to free expression of opinions
Right to form, establish and join organization
Right to be free from involuntary contribution
Republic Act 7722
The Higher Education Act of 1994
• It created the Commission on Higher Education (CHED)
independent from the Department of Education
• Its coverage include both public and private institutions of
higher education as well as degree granting programs in all
post-secondary educational institutions
• Authorizes the CHED to develop certain mandatory
curricular offerings particularly in the general education
Republic Act 7796
An Act Creating the Technical Education and Skills
Development Authority (TESDA)
It created TESDA to provide relevant, accessible
high quality and efficient technical education and
skills development in support of the development of
higher quality Filipino middle-level manpower
responsive to and in accordance with Philippine
Development and priorities
RA #7836 – Philippine Teachers
Professionalization Act of 1994
• Prescribes the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) to
make them duly licensed professionals who possess dignity
and reputation with high moral values as well as technical
and professional competence
• Provides that within 2 years after January 12, 1996, no
person shall teach in preschool, elementary or secondary
level or in vocational courses unless he is a duly registered
1. Objectives (Article 1,
1. The promotion, development and
professionalization of teachers
and the teaching profession; and
2. The supervision and regulation of
the licensure examination
2. Creation and Composition of the
Board(Article II, Section 5)
-Created under this Act of Board for
Professional Teachers called the Board
under the general supervision and
administrative control of the Professional
Regulation Commission , called the
- Composition of the Board: Five (5)
members to be appointed by the
President of the Philippines.
3. Examination, Registration and
License Required (Article III,
1. Written Examination given at least
once a year
2. A valid certificate of registration
and a valid professional license from
the Commission are required before
any person is allowed to practice as a
professional teacher in the Philippines.
4. Scope and Examination (Article III,
1. Elementary level, there are two parts
namely; professional education and
2. For secondary level, there are three
parts, namely; professional education,
general education and field of
5. Qualification Requirements of Applicants
(Article III, Section 15)
1. A citizen of the Philippines or an alien
whose country has reciprocity with the
Philippines in the practice of the teaching
2. At least 18 yrs. Old of age
3. In good health and good reputation
with high moral values
4. Has not been convicted by final
judgment by a court for an offense
involving moral turpitude
5. A graduate of a school, college or
university recognized by the government
and possesses the minimum educational
qualifications, as follows:
for teachers in preschool, a
bachelor’s degree in early childhood
education or its equivalent
for teachers in the elementary grades, a
bachelor’s degree in elementary education
(BEED) or its equivalent;
for teachers in the secondary grades, a
bachelor’s degree in education or its
equivalent with a major and minor, or a
bachelor’s degree in arts and sciences with at
least 18 units in professional education
For teachers of vocational and two- year
technical courses, a bachelor’s degree in the
field of specialization or its equivalent, with at
least 18 units of professional education.
6. Issuance of Certificate of
Registration and Professional
License (Article III, Section 17)
1. The registration of a professional
teacher commences from the date
his name is enrolled in the roster of
THE TEACHER AND
THE TEACHER AND
THE TEACHER AND THE
CODE OF ETHICS FOR
THE TEACHER AND HIFGHER
AUTHORITIES IN THE PROFESSION
Code of Ethics for Professional
• Teachers are duly licensed professionals who
possess dignity and reputation with high moral
values as well as technical and professional
competence. In the practice of their noble
profession, they strictly adhere to, observe and
practice this set of ethical and moral principles,
standards and values.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
This Code covers all public and private school
teachers in all educational institutions at the
preschool, primary, elementary, and secondary
levels whether academic, vocational, special
technical, or non-formal.
The term “teacher” shall include industrial arts or
vocational teachers and all other persons
performing supervisory and/or administrative
functions in all schools at the aforesaid levels,
whether on full-time of part-time basis.
THE TEACHER AND THE STATE
The schools are the nurseries of the future citizens of the state, each
teacher is a trustee of the cultural and educational heritage of the nation and
is under obligation to transmit to learners such heritage as well as to elevate
national morality, promote national pride, cultivate love of country, instill
allegiance to the Constitution and respect for all duly constituted authorities,
and promote obedience to the laws of the state.
In the interest of the State and of the Filipino people as much as of his own,
every teacher shall be physically, mentally and morally fit.
A teacher shall not engage in the promotion of any political, religious and
other partisan interest, and shall not, directly or indirectly, solicit, require,
collect, or receive any money or service or other valuable material from any
person or identity for such purposes.
Every teacher shall vote and shall exercise all other constitutional rights and
A teacher shall not use his position or official authority or influence to coerce
any other person to follow any political course of action.
