Forms and functions in conversation By Ms. Maricon C. Viduya
Opening Phase Greetings. A greeting aims to establish friendship or maintain a bond to appease aggressive (hostile) behavior or feelings. Formulas- stereotyped routines Vocatives- using of the names of addressee to get his attention Questions- used to elicit information or to open a topic Comments-usually positive
Opening Phase Types of Greeting Formulas Komusta kayo?/Komusta? (How are you?) Apo, umaykami man? (May we come in? ) Umayakkoma. . . (I came to . . . ) Hi/Hello Ne, adda ka met gayamditoyen. (Oh, it’s good to see you here) Good afternoon. . .
Opening Phase Types of replies to greetings Okeylang/Awanproblema (It’s okay/No problem) Wen, Apo. Dumanon kayo. (Yes, Sir/Ma’am. Please come in) Apaydayta? (What’s that?) Anyangay?(Komusta?) (How are you doing?) Anya? (What?) Wen(Yes) Ay +address e. g. Ay, Tony! (Hey, Tony)
Opening Phase Topic Negotiation Topic negotiation is the opening move which is not preceded by any greeting adjacency pair but rather directly leads to topic development.
Opening Phase Non verbal strategies head nod smile touching the arm/shoulder waving
Topic Development Linguistic forms used in topic development Gambits- content free words and expressions Statements intend to inform and to express one’s feelings, opinions, request, wish or suggestion Questions
Topic Development Various gambits revealed in the study Apay + question Wen + statement. . . Ibatikmetten a daytan? Ay wen + statement Ay + question Ay + statement Tatta + statement Ne + statement Apaydaydiay + question Kastoy ne + statement Ngem + statement Na! + question / statement Ammom + statement Gasem + statement Malagipkomanen + statement Uraysiak + statement Idi + statement Hmm + statement Ket + question
Topic Development Stereotyped expressions in nominating a topic Tattay . . . (A while back) Ammom . . . (Did you know . . .) Dagidiay . . . (Those. . . ) Tatta . . . (Then. . .) Agasemngay . . . (Did you know . . .) Kastoy ne . . . (This is what happened . . .) Adda man ti . . . ( There was . . . ) Daytoy . . . (This . . .) Idi . . . (Last . . .) Uraysiak/ Siak . . . (I, too. . .) Malagipko . . . (I remember . . .) Adda pay ti . . . (There is . . .) Addati . . . (There is . . .) Ket . . . (Then . . .) Bali . . . Ti addaidiaypanunotko . . . (What I have in mind . . . )
Turn-Taking Turn-taking plays a very significant role in the initiation, maintenance or continuation, shifting and shading, changing, reintroduction, and recycling of topics. Turn-taking entails who may speak (take the speaker role), when they can begin to speak, how they can achieve this right (turn-taking/getting), how they can hold on to this right (turn-keeping), and how they can relinquish this right (turn-yielding).
Turn-Taking Generally, the person who is speaking has the most rights over the floor which is referred to as the right to speak in an interaction. Getting the floor’, ‘holding the floor’, and ‘giving up the floor’ involve a series of signals, some of which can be rather subtle.
Turn-taking Turn-getting. Turn getting refers to how one gets his turn or right to hold the floor. When one has gotten the floor, he is given the chance to speak.
Turn-getting Strategies used for turn-getting A. Verbal B. Non-verbal 1. Gambit 1. Gazing at (addressee) 2. Statement 2. Head nodding 3. Question 3. Laughing 4. Overlap 4. Intonation a. Simultaneous talk b. Interrupting 5. Stutter start 6. Completing/Adding 7. Repeating previous speaker’s utterance or his last few words
Turn-getting Gambits As a turn-getting device, gambits generally constitute a clear attempt by the auditor to get the floor. Gambits are uttered while the speaker is silent either during a pause or after the speaker has clearly ended his utterance.
Turn-getting Gambits “It plays a part in building up the ongoing conversation, for it is used to show support to the speaker and interest in and understanding of the topic being discussed.”
Turn-getting Types of Gambits Exclamation- manifests the turn-getter’s attention to what is being said by the speaker Support signal Semantic framing signal- used to shift to a new topic without reference to a previous one and to link a topic under discussion to a topic that is to be opened State of consciousness signal- indicate a person’s consciousness concerning information, opinion, or emotions of the previous speaker Exclamation question- used to express surprise or disgust
Gambit: Exclamations Hmm! Ta! (Such that !) Aynaket(Well + particle) Ania (What? ) Ne (Hey!) Ay Apo! (Oh my God!) Ah Oh (Really?) Awan(Nothing) Uh Oket’ ‘nana (Bitch!) Ayna (Well) Eh! Basta(As I’ve said) Susmaryaosep (colloquial of Jesus, Mary, Joseph Alla! (Wait) Saan pay ( Why should . . .
Gambit: Support signals Ah (I see) Mmmm(Mmm) Ay (I see) No apay met (The thing is) Ay kasdiay(Is that so?) Wen (Yes) (So, that’s it) Aniangay Wen a (Yes + particle) Daytangarud (That’s it) Wenta (Yes + particle) Isungarud (That’s it) Sige(Okay)
Gambit: Semantic framing signals Uraysiak/ Siakngarud (Even I. . . ) Ket/Ket no Ngem (But) Tatta/Tattangay (Now/then) Kunakngamin (As I said) Kaslangamin(It seems that) Ta ngamin (It’s because) Kasatnoket (Well) Malagipkomanen (I remember)
Gambit: Semantic framing signals Diay/Diay met(The . . .) Ti ammok (As far as I know) Idi (Last . . .) Idikuaket Kunanaket(What he said was that ) No (If/When) Didiay la ngarud(So much so when ) Adda man ti/, Adda pay (There was . . . ) Tapos (Then) Kua/ Kuangamin (It is because) Santo (Then) Pero (But)
Gambit: State of Consciousness Signals Ammom (Did you know?) Ay ket(Well. . . Ay wen (Right) Haan/Saan (No) Haan a (No + particle a) Kitaem man ket(You see) Kua a
Turn-accepting Turn-accepting takes place when a speaker assumes a turn in response to a question addressed to him. Although one may not enter the conversation if not asked to, one becomes obliged to answer whenever a question is posed to him.
Strategies used in turn-accepting Verbal – gambits, completion of sentences by the listener, request for clarification, repeating the last few words of the previous speaker Non-verbal- laughing, head nodding, headshaking,
Gambits used for turn accepting Reinforcers/supports e.g. yeah, huh, I see, that’s true, is that so, that’s right, ‘Oh, yeah’, oh ow generally not heard as an interruption
Turn-keeping Used by current speaker to keep or maintain their turn. Here, speaking turn claimed by the listener is suppressed Verbal forms– gambits e.g. fillers, stutter start Nonverbal forms – pause, change in the rate of speech, intonation
Turn-yielding occurs when the speaker relinquishes his turn and selects the next speaker, that is in the case of a speaker who is currently holding the floor, or when the speaker expresses his lack of readiness or his unwillingness to take the floor and simply utters turn yielding reinforcers. Verbal forms- questions, request for clarification, sentence completion, repetition of last few words
Conclusions 1. The Iluko conversation manifests the universal structure of conversation which are the opening phase, the core phase, the closing phase. The more specific structure of each phase also find similarities with conversations in various languages. 2. The Ilocano interlocutors have a rich repertoire of verbal and non-verbal strategies which they can use in carrying out a successful conversation. 3. The different components of communication such as setting, role relationship of the interlocutors, purpose of interaction, topic talked about, and level of formality, not only affect the form and function but it also establishes, dictates, or determines the forms to be used by the interlocutors and the function that these forms express in Ilocano conversation.
Recommended studies on CA 1. A similar study that focuses on more specific form or strategy used in turn-taking. 2. A separate study on linguistic strategies or on non-linguistic strategies in all the phases of conversation. 3. A similar study that compares topics discussed during conversations among strangers and acquaintances. 4. A similar study that compares the structure, strategies and topics discussed when conversation participants are all male, all female, and mixed groups. 5. A study on the pattern of oral interaction of the Ilocanos in the English conversations.