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Ca forms and function

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  • 1. Forms and functions in conversation
    By Ms. Maricon C. Viduya
  • 2. Opening Phase
    Greetings. A greeting aims to establish friendship or maintain a bond to appease aggressive (hostile) behavior or feelings.
    Formulas- stereotyped routines
    Vocatives- using of the names of addressee to get his attention
    Questions- used to elicit information or to open a topic
    Comments-usually positive
  • 3. Opening Phase
    Types of Greeting Formulas
    Komusta kayo?/Komusta? (How are you?)
    Apo, umaykami man? (May we come in? )
    Umayakkoma. . . (I came to . . . )
    Hi/Hello
    Ne, adda ka met gayamditoyen.
    (Oh, it’s good to see you here)  
    Good afternoon. . .
  • 4. Opening Phase
    Types of replies to greetings
    Okeylang/Awanproblema (It’s okay/No problem)
    Wen, Apo. Dumanon kayo. (Yes, Sir/Ma’am. Please come in)
    Apaydayta? (What’s that?) Anyangay?(Komusta?)
    (How are you doing?) Anya? (What?)
    Wen(Yes) Ay +address e. g. Ay, Tony! (Hey, Tony)
     
    Hi!
  • 5. Opening Phase
    Topic Negotiation
    Topic negotiation is the opening move which is not preceded by any greeting adjacency pair but rather directly leads to topic development.
  • 6. Opening Phase
    Non verbal strategies
    head nod
    smile
    touching the arm/shoulder
    waving
  • 7. Topic Development
    Linguistic forms used in topic development
    Gambits- content free words and expressions
    Statements intend to inform and to express one’s feelings, opinions, request, wish or suggestion
    Questions
  • 8. Topic Development
    Various gambits revealed in the
    study
    Apay + question
    Wen + statement. . .
    Ibatikmetten a daytan?
    Ay wen + statement
    Ay + question
    Ay + statement
    Tatta + statement
    Ne + statement
    Apaydaydiay + question
    Kastoy ne + statement
    Ngem + statement
    Na! + question / statement
    Ammom + statement
    Gasem + statement
    Malagipkomanen + statement
    Uraysiak + statement
    Idi + statement
    Hmm + statement
    Ket + question
  • 9. Topic Development
    Stereotyped expressions in nominating a topic
    Tattay . . . (A while back)
    Ammom . . . (Did you know . . .)
    Dagidiay . . . (Those. . . )
    Tatta . . . (Then. . .)
    Agasemngay . . . (Did you know . . .)
    Kastoy ne . . . (This is what happened . . .)
    Adda man ti . . . ( There was . . . )
    Daytoy . . . (This . . .)
    Idi . . . (Last . . .)
    Uraysiak/ Siak . . . (I, too. . .)
    Malagipko . . . (I remember . . .)
    Adda pay ti . . . (There is . . .)
    Addati . . . (There is . . .)
    Ket . . . (Then . . .)
    Bali . . .
    Ti addaidiaypanunotko . . . (What I have in mind . . . )
  • 10. Turn-Taking
    Turn-taking plays a very significant role in the initiation, maintenance or continuation, shifting and shading, changing, reintroduction, and recycling of topics.
    Turn-taking entails who may speak (take the speaker role), when they can begin to speak, how they can achieve this right (turn-taking/getting), how they can hold on to this right (turn-keeping), and how they can relinquish this right (turn-yielding).
  • 11. Turn-Taking
    Generally, the person who is speaking has the most rights over the floor which is referred to as the right to speak in an interaction.
    Getting the floor’, ‘holding the floor’, and ‘giving up the floor’ involve a series of signals, some of which can be rather subtle.
  • 12. Turn-taking
    Turn-getting. Turn getting refers to how one gets his turn or right to hold the floor. When one has gotten the floor, he is given the chance to speak.
  • 13. Turn-getting
    Strategies used for turn-getting
    A. Verbal B. Non-verbal
    1. Gambit 1. Gazing at (addressee)
    2. Statement 2. Head nodding
    3. Question 3. Laughing
    4. Overlap 4. Intonation
    a. Simultaneous talk
    b. Interrupting
    5. Stutter start
    6. Completing/Adding
    7. Repeating previous speaker’s utterance or his last few words
  • 14. Turn-getting
    Gambits
    As a turn-getting device, gambits generally constitute a clear attempt by the auditor to get the floor.
    Gambits are uttered while the speaker is silent either during a pause or after the speaker has clearly ended his utterance.
  • 15. Turn-getting
    Gambits
    “It plays a part in building up the ongoing conversation, for it is used to show support to the speaker and interest in and understanding of the topic being discussed.”
  • 16. Turn-getting
    Types of Gambits
    Exclamation- manifests the turn-getter’s attention to what is being said by the speaker
    Support signal
    Semantic framing signal- used to shift to a new topic without reference to a previous one and to link a topic under discussion to a topic that is to be opened
    State of consciousness signal- indicate a person’s consciousness concerning information, opinion, or emotions of the previous speaker
    Exclamation question- used to express surprise or disgust
  • 17. Gambit: Exclamations
    Hmm!
    Ta! (Such that !)
    Aynaket(Well + particle)
    Ania (What? )
    Ne (Hey!)
    Ay Apo! (Oh my God!)
    Ah
    Oh (Really?)
    Awan(Nothing)
    Uh
    Oket’ ‘nana (Bitch!)
    Ayna (Well)
    Eh!
    Basta(As I’ve said)
    Susmaryaosep (colloquial of Jesus, Mary, Joseph
    Alla! (Wait)
    Saan pay ( Why should . . .
  • 18. Gambit: Support signals
    Ah (I see) Mmmm(Mmm)
    Ay (I see) No apay met (The thing is)
    Ay kasdiay(Is that so?) Wen (Yes)
    (So, that’s it) Aniangay
    Wen a (Yes + particle) Daytangarud (That’s it)
    Wenta (Yes + particle)
    Isungarud (That’s it) Sige(Okay)
  • 19. Gambit: Semantic framing signals
    Uraysiak/
    Siakngarud (Even I. . . )
    Ket/Ket no
    Ngem (But)
    Tatta/Tattangay (Now/then)
    Kunakngamin (As I said)
    Kaslangamin(It seems that)
    Ta ngamin (It’s because)
    Kasatnoket (Well)
    Malagipkomanen (I remember)
  • 20. Gambit: Semantic framing signals
    Diay/Diay met(The . . .)
    Ti ammok (As far as I know)
    Idi (Last . . .)
    Idikuaket
    Kunanaket(What he said was that )
    No (If/When)
    Didiay la ngarud(So much so when )
    Adda man ti/, Adda pay
    (There was . . . )
    Tapos (Then)
    Kua/ Kuangamin (It is because)
    Santo (Then)
    Pero (But)
  • 21. Gambit: State of Consciousness Signals
    Ammom (Did you know?)
    Ay ket(Well. . .
    Ay wen (Right)
    Haan/Saan (No)
    Haan a (No + particle a)
    Kitaem man ket(You see)
    Kua a
  • 22. Turn-accepting
    Turn-accepting takes place when a speaker assumes a turn in response to a question addressed to him. Although one may not enter the conversation if not asked to, one becomes obliged to answer whenever a question is posed to him.
  • 23. Strategies used in turn-accepting
    Verbal – gambits, completion of sentences by the listener, request for clarification, repeating the last few words of the previous speaker
    Non-verbal- laughing, head nodding, headshaking,
  • 24. Gambits used for turn accepting
    Reinforcers/supports e.g. yeah, huh, I see, that’s true, is that so, that’s right, ‘Oh, yeah’, oh ow
    generally not heard as an interruption
  • 25. Turn-keeping
    Used by current speaker to keep or maintain their turn.
    Here, speaking turn claimed by the listener is suppressed
    Verbal forms– gambits e.g. fillers, stutter start
    Nonverbal forms – pause, change in the rate of speech, intonation
  • 26. Turn-yielding
    occurs when the speaker relinquishes his turn and selects the next speaker, that is in the case of a speaker who is currently holding the floor, or when the speaker expresses his lack of readiness or his unwillingness to take the floor and simply utters turn yielding reinforcers.
    Verbal forms- questions, request for clarification, sentence completion, repetition of last few words
  • 27. Conclusions
    1. The Iluko conversation manifests the universal structure of conversation which are the opening phase, the core phase, the closing phase. The more specific structure of each phase also find similarities with conversations in various languages.
    2. The Ilocano interlocutors have a rich repertoire of verbal and non-verbal strategies which they can use in carrying out a successful conversation.
    3. The different components of communication such as setting, role relationship of the interlocutors, purpose of interaction, topic talked about, and level of formality, not only affect the form and function but it also establishes, dictates, or determines the forms to be used by the interlocutors and the function that these forms express in Ilocano conversation.
  • 28. Recommended studies on CA
    1. A similar study that focuses on more specific form or strategy used in turn-taking.
    2. A separate study on linguistic strategies or on non-linguistic strategies in all the phases of conversation.
    3. A similar study that compares topics discussed during conversations among strangers and acquaintances.
    4. A similar study that compares the structure, strategies and topics discussed when conversation participants are all male, all female, and mixed groups.
    5. A study on the pattern of oral interaction of the Ilocanos in the English conversations.