THE TEACHER AND THE TEACHING
Every teacher shall provide
leadership and initiative to
actively participate in
community movements for
moral, social, educational,
economic and civic
betterment involved in
matters affecting the welfare
of the people.
Every teacher shall help the
school to keep the people in
the community informed
about the school’s work and
accomplishments as well as
its needs and problems.
Every teacher shall
social recognition for
which purpose he shall
behave with honor and
dignity at all times and
refrain from such
activities as gambling,
and other excesses,
mush less illicit
THE TEACHER AND THE PROFESSION
Every teacher shall actively help ensure that teaching is
the noblest profession, and shall manifest genuine
enthusiasm and pride in teaching as a noble calling.
Every teacher shall participate in the continuing
professional education (CPE) program of the
Professional Regulation Commission, and shall pursue
such other studies as will improve his efficiency,
enhance the prestige of the profession, and strengthen
his competence, virtues, and productivity in order to be
nationally and internationally competitive.
Every teacher shall use the teaching profession in a
manner that makes it a dignified means of earning a
THE TEACHER AND HIGHER AUTHORITIES
IN THE PROFESSION
Every teacher shall make it his duty to make an honest effort to
understand and support the legitimate policies of the school and the
administration regardless of personal feeling or private opinion and shall
faithfully carry them out.
A teacher shall transact all official business through channels except
when special conditions warrant a different procedure, such as when
reforms are advocated but are opposed by the immediate supervisor, in
which case the teacher shall appeal directly to the appropriate higher
Every teacher, individually or as part of a group, has the right to seek
redress against injustice and discrimination and, to the extent possible,
shall raise his grievances within acceptable democratic processes.
Every teacher has a right to invoke the principle that appointments,
promotions, and transfers of teachers are made only on the basis of merit
and need in the interest of service.
SCHOOL OFFICIALS, TEACHERS AND OTHER PERSONNEL
All school officials shall at all times show professional courtesy,
helpfulness and sympathy towards teachers and other
personnel, such practices being standards of effective school
supervision, dignified administration, responsible leadership
and enlightened direction.
2. School officials, teachers, and other personnel shall consider in
their cooperative responsibility to formulate policies or introduce
important changes in the system at all levels.
3. School officials shall encourage and attend to the professional
growth of all teachers under them such as in recommending
them for promotion, giving them due recognition for meritorious
performance, and allowing them to participate in conferences
and training programs.
4. No school official shall dismiss or recommend for dismissal a
teacher or other subordinates except for a cause.
THE TEACHER AND THE LEARNERS
A teacher shall recognize that the interest and welfare of learners are of first
and foremost concern, and shall deal justly and impartially with each of them.
Under no circumstances shall a teacher be prejudiced nor discriminatory
against any learner.
A teacher shall not accept any favors or gifts from learners, their parents, or
others in their behalf in exchange for requested concessions, especially if
A teacher shall not accept, directly or indirectly, any remuneration from tutorials
other than what is authorized for such service
In a situation where mutual attraction and subsequent love develop between
teacher and learner, the teacher shall exercise utmost professional discretion
to avoid scandal, gossip, and preferential treatment of the learner.
A teacher shall not inflict corporal punishment on offending learners nor make
deductions from their scholastic ratings such as a punishment for acts which
are clearly not manifestations of poor scholarship.
THE TEACHER AND THE PARENTS
Every teacher shall establish and maintain cordial relations
with parents, and shall conduct himself to merit their
confidence and respect.
Every teacher shall inform parents, through proper
authorities, of the progress or deficiencies of learners under
him, exercising utmost candor and tact in pointing out
learners’ deficiencies and in seeking parents’ cooperation
for the proper guidance and improvement of learners.
A teacher shall hear parents’ complaints with sympathy and
understanding, and shall discourage unfair criticism.
THE TEACHER AND BUSINESS
A teacher has the right to engage, directly or indirectly, in legitimate
income generation activities, provided that it does not relate to or
adversely affect his work as a teacher.
A teacher shall maintain a good reputation with respect to financial
matters such as in the settlement of his debts and loans and in
arranging satisfactorily his private financial affairs.
No teacher shall act, directly or indirectly, as agent of, or be
financially interested in, any commercial venture which furnish
textbooks and other school commodities in the purchase and
disposal of which he can exercise official influence, except only when
his assignment is inherently, related to such purchase and disposal,
provided that such shall be in accordance with existing regulations,
provided, further, that members of duly recognized teachers’
cooperatives may participate in the distribution and sale of such
THE TEACHER AS A PERSON
A teacher is, above all, a human being endowed with life for which it is his
highest obligation to live with dignity at all times whether in school, in the
home, or elsewhere.
A teacher shall place premium upon self-respect and self-discipline as the
primary principles of personal behavior in all relationships with others and
in all situations.
A teacher shall maintain at all times a dignified personality which could
serve as a model worthy of emulation by learners, peers, and all others.
A teacher shall always recognize the Almighty God as guide of his own
destiny and of the destinies of men and nations.
Any violation of any provision of this Code shall be sufficient
ground for the imposition against the erring teacher of
disciplinary action consisting of revocation of his Certificate of
Registration and License as a Professional Teacher,
suspension from the practice of the teaching profession,
reprimand, or cancellation of his temporary/special permit
under causes specified in Sec. 23, Article III of R.A. 783663.,
and under Rule 31, Article VIII, of the Rules and Regulations
implementing RA 78
I am a survivor of a concentration camps .
My eyes saw what no man should witness:
Gas chambers built by learned engineers.
Children Poisonedby educated physicians.
Children Poison by educated physicians.
Infants killed by trained nurses.
Women and babies shot and burned by high school and college
So I am suspicious of education.
My request is to help your students become human.
Your efforts must never produce learned monsters, skilled
Reading, writing arithmetic are important ONLY
Reading, writing arithmetic are important only
if they serve to make our children MORE HUMAN
if they serve to make our children more human
“When I was
young and f ree
no limits, I
“As I grew older and wiser, I
discovered the world would
not change, so I shortened
my sights somehow and
decided to change only my
country. . ”
R A # 1265 and DECS R
uling # 8 –
Penalize all educat ion inst it ut ions which do
not obser ve t he f lag cer emony. Supr eme
Cour t r esolut ion declar es t hat school
childr en cannot be compelled t o salut e and
pledge allegiance t o t he f lag if t heir
r eligious belief s ban t hem f r om doing so.
R A # 6728 – Gover nment assist ance t o
st udent s and t eacher s in Pr ivat e
R A # 7722 – An act cr eat ing t he Commission
on Higher Educat ion. ( Task of over seeing
t er t iar y Educat ion).
DECS f ocus on basic educat ion element ar y and
secondar y educat ion.
R A # 7784 – An act st r engt hening Teacher
Educat ion in t he Philippines by est ablishing
Cent er s of Excellence: cr eat ing a t eacher
educat ion council f or t he appr opr iat ion of
nat ional net wor k wit h element ar y schools,
high schools and/ 0r a par t f r o labor at or y
R A # 7796 – Philippine Teacher s
Pr of essionalizat ion Act of 1994.
1.) Pr escr ibes t he Licensur e Examinat ion f or
t eacher s (LET) t o make t hem duly licensed
pr of essionals who possess dignit y and
r eput at ion wit h high mor al values as well as
t echnical and pr of essional compet ence.
2.) Pr ovides t hat wit hin t wo (2) year s af t er
J anuar y 12, 1996, no per son shall t each t he pr e
school, element ar y, or secondar y level nor in
R A # 8187 – Pat er nit y Leave Act of 1996
1.) Gr ant s pat er nit y leave of even (7) wor k
days wit h f ull pay t o mar r ied male
employees f or t he f ir st f our deliver ies of
t he legit imat e spouse wit h whom he is
2.) Such leave is not cumulat ive and st r ict ly
non-conver t ible t o each.
R A # 7192 – An Act Pr omot ing t he
I nt egr at ion of Women as Full Equal
par t ner s of Men in Development and
Nat ion Building and f or Ot her Pur poses.
Educational Assistance Act of 1976 St udy Now Pay lat er Plan.
P # 176 – Owner ship, Cont r ol and
Administ r at ion of Educat ional
I nst it ut ions.
R A 578 – Conf er s t he st at us of per sons
in aut hor it y upon t eacher s, pr incipals
and pr of essor s.
DECS Order # 25 s. 1974 – Bilingual
Educat ion Policy
DECS order No. 52 s. 1987 – mandat es
t he use of t he r egional language as an
auxiliar y medium of inst r uct ion.
R A # 6655 DECS Order # 44 s. 1988 –
pr omulgat ed t he nat ionalizat ion of t he
Public secondar y School: f r ee f r om
payment of t uit ion and ot her school f ees.
R A # 4090 – pr ovides f or st at e
scholar ships in Science, Ar t s and Let t er s
f or t he Poor but Deser ving St udent s,
Cr eat ing a St at e Scholar ship Council t o
I nt egr at e, Syst emat ize., Administ er and
I mplement All pr ogr am of Scholar ships
and appr opr iat ing f unds t her eof .
R A # 5447 – cr eat ion of a special
educat ion f und Act enact ed 1968 (t o
be const it ut ed f r om t he pr oceeds of an
addit ional r eal pr oper t y t ax and cer t ain
por t ion of Vir ginia t ype cigar et t es and
dut ies on impor t ed t obacco leaf ).
Act ivit ies shall be limit ed t o:
1.) or ganizat ion and ext ension of classes
2.) const r uct ion and r epair of school
buildings ( aiding pr ovincial, municipal,
cit y and bar r io school ).
3.) acquisit ion of school sit es
• Local school boar d was cr eat ed t o
det er mine t he annual budget ar y needs
f or oper at ion and maint enance of public
schools: t o apply Bur eau of Vocat ional
Educat ion R.A No. 98; and t o aut hor ize
municipal t r easur er s t o disbur se f unds
appr oved by higher aut hor it ies.
epublic Act No. 1124 – cr eat ed 15
member s of t he Boar d of Nat ional
Educat ion and r educed t he member ship
of t he Boar d t o eight (8). The highest
policy making body in f or mulat ing
educat ional policies and dir ect ion and
int er est s.
R A No 6139 – r egulat ed t he sect ar ian
schools/ pr ivat e schools in char ging
higher t uit ion f ees.
R A No 5698 – Legal Educat ion Boar d was
cr eat ed t o impr ove t he qualit y of law
R A 7687 – an act inst it ut ing/ est ablishing
scholar ship pr ogr am f or cour ses t hat will
encour age t he st udent s t o pur sue car eer s
in science and t echnology. ( Science and
t ech Scholar ship Act of 1994 )
R A 7743 – est ablishment of cit y and
municipal libr ar ies.
R A No 7880 – an act pr oviding f or t he f air
and equit able allocat ion of t he Dep’t . of ed
and Cult ur e and Spor t s’ Budget f or capit al
out lay ( Fair and Equit able Access t o
educat ion Act ) pr oviding f or t he
development of it s cit izenr y upholding
pr imacy of educat ion; f ost er ing pat r iot ism
and nat ionalism, acceler at ing social
pr ogr ess and pr omot ing t ot al human
liber at ion/ ensur ing f air and equit able
access t o t he inf r ast r uct ur e and t ools
necessar y f or qualit y educat ion.
R A No 8292
* Higher Educat ion Moder nizat ion Act
of 1997 est ablish, maint ain and suppor t
a complet e, adequat e and int egr at ed
syst em of educat ion r elevant t o t he
needs of t he people and societ y.
The gover ning boar d of char t er ed st at e
and univer sit ies and colleges is modif ied
in or der t o : (a) a mor e coor dinat ed and
int egr at ed syst em of higher educat ion
(b) r ender t hem mor e ef f ect ive in t he
f or mulat ion and implement at ion of
policies on higher educat ion (c) ensur e
t he enj oyment of academic f r eedom as
guar ant eed by t he Const it ut ion.
R A No 8190 – gr ant ing pr ior it y t o
r esident s of t he bar angay, municipalit y
or cit y wher e t he school is locat ed, in
t he assignment of classr oom public
school t eacher s as long as t hey possess
all t he minimum qualif icat ions.
R A Act No. 8445 – amending R.A Act
No. 6728 – ‘an act pr oviding gover nment
assist ance t o st udent s and t eacher s in
pr ivat e educat ion and appr opr iat ing
f unds’, est ablishing a f und f or t he
pur pose of subsidizing salar ies of
pr ivat e school t eacher s and
appr opr iat ing f unds. – Expanded
Government Assistance to Students
and Teachers in P
R A Act 8525 – 1998 Act – est ablishing ‘
Adopt – a School Pr ogr am’, allowing
pr ivat e schools, companies t o
assist / suppor t public schools in
upgr ading and moder nizat ion of public
schools par t icular ly t hose in pover t yst r icken pr ovinces.
R A No 8491
• pr escr ibing t he code of t he nat ional f lag,
ant hem, mot t o, coat of ar ms and ot her her aldic
it ems and devices of t he Philippines (Flag and
Her aldic Code of t he Philippines)
r ever ence and r espect shall be accor ded t o t he
f lag, ant hem, and nat ional symbols, which
expr ess t he sover eignt y and nat ional solidar it y.
her aldic it ems and devices - should manif est
nat ional vir t ues, pr ide in our nat ive land,
r espect and af f ect ion f or t he nat ional f lag and
ant hem, pr oper use of mot t o and coat of ar ms.