TM PLUS Instructor vs Learner

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TM PLUS under BPAP in the University of Makati associated with TESDA

TM PLUS under BPAP in the University of Makati associated with TESDA

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  • 1. Trainers Methodology Plus Plan Training Sessions Date Developed: September 2012 Document No: Issued by: Page 1 of 12Developed by: BPAP Revision # Information Sheet Adults as Learners Learning Objectives: After reading this information sheet, you should be able to: 1. describe adults as learners; 2. explain what motivates the adult learner; and 3. recognize barriers to adult learning Part of being an effective trainer involves understanding how adults learn best. Compared to children, adults have special needs and requirements as learners. Adults come to our classes with a variety and range of experiences, both in terms of their working life and educational backgrounds. This impacts how and why they participate in learning. While each student has individual learning needs, there are some characteristics that are common to adult learners. By understanding these characteristics, trainers will enhance their relationship with their trainees as well as be able to assist them as they apply new knowledge, skill, and attitudes. Characteristics of Adults as Learners Adults are autonomous and self-directed. Although adults need some structure, they resist being told what to do. They need to be free to direct themselves. As trainers, we must actively involve adult participants in the learning process and serve as facilitators for their learning. We guide our trainees to their own knowledge rather than supplying them with facts. Adult learning encourages us to collaborate with our trainees about the pace and the content of the training curriculum. We can get their perspectives about what topics to cover and which projects or assignments they’d want to pursue. To show our trainees what’s in it for them, we focus on the essential knowledge that learners need to function effectively. Give them the resources – web links, white papers, publications – to pursue deeper knowledge if they’re so inclined. Adults have accumulated a foundation of life experiences and knowledge that may include work-related activities, family responsibilities, and previous education. Adults learn by connecting new information with what they already know. Information that does not mesh with any of the learner’s previous knowledge or experience is assimilated very slowly. Because participants come with different backgrounds, the trainer must discover what the participants know and build on that knowledge. Some techniques that can help us understand our audience’s
  • 2. Trainers Methodology Plus Plan Training Sessions Date Developed: September 2012 Document No: Issued by: Page 2 of 12Developed by: BPAP Revision # knowledge and experience base include: pretests; icebreakers; participant profiles; and soliciting pre-course information. At the start of the training session, we begin by telling learners what the objectives are. This helps learners organize their thoughts and puts them in a better position to understand why it’s important to learn. Second, remind learners of what they already know. This puts new information into perspective and provides ―hooks‖ for attaching this material to their existing knowledge framework. In the event this new knowledge is in direct opposition to what the learner already knows or believes, this conflict must be addressed immediately. Experience is a rich source of adult learning. We can leverage the different experiences for a richer learning experience through facilitative discussions, case studies, role plays, simulations and the like. We should use our adult learners as resources for ourselves and for the other participants. Adults are goal oriented. Upon enrolling in a course, adults usually know what goal they want to attain. They, therefore, appreciate a training program that is organized and has clearly defined elements. As trainers, we must ensure that learning objectives are presented. We need to show our trainees that this training is beneficial to them and that it will help them attain their goals. We must set the stage for their success. Adults are relevancy-oriented. They must see a reason for learning something. Learning has to be applicable to their work or other responsibilities to be of value to them. We need to show them why they need to learn what we’re teaching, and listen to them when they say they don’t understand why it’s important. It can make the difference between success and failure in gaining our trainees’ attention. To do this, we can ask describe a typical problem that our trainees encounter in their work that the training will solve. Another way is to ask the learners themselves how they think they can apply the new information. If the training session we’re conducting is introducing a change in the way our trainees perform their job, we must help them understand why this change is for the betterment of the organization. Adults are practical, focusing on the aspects of a lesson most useful to them in their work. They may not be interested in knowledge for its own sake. They are more interested in learning that can be put to use immediately, is concrete, practical, and self-benefitting. We must tell our trainees explicitly how the lesson will be useful to them on the job. The presentation of content should be oriented toward direct applications. So, why is it that some trainers feel a need to cram all the content they can into a course? This very practice inhibits learning. Content should directly align with specific learning objectives; other content should not be included.
  • 3. Trainers Methodology Plus Plan Training Sessions Date Developed: September 2012 Document No: Issued by: Page 3 of 12Developed by: BPAP Revision # As do all learners, adults need to be shown respect. Every participant is unique and learns differently. Each brings different backgrounds, perspectives, and biases to the learning experience. We must acknowledge the wealth of experiences that our adult participants bring to the classroom. Questions and comments should be treated with respect. All contributions should be acknowledged. Participants should be treated as equals in experience and knowledge and allowed to voice their opinions freely in class. In a nutshell, here are the difference between children and adults as learners: Adults Children Broader base of experience more limited experience learning is often voluntary or self- motivated learning is more often compulsory Learning can be self-directed learning is usually teacher-directed limited time for attending classes and studying school activities consume most time learning is often motivated by life responsibilities and changes learning typically limited to academics need for immediate application much learning have deferred application view teacher as having a reciprocal relationship with students view teacher as having superior knowledge and authority may have a negative self concept more likely to expect success may have established ideas, attitudes and behaviors which are difficult to change less likely to have set ideas; attitudes and behaviors; more adaptable often intimidated by and restraint to tests more accustomed to taking tests extensive speaking vocabulary influences learning limited vocabulary which is increased through education physiological factors (visual, audio, health) may influence learning physiological factors are less likely to influence learning
  • 4. Trainers Methodology Plus Plan Training Sessions Date Developed: September 2012 Document No: Issued by: Page 4 of 12Developed by: BPAP Revision # Motivating the Adult Learner Trainers must be aware of the possible motivations behind their trainees' participation in the program to cultivate cooperation on the part of the trainees not merely to accept training but to become actively involved in the process. Actively committed and engaged learners will not only put forth the effort needed to master material, but will work with the trainer in defining and achieving learning goals. It is important that we make our trainees realize that they are the chief beneficiaries of training. At least six factors serve as sources of motivation for adult learning: 1. Social Relationships - Training is a good way to meet like-minded people; to make new friends or acquaintances and to network. 2. External Expectations - Most adult learners fall under this category because they are learning in order to fulfill the expectations of someone with formal authority, such as a supervisor; or to fulfill a requirement for job or status. 3. Social Welfare - Some learners are more altruistic and choose to learn to improve their ability to serve the community. 4. Personal Advancement - Many adult learners attend training to achieve promotions or higher salary in a job and stay abreast of competitors. 5. Escape/Stimulation - Adult learners make seek relief from boredom, or a break in the routine of home or work. 6. Cognitive Interest - Some adult learners seek additional training simply for the sake of learning; to satisfy an inquiring mind. Some people are inquisitive and curious enough about something that they desire to simply know more about it for no other reason than to simply learn more. We also need to realize that these sources of motivation can also be a barrier against participating in learning. Aside from this, adults have many responsibilities that they must balance against the demands of learning such as: Families, careers, social commitments Lack of time Lack of money
  • 5. Trainers Methodology Plus Plan Training Sessions Date Developed: September 2012 Document No: Issued by: Page 5 of 12Developed by: BPAP Revision # Lack of child care Scheduling problems Transportation problems Insufficient confidence Lack of interest The best way to motivate adult learners is simply to enhance their reasons for enrolling and decrease the barriers. Trainers must learn why their students are enrolled (the motivators); they have to discover what is keeping them from learning. Then the trainers must plan their motivating strategies. We can keep our trainees engaged by providing what they’d like to get out of the training program. We:  provide them opportunities to network,  show them how the course will help them secure a promotion,  share knowledge that will improve their ability to serve their community,  make the time spent in training worth their while by showing them how this applies to their situation  provide positive reinforcement to increase self-esteem
  • 6. Trainers Methodology Plus Plan Training Sessions Date Developed: September 2012 Document No: Issued by: Page 6 of 12Developed by: BPAP Revision # Self Check True or False: 1. Sources of motivation can also be a barrier against participating in learning. 2. In learning, adults view teacher as having superior knowledge and authority. 3. Adults are more accustomed in taking tests. 4. In class, children may have established ideas, attitudes and behaviors which are difficult to change. 5. Physiological factors (visual, audio, health) are more likely to influence children than adults in learning.
  • 7. Trainers Methodology Plus Plan Training Sessions Date Developed: September 2012 Document No: Issued by: Page 7 of 12Developed by: BPAP Revision # Answer Key 1. True 2. False 3. False 4. False 5. False
  • 8. Trainers Methodology Plus Plan Training Sessions Date Developed: September 2012 Document No: Issued by: Page 8 of 12Developed by: BPAP Revision # Information Sheet Fundamental Learning Approaches: Instructor-Centered vs. Learner-Centered Learning Objectives: After reading this information sheet, you should be able to: 1. Define Pedagogy and Andragogy 2. Explain the difference between pedagogy and Andragogy 3. Identify what learning approach to utilize when running a class. Adult learners are unique in the sense that they come with different backgrounds and experiences. Because of the diverse backgrounds of the learners in our classroom, it is important to vary the approach to teaching the content. One basic dichotomy related to approaches is that of pedagogy (or instructor centered learning) and andragogy (or student centered learning). Pedagogy is characterized by a teacher-centered approach to learning. The instructor presents a concept which is of interest to potential learners. Common methods of instruction include lectures, audiovisual materials and suggested readings. It is very similar to what is called deductive teaching. Deductive teaching (also known as direct instruction) is based on the idea that a highly structured presentation of content creates optimal learning for trainees. The trainer presents a concept by first defining it and then providing examples. Students are given opportunities to practice with the trainer’s guidance and feedback until they achieve concept mastery. During application or lab work, the learners know the outcome of the procedure before it is completed. Andragogy, on the other hand, is student-centered. It emphasizes an informal, collaborative learning environment in which instructor and learner work together for learning to happen. An actual experience confronts a learner. The instructor gathers information about the experience through reflection and discussion. Inductive teaching (also known as discovery teaching or inquiry teaching) is based on the claim that knowledge is built primarily from a
  • 9. Trainers Methodology Plus Plan Training Sessions Date Developed: September 2012 Document No: Issued by: Page 9 of 12Developed by: BPAP Revision # learner’s experiences with the subject matter. The instructor begins by exposing students to a concrete instance of a concept. Then learners are encouraged to observe patterns, raise questions or make generalizations from their observations. The trainer’s role is to create opportunities and the context in which students can successfully make the appropriate generalizations, and to guide the trainees as necessary. Common methods of instruction include group discussions, workshops and case studies. Below is a table of the differences of the two learning approaches: ASSUMPTIONS About: Pedagogical Andragogical Concept of Learner Dependent Personality Increasingly Self-directed Role of Learner's Experience To be built on more than used as a resource A rich resource for learning by self and others Readiness to Learn Uniform by age-level and curriculum Develops from life tasks and problems Orientation to Learning Subject-centered Task or problem-centered Motivation By external rewards and punishments By internal incentives, curiosity PROCESS ELEMENTS Elements Pedagogical Andragogical Climate Tense, low trust, formal, cold, aloof Relaxed, trusting, mutually respectful Planning Primarily by the instructor Mutually by learners and facilitators Diagnosis for needs Primarily by the instructor By mutual assessment Setting of Objectives Primarily by the instructor By mutual assessment Designing Learning Plans Instructor's content plans; Course Syllabus; Logical Sequence learning Contracts; Learning Projects; Sequenced by readiness Learning Activities Transmittal Techniques; Assigned readings Inquiry Projects; Independent Study; Experimental techniques
  • 10. Trainers Methodology Plus Plan Training Sessions Date Developed: September 2012 Document No: Issued by: Page 10 of 12 Developed by: BPAP Revision # Evaluation By Instructor; Norm-referenced (on a curve); with grades By learner collected evidence validated by peers, facilitators, experts; Criterion-referenced Which is the better approach? Malcolm Knowles, the “father of andragogy” in the United States, maintains that the choice of pedagogy versus andragogy is situational, depending on subject matter and learner characteristics. Pedagogical approaches are often needed when delivering new material like learning new software. If trainees have little or no knowledge of the subject matter, how can they construct knowledge from nothing? We must provide some foundation to spark discussion and inquiry. We can follow an andragogical approach if the trainees’ current knowledge and experiences allow them to contribute to the discussion. For example, we can teach sales techniques by asking our participants about their interactions with salespeople when they go shopping. As facilitators, we help them develop new insights, make generalizations, and test these through application.
  • 11. Trainers Methodology Plus Plan Training Sessions Date Developed: September 2012 Document No: Issued by: Page 11 of 12 Developed by: BPAP Revision # Self Check Identification: Provide the best answer to the questions below: 1. This is based on the idea that a highly structured presentation of content creates optimal learning for trainees. 2. It emphasizes an informal, collaborative learning environment in which instructor and learner work together for learning to happen. 3. This is characterized by a teacher-centered approach to learning. The instructor presents a concept which is of interest to potential learners. 4. This is based on the claim that knowledge is built primarily from a learner’s experiences with the subject matter. Multiple Choice: From the descriptions below, select the best answer from the following choices: A. Pedagogy B. Andragogy 1. Readiness to learn develops from life tasks and problems. 2. Evaluation is done by the Instructor. It is norm-referenced and a grade is always provided. 3. Learner’s experiences are considered to be a rich resource for learning by self and others. 4. The orientation to learning is subject-centered. 5. There is a climate of minimum trust in a class.
  • 12. Trainers Methodology Plus Plan Training Sessions Date Developed: September 2012 Document No: Issued by: Page 12 of 12 Developed by: BPAP Revision # Answer Key Identification: 1. Deductive Teaching 2. Andragogy 3. Pedagogy 4. Inductive Teaching Multiple Choice: 1. B 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. A