Smart School Blueprint

9,581 views
9,308 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
9,581
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
681
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
214
Comments
0
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Smart School Blueprint

  1. 1. The Malaysian Smart School An MSC Flagship Application A Conceptual Blueprint Smart School Project Team
  2. 2. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Copyright © 1997 Government of Malaysia Smart School Project Team Creation date : 4 April, 1997 Last update date : 11 July, 1997 Related Documents Smart School Implementation Plan Smart School Conceptual Request For Proposals (Concept RFPs) 9 July, 1997 Page 2 Smart School Project Team
  3. 3. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Table of Contents Introduction 5 Executive Summary 8 The Conceptual Model 18 The Malaysian National Philosophy of Education 19 Definition, Components and Goals 20-23 Smart School Teaching and Learning Concepts: Guiding Principles 24 Introduction 25-26 Curriculum 27-38 Pedagogy 39-47 Assessment 48-57 Teaching-Learning Materials 58-65 Smart School Management 66 Introduction 67-69 Functional Areas 70-79 Smart School Processes and Scenarios 80 Introduction 81 Processes 82-83 Scenarios 84-88 9 July, 1997 Page 3 Smart School Project Team
  4. 4. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Table of Contents (continued) People, Skills and Responsibilities 89 Introduction 90 The Stakeholders 91 Development Outlines 92-98 Technology Enablers 99 Introduction 100-101 Implications and Potential Requirements 102-108 Possible Scenarios of a Smart School Configuration 109-115 Smart School Policy Implications 116 Introduction 117-118 Framework 119 Policy Areas that Need to be Addressed 120-126 Concluding Remarks 127 Appendix 1: Smart Schools in Malaysia : A Quantum Leap 129-141 Appendix 2: Golden Rules for the Smart School Project Team 142-143 Appendix 3: Detailed Smart School Process Flows 144-154 Appendix 4: Professional Development for Smart School Teachers 155-159 Appendix 5: The Smart School Project Team 160-161 Bibliography 162-168 Glossary 169-173 9 July, 1997 Page 4 Smart School Project Team
  5. 5. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint The Malaysian Smart School Introduction 9 July, 1997 Page 5 Smart School Project Team
  6. 6. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Introduction Introduction Early in 1996, the Ministry of Education was A set of “golden rules” were developed to guide involved in intense discussion about “Smart the team, so that, despite representing various Schools”: the concept and its implications on the interests, the team would be united in working Malaysian education system. By late 1996, the towards common national goals. Team members Smart School had become one of the seven worked collaboratively by ensuring their flagship applications of the Multimedia Super solutions are acceptable to all members, creating Corridor. In January 1997, the Ministry of visionary solutions, and practising open Education conceptualised the vision of the communication within the team. In addition, they Malaysian Smart School in the document “Smart were also guided by confidentiality provisions Schools in Malaysia: A Quantum Leap” (Appendix that prevented vendor competition. A set of 1). This Blueprint is an elaboration and these rules are attached in Appendix 2. refinement of that vision and its features. To produce this Blueprint, the team drew on A project team, comprising industry various kinds of resources. Team members made representatives, Multimedia Development study visits to Smart Schools in various parts of Corporation officers, and officers of the the world and reported on their findings. The Ministry of Education, worked at producing this combined resources of the team produced an Blueprint. The team was convened in February extensive bibliography of publications on the 1997 and continued its work until June 1997. The philosophy, concepts and planning of Smart team was charged with the task of proposing the Schools. necessary guidelines for launching the Smart School. 9 July, 1997 Page 6 Smart School Project Team
  7. 7. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Introduction Introduction (continued) This Blueprint reflects the Malaysian In producing this Blueprint, the team Smart School concept. It should be read gratefully acknowledges the help of various together with the Malaysian Smart agencies and individuals. The team would School Implementation Plan and the especially like to thank the following: Concept Requests for Proposals (CRFPs). • the Minister of Education, senior officials These documents enable companies to of the Ministry of Education, members of respond and participate in the Smart the Steering Committee; School system to be established. The • various Divisions of the Ministry of CRFPs present a set of requirements to Education for providing professional input guide companies to use their creativity and facilities; and initiative to produce the best sets of • those who helped develop a framework of applications for Malaysia’s Smart Schools. pedagogy for Smart Schools; • parents and members of the public for In addition to using the expertise and providing important feedback on the draft experience of team members, the team Blueprint; also sought the advice of a wide range of • those who helped arrange visits to schools experts in the fields of education and in various countries; industry. • the companies which contributed towards equipping the project team rooms with The Smart School Steering Committee of hubs, computers, printers, software and the Ministry of Education deliberated on peripherals. an earlier draft of this Blueprint and provided useful insights and comments towards its finalisation. 9 July, 1997 Page 7 Smart School Project Team
