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  • 1. Mariela Chaves Fernández
    Clever Hans
    English III
    ULACIT
  • 2. WasanOrlovTrotterhorsethatwasclaimedtohavebeenabletoperformarithmetic and otherintellectualtasks.
  • 3. After a formal investigation in 1907, psychologistOskarPfungstdemonstratedthatthehorsewasnotactuallyperformingthese mental tasks, butwaswatchingthereaction of hishumanobservers.
    Oskardiscoveredthisartifact in theresearchmethodology, whereinthehorsewasrespondingdirectlytoinvoluntarycues in thebodylanguage of thehumantrainer, whohadthefacultiestosolveeachproblem.
    Thetrainerwasentirelyunawarethat he wasprovidingsuchcues
  • 4. In honour of Pfungst'sstudy, theanomalousartifact has sincebeenreferredto as theClever Hans effect and has continuedtobeimportantknowledge in theobserver-expectancyeffect and laterstudies in animal cognition.
  • 5. Thepublicwasespeciallyinterested in animal intelligencedue in a largepartto Charles Darwin’sthenrecentpublications.
    Spectacle
    XX CENTURY
  • 6. Hans was a horseownedbyWilhelm von Osten, whowas a gymnasiummathematicsteacher, an amateur horsetrainer, phrenologist, and something of a mystic. Hans wassaidtohavebeentaughttoadd, subtract, multiply, divide, workwithfractions, tell time, keeptrack of the calendar, differentiate musical tones, and read, spell, and understandGerman
  • 7. Ostenwouldask Hans, "Iftheeighthday of themonth comes on a Tuesday, whatisthe date of thefollowing Friday?”.
    And Hans wouldanswerbytappinghishoof.
  • 8. Questionscouldbeaskedbothorally, and in writtenform.
    Hans'sabilitiesappearedon page six of The New York Times.
  • 9. Aftervon Ostendied in 1909, Hans wasacquiredbyseveralowners. Itisbelievedthatthehorsewasputto use in somecapacity in WorldWar I. After 1916, thereis no record of him and hisfateremainsunknown