  8. 8. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Executive Summary The Malaysian Smart School Executive Summary 9 July, 1997 Page 8 Smart School Project Team
  9. 9. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Executive Summary Executive Summary Malaysia intends to transform its educational The Smart Schools initiative is one of the seven system, in line with and in support of the nation’s flagship applications that are part of Malaysia’s drive to fulfil Vision 2020. This Vision calls for Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) project. The sustained, productivity-driven growth, which will be Government of Malaysia aims to capitalise on the achievable only with a technologically literate, presence of leading-edge technologies and the rapid critically thinking work force prepared to development of the MSC’s infrastructure to jump- participate fully in the global economy of the 21st start deployment of enabling technology to schools. century. At the same time, Malaysia’s National This will be done by creating a group of 90 pilot Smart Philosophy of Education calls for “developing the Schools by 1999 that will serve as the nucleus for the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated eventual nation-wide rollout of Smart School teaching manner, so as to produce individuals who are concepts and materials, skills, and technologies. By intellectually, spiritually, emotionally, and physically 2010, all 10,000 of Malaysia’s primary and secondary balanced and harmonious.” The catalyst for this schools will be Smart Schools. massive transformation will be technology- This Blueprint - like the Smart School concept itself - supported Smart Schools, which will improve how is a work in progress and remains open to evolutionary the educational system achieves the National refinement, including advances in pedagogy and Philosophy of Education, while fostering the improvements in information technology. Consequently, development of a work force prepared to meet the this document is descriptive, rather than prescriptive. challenges of the next century. For a fuller understanding of the Smart School Transforming the educational system will entail initiative, the Blueprint should be read with the Smart changing the culture and practices of Malaysia’s School Implementation Plan, which outlines the primary and secondary schools, moving away from implementation process and timetable, and the Concept memory-based learning designed for the average Requests for Proposals, which define the project’s student to an education that stimulates thinking, requirements. creativity, and caring in all students, caters to individual abilities and learning styles, and is based on more equitable access. It will require students to exercise greater responsibility for their own education, while seeking more active participation by parents and the wider community. 9 July, 1997 Page 9 Smart School Project Team
  10. 10. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Executive Summary Executive Summary (continued) This document summarises the Blueprint and is Preparing students for the Information Age depends organised into eight sections: on an integrated strategy: • Conceptual Model Provide all-round development with provision for • Teaching and Learning Concepts: Guiding Principles individual abilities, offering a broad curriculum for all, • Management with electives, that is vertically integrated, • Processes and Scenarios multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary. • People, Skills, and Responsibilities Emphasise intellectual, emotional, spiritual, and • Technology Enablers physical growth, concentrating on thinking, developing • Policy Implications and applying values, and using correct language across • Concluding Remarks the curriculum. Conceptual Model Produce a technologically literate work force that can think critically, encouraging thought and creativity The Malaysian Smart School is a learning across the curriculum and applying technology institution that has been systemically effectively in teaching and learning. reinvented in terms of teaching-learning practices and school management in order to Democratise education, offering equal access to prepare children for the Information Age. A learning opportunities and accommodating differing Smart School will evolve over time, continuously learning abilities, styles, and paces. developing its professional staff, its educational resources, and its administrative Increase the participation of stakeholders, creating capabilities. This will allow the school to adapt awareness of their roles and responsibilities and to changing conditions, while continuing to developing the skills they need for that. prepare students for life in the Information Age. To function effectively, the Smart School will require appropriately skilled staff, and well-designed supporting processes. 9 July, 1997 Page 10 Smart School Project Team
  11. 11. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Executive Summary Executive Summary (continued) TEACHING AND LEARNING CONCEPTS: GUIDING Pedagogy PRINCIPLES The Smart School pedagogy will seek to make learning more The most distinctive feature of the Smart School will interesting, motivating, stimulating, and meaningful; involve be a teaching and learning environment built on the children’s minds, spirit, and bodies in the learning international best practices in primary and secondary process; build basic skills to prepare children for greater education. This entails aligning the curriculum, challenges over time; and cater for a range of needs and pedagogy, assessment and teaching-learning materials capabilities among the students. The pedagogy shall: in a mutually reinforcing, coherent manner. • use an appropriate mix of learning strategies to ensure mastery of basic competencies and promote holistic Curriculum development • accommodate individual different learning styles, so as The Smart School curriculum shall be meaningful, to boost performance socially responsible, multicultural, reflective, holistic, • foster a classroom atmosphere that is compatible with global, open-ended, goal-based and technological. It different teaching-learning strategies. shall promote holistic learning, allowing children to progress at their own pace, and catering for students’ Assessment varying capabilities, interests and needs. It will seek to ensure that children are educated with critical and The Smart School’s assessment system will be distinctly creative thinking skills, inculcated with appropriate different from current systems to help realise the values, and encouraged to improve their language National Philosophy of Education It shall be element-based proficiency. Thus, the curriculum will be designed to: and criterion-referenced to provide a more holistic and • help students achieve overall balanced development accurate picture of a student’s performance. Teachers, • integrate knowledge, skills, values, and correct use students and parents will be able to access on-line of language assessment items. Smart School assessment will be flexible • state explicitly intended learning outcomes for and learner-friendly, while assuring the quality of the different ability levels assessment information by using multiple approaches and • offer multidisciplinary, thematic, and continuous instruments. It will lead to living certification, which will learning not only attest to a student’s cumulative accomplishments • foster the knowledge, skills, and attitudes but will also be open to continued improvement on a lifetime appropriate for success in the Information Age. basis. 9 July, 1997 Page 11 Smart School Project Team
  12. 12. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Executive Summary Executive Summary (continued) Teaching-learning materials Further, they will need to develop and maintain a happy , motivated and high-performing staff, ensure the security Smart Schools will need teaching-learning materials of the school and its occupants, and use and manage designed for the new teaching strategies. These technology appropriately, effectively, and efficiently. materials will accommodate students’ differing needs and abilities, resulting in fuller realisation of their PROCESSES AND SCENARIOS capabilities and potential, and allow students to take greater responsibility for managing and directing their For a Smart School to achieve its educational objectives, own learning. its internal processes must be co-ordinated. Ensuring co- ordination entails viewing these processes as a system: if MANAGEMENT the system is well designed, providing appropriate inputs will yield the desired outputs - namely, students ready for The primary objective of Smart School management higher education or active and productive participation in will be to manage efficiently and effectively the the work force. The Smart Schools initiative offers an resources and processes required to support the ideal opportunity to reassess the current schooling system, teaching-learning functions. Management will help to identifying problems and finding potential solutions, many reallocate skilled human resources to more valuable of which can be enabled by technology. activities, save costs over the long term, improve the quality of decisions through better access to For the Smart School system, the major inputs are the information, and accelerate decision making. resources - students, teachers, technology and tools - and the Ministry of Education, in the form of curriculum To fulfil its objectives, the Smart School management specification, financing, and management and control will need strong, professional administrators and functions. The system proceeds through a series of sub- teachers who can articulate school goals clearly, lead processes - identifying and localising teaching plans, teaching at the school, and elicit strong parental and selecting and organising teaching-learning materials, community support. They will need to maintain open determining a student’s entry level, planning the student’s communication with all constituencies, allocate experience, holding classroom sessions, assessing resources sensibly and equitably, track school achievement internally, providing feedback - before performance against financial and non-financial delivering the student for external achievement objectives, and provide a school environment that is assessment, and ultimately for higher education or the conducive to learning. work force. 9 July, 1997 Page 12 Smart School Project Team
  13. 13. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Executive Summary Executive Summary (continued) At a Smart School, these sub-processes will be The efficiency and effectiveness of this constructed so that each delivers the desired output management task can be enhanced significantly in an integrated manner. through the use of technology. Principals in Smart Schools will need intensive training to equip them to PEOPLE, SKILLS, AND RESPONSIBILITIES manage the new facilities, technologies and methodologies deployed in their schools. The higher degree of individualised attention for students at a Smart School will necessitate new roles Ministry of Education Officers and responsibilities for teachers, principals, Ministry of Education officers, support staff and parents. In Ministry officers, comprising those at the central, fact, fulfilling these roles and responsibilities will state and district levels are crucial to the successful require specialised training for each group. implementation of the Smart School project, because they play a major role in planning, co- Teachers ordinating, monitoring, and evaluating Ministry Teacher development will be critical to the success of programmes. Officers will need to understand the Smart School. Teachers will need intensive thoroughly the educational objectives and policies of training in the use of information technology and in its the Smart School, the information technology being integration into classroom activities in ways that applied, the teaching-learning and management enhance thinking and creativity. Smart School processes, and their own roles and responsibilities in teachers will also need to learn to facilitate and that context. encourage students in taking charge of their own learning. In the long term, these teachers will need to Support Staff augment their skills regularly, if they are to stay The advent of new educational processes as well as abreast of developments in their profession and advanced information technology will present real remain confident in their application of the technology. challenges for the support staff at Smart Schools. It will require creating a new position, that of Principals Media/Technology coordinator, and it will require existing clerical staff to learn new ways of working. The tasks of managing schools involves working with information and building on ideas collaboratively. 9 July, 1997 Page 13 Smart School Project Team
  14. 14. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Executive Summary Executive Summary (continued): •Media/Technology Coordinator. The coordinator's TECHNOLOGY ENABLERS task will be to support teachers and the principal in deploying multimedia and other technologies in the Technology alone will not make a school smart. Only Smart School. The coordinator should be an improved teaching-learning strategies, management and experienced teacher who also understands how best administrative processes, and capable, well trained to use technology for gathering information, people with enthusiasm for their work can do that. instruction, managing, and communicating. The However, information technology can enable the coordinator will also need to assist the principal in process of transforming traditional schools into Smart managing software applications and in liasing with Schools. Consequently, a nation-wide system of Smart technical support staff for the maintenance and Schools will depend on advanced information technology upgrading of IT facilities. at the school, district and national levels. •Clerical Staff. School clerical staff will need to School-level technology build IT skills sufficiently to communicate using the new technology and perform their record keeping Technology has many roles to play in a Smart School, functions. In addition to basic IT skills, however, from facilitating teaching and learning activities to they will also need to understand the new educational assisting with school management. Fully equipping a processes, so that they can give their support school might include the following: wherever it is needed. •Classrooms with multimedia courseware and presentation facilities, and e-mail or groupware for Parents collaborative work. Parents can play a major role in helping Smart Schools provide individualised education for students. Research has •Library/Media Centre with a database centre for shown that students do better when their parents are multimedia courseware, and network resources like involved. This task will go beyond monitoring the child’s access to the internet. progress, and providing guidance, motivation, and counsel; it will require familiarity with the new educational processes, •Computer laboratory for teaching, such as a willingness to assist with developing teaching-learning and Computer Studies as a subject, and readily assessment materials, as well as the ability to access the accessible multimedia and audiovisual equipment. school’s public domain databases electronically. 9 July, 1997 Page 14 Smart School Project Team
  15. 15. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Executive Summary Executive Summary (continued) •Multimedia Development Centre with tools for Similarly, parents, students, and other members of the creating multimedia materials and catering to community can stay in touch with the school. Students varying levels of sophistication. can keep abreast of coursework from outside of school; parents can monitor their children’s progress or •Studio/Theatrette with a control room for communicate with teachers from home; people in the centralised audiovisual equipment, community can use the school as a centre for continued videoconferencing studio, preview room for audio, learning. video, or laser disc materials. •Teachers’ Room with on-line access to courseware District-level technology catalogues and databases, information and resource School districts will need to maintain a secure network management systems, professional networking tools, for communicating with schools in the area and with state such as e-mail and groupware. and national authorities, while also using the open network for less sensitive materials. Districts will also •Administration Offices capable of managing need to maintain extensive databases for many different databases of student and facilities, tracking types of information, for example, assessment records of student and teacher performance or resources, and student and teacher performance; human resource distributing notices and other information records; matters of governance, financing, and security; electronically. and educational resources. •Server Room equipped to handle applications, management databases, and web servers; provide National-level technology security; and telecommunications interface and At the national level, interconnecting Smart Schools and access to network resources. educational authorities will involve both open and secure networks. This will allow open access to educational The technology will enable the school to draw on a variety resources, facilitate collaborative work, and maintain of external resources, while also making the school more open communication channels with constituencies, while accessible to the community. Students and teachers will providing for the controlled distribution of sensitive be able to tap into public and university libraries; access information. In addition, there will need to be a national companies and industry associations; investigate museums repository centre that is accessible to all education sites and other archives; keep up to date with local authorities. and maintain expedient access to the Ministry of Education and the federal government administration. 9 July, 1997 Page 15 Smart School Project Team
  16. 16. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Executive Summary Executive Summary (continued) This will require highly reliable telecommunications Assessment. What will be the best regime for infrastructure to connect state and district education comprehensively and periodically assessing student centres and provide international linkages. Given the aptitudes, and what supporting infrastructure will Smart School initiative’s status as a flagship that require? How can tests be administered fairly application, the ideal place for the national repository in multiple ways, including on-line? would be in the MSC. Selection of materials. What changes will be needed in the process for selecting teaching-learning POLICY IMPLICATIONS materials to ensure that the “best” Smart School materials are chosen? Implementing Smart Schools successfully in Malaysia will be a complex task, requiring changes to existing policies, procedures, and practices, both written and Management functions unwritten. It may also require formulating entirely new policies and regulations. A few of the important School governance. What are the appropriate issues to be addressed include those outlined below, in guidelines for intellectual property at a Smart the areas of the teaching-learning processes; School? Who owns the information compiled at the management functions; people, skills and school, and who gets access to it? Who owns the responsibilities; and technology. teaching materials produced by teachers? Communications/public relations. How best to Teaching-learning processes achieve the rapid relaying of relevant information to Teaching-learning. What policies need to be and from stakeholders? What channels should be amended, if students are to progress at their own pace created for rapid communication with the world according to their own capabilities, and if students are beyond the school and how to manage those to be free to learn in a variety of ways? channels? 9 July, 1997 Page 16 Smart School Project Team
  17. 17. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Executive Summary Executive Summary (continued) People, skills and responsibilities CONCLUDING REMARKS What should be the minimum number of hours of on- Transforming traditional schools into Smart Schools going, annual professional development required for represents a major undertaking. It will require a practising teachers, given their need to stay current significant commitment of resources, but the nation will with advances in information technology? benefit from the change for many years to come. Success will require: Should teachers and administrators at Smart Schools, • support from many stakeholders, including all agencies having been trained in the use of information in the educational system; technology, be paid more to ensure that they stay in • sufficient funds to establish and maintain Smart education? Schools; • appropriate policies, norms, and guidelines to support the schools; Technology • effective and efficient administrative practices in each school; What modifications need to be made to the per capita grant to accommodate start-up and on-going • sufficient deployment of information technology to technology expenses? enable the Smart Schools to function properly; • continuing professional development for teachers, What alternative funding sources can be harnessed to principals, and other educational personnel. acquire additional technological inputs? The Smart School initiative represents an investment in To what extent are schools allowed to add technology the future productivity of Malaysia’s work force and a that is inconsistent with agreed-upon Ministry of down payment on the nation’s future prosperity. Education guidelines and technology standards? 9 July, 1997 Page 17 Smart School Project Team
  18. 18. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint The Malaysian Smart School Conceptual Model 9 July, 1997 Page 18 Smart School Project Team
  19. 19. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Conceptual Model The Malaysian National Philosophy of Education underpins every element of the Smart School Conceptual Model: “Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards, and who are responsible and capable of achieving high levels of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, the society and the nation at large.” 9 July, 1997 Page 19 Smart School Project Team
  20. 20. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Conceptual Model Definition of the Malaysian Smart School: “The Malaysian Smart School is a learning institution that has been systemically reinvented in terms of teaching-learning practices and school management in order to prepare children for the Information Age.” The Malaysian Smart School has the following qualities: • a philosophy that says all students can learn if taught, coupled with high expectations for all students • a broad curriculum that considers the different capabilities and needs of all students • a school climate that is conducive to learning • an on-going assessment that supports good instruction • strong and professional principals and teachers • a high level of parent and community involvement and support PEOPLE, SKILLS & PROCESSES RESPONSIBILITIES Management TEACHING & LEARNING TECHNOLOGY Administration POLICIES 9 July, 1997 Page 20 Smart School Project Team
  21. 21. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Conceptual Model Key Components of a Smart School Teaching and Learning The teaching and learning environment comprises four areas: • Curriculum: designed to help students achieve overall and balanced development • Pedagogy: allows for appropriate mix of learning strategies to ensure mastery of basic competencies and promotion of holistic development • Assessment: designed to give accurate feedback of students’ readiness, progress, achievement and aptitude PEOPLE, SKILLS & PROCESSES RESPONSIBILITIES Management • Teaching-Learning Materials: cognitively challenging and motivating by combining the best of network-based, TEACHING & LEARNING teacher-based, and courseware materials TECHNOLOGY Administration POLICIES Management and People, Skills and Administration Responsibilities The nine primary functions of Stakeholders involved in the Smart School management implementation of Smart shall efficiently and Schools will be equipped with effectively manage the specific skills and requisite Technology Processes Policies resources and processes knowledge base to enable required to support the them to play their roles Smart School Smart School To ensure the teaching and learning effectively. practices in teaching processes are viewed successful functions and learning, as a system. When implementation of The key groups of management, and the system is Smart Schools, • School governance stakeholders include communication with provided with inputs, changes in existing • Student affairs teachers, principals, Ministry external the Smart School policies and • Educational resources of Education officers, constituencies will processes will work to regulations, as well • External resources support staff, and parents. dictate technical produce the desired as new policies and • Finance requirements and outputs. regulations will be • Facilities technology solutions formulated. • Human resources • Security • Technology 9 July, 1997 Page 21 Smart School Project Team
  22. 22. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Conceptual Model The Smart School initiative has five main goals which focus on the need to develop a skilled work force for the Information Age and to promote the goals of the National Philosophy of Education: Pr o te d u ch c e nd e n a ou f t h l w o olo t h -r o r k gy- i n k all n t ica ) e e ys l , f o lit i n id p m ph i t u a r c er g a ov o l l, e at n d P r v e l i d u a tua s p i r e d e d i v llec a l , i n nte i o n (i o t em Democratise education Pr to o v i d s t r enha e o p p e n nc o r gt e t lder o f hs ind u n i t an i d a ividu e s stak i p a t i o n b i l al s iti es p a r t ase eho e ic Incr 9 July, 1997 Page 22 Smart School Project Team
  23. 23. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Conceptual Model An integrated set of strategies will be employed to achieve these goals: Goals Strategies All round development of • Provide a broad curriculum for all the individual (intellectual, • Teach values and language across the curriculum physical, emotional, • Emphasise thinking skills spiritual) Provision to develop • Provide electives in the curriculum individual strengths and • Allow for vertical integration (virtual express class) abilities • Teach thinking across the curriculum Produce a thinking and • Apply technology in teaching and learning technology-literate workforce • Provide equal access to learning opportunities Democratise education • Provide for differing abilities, styles, and paces of learning • Create awareness of what happens in schools Increase participation of • Enable easy and speedy communication with the school stakeholders using technology • Provide opportunities for stakeholders (e.g. parents, community) to participate. 9 July, 1997 Page 23 Smart School Project Team
  24. 24. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint The Malaysian Smart School Teaching and Learning Concepts: Guiding Principles 9 July, 1997 Page 24 Smart School Project Team
  25. 25. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles Teaching-Learning Concepts: Guiding Principles The purpose of this Section is to introduce the reader to the Teaching-Learning Concepts that will operate in Smart Schools in Malaysia, namely, the concepts related to Smart School Curriculum, Pedagogy, Assessment and Teaching- Learning Materials,. The characteristics, benefits, and a brief description of each of these components are included. How to read this Section This Section begins with a description of the curriculum that will be used in Smart Schools and how this curriculum will help realise the goals of the National Philosophy of Education.. The pedagogical process, which includes learning strategies and teaching strategies that best promote the aims of the Smart School is then described. Next, the different types of teaching-learning materials that will encourage and promote learning in the Smart School, as well as the selection and evaluation of these materials are described. Finally, assessment models that will give a more accurate picture of every child’s achievement and aptitudes are described. Related Materials The syllabus and curriculum specifications of all the subjects that will be taught in Smart Schools. These materials are PEOPLE, SKILLS & PROCESSES available from the Curriculum Development RESPONSIBILITIES Management Centre, Ministry of Education, Malaysia TEACHING & LEARNING TECHNOLOGY Administration POLICIES 9 July, 1997 Page 25 Smart School Project Team
  26. 26. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles The Smart School teaching and learning environment will be shaped in four main areas, each of which will be a critical element in defining the overall teaching and learning experience for Smart School children: Curriculum Pedagogy PEOPLE, SKILLS & RESPONSIBILITIES PROCESSES Assessment Management TEACHING & LEARNING TECHNOLOGY Administration POLICIES Teaching-Learning Materials 9 July, 1997 Page 26 Smart School Project Team
  27. 27. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles The Smart School Curriculum will be designed according to best practices of other successful Smart Schools, incorporating elements that will enable the education system to achieve the goals of the National Philosophy of Education: Characteristics Benefits Curriculum 1. Designed to help students achieve overall and balanced • Children educated with critical and creative development thinking skills, 2. Integration of knowledge, inculcated with values, skills, values and correct and encouraged to use of language across the improve language Pedagogy curriculum 3. Intended learning outcomes • proficiency Holistic learning explicitly stated for promoted different levels of abilities, • Children allowed to ensuring all students gain progress at their own equal access to quality pace learning, and allowing for • Students’ varying Assessment self-paced learning across capabilities, interests, grades and needs catered for 4, Multidisciplinary, thematic, and continuous across learning areas Teaching-Learning 5. Integration of knowledge, skills, and attitudes suitable Materials for the Information Age 9 July, 1997 Page 27 Smart School Project Team
  28. 28. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles The Malaysian Smart School Vision of Curriculum: The curriculum shall be: • MEANINGFUL. The curriculum emphasises the active construction of meaning, so that all students find purpose in their studies. • SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE. The curriculum develops in students a sense of social responsibility, so that they become aware of their obligations and duties as citizens in a democracy and are especially sensitive to the needs of the poor and the aged. • MULTICULTURAL. The curriculum reflects and is responsive to the cultural diversity of this nation and our community, so that students develop a sense of pride in their own heritage and a respect for that of others. • REFLECTIVE. The curriculum fosters in students the skills and attitudes of reflection, so that they are able to think critically, creatively, and affirmatively. • HOLISTIC. The curriculum gives appropriate emphasis to all the significant aspects of growth and all the types of human intelligence, helping students see the connections between the separate subjects, • GLOBAL. The curriculum develops in students an awareness of global interdependence in all aspects of life, including the environment and the economy. • OPEN-ENDED. The curriculum is open-ended in two ways: it is open to revision and continued refinement; and it provides open access to all students, allowing them to go beyond explicitly stated learning outcomes in curriculum documents. • GOAL-BASED. The curriculum focuses on significant goals, so that all students, including those with special needs, develop the critical skills and acquire the knowledge they need for effective lifelong learning and full functioning as citizens in a changing society. • TECHNOLOGICAL. The curriculum uses technology as one delivery system, examines the influence of technology on students’ lives, and gives students the skills they need to use technology. 9 July, 1997 Page 28 Smart School Project Team
  29. 29. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles New elements in the Smart School curriculum will focus on all-round development of students appropriate for the Information Age: 1. Designed to help students achieve overall and balanced development ALL-ROUND DEVELOPMENT Domains Effective oral and written communication in Malay. English as a second Communication language. Emphasise multiple languages, interpersonal skills and networking. Focus on acquiring knowledge. Focus on searching, generating, and using Cognitive knowledge with an emphasis on problem-solving and creativity. Affective/ Instil moral and religious values. Emphasise adaptability, team-player Emotional characteristics, emotional balance and emotional intelligence. Physical/ Instil social responsibility and consciousness of health and environmental Social issues. Emphasise a global orientation and inculcate work place skills and attitudes. 9 July, 1997 Page 29 Smart School Project Team
  30. 30. 6PDUW6FKRRORQFHSWXDO%OXHSULQW 7HDFKLQJDQG/HDUQLQJRQFHSWV*XLGLQJ3ULQFLSOHV $ZLGHYDULHWRI6NLOOV.QRZOHGJH/DQJXDJHDQG9DOXHVHOHPHQWVLQDUHDVRIVWXGZLOOIRUP WKHQHZXUULFXOXPIRU6PDUW6FKRROV ,QWHJUDWLRQRINQRZOHGJH VNLOOVYDOXHVDQGFRUUHFW .QRZOHGJH XVHRIODQJXDJHDFURVVWKH ‡ RQWHQW .QRZOHGJH ‡ 3UREOHP 6ROYLQJ .QRZOHGJH FXUULFXOXP ‡ (SLVWHPLF .QRZOHGJH ‡ ,QTXLU .QRZOHGJH 9DOXHVIRUH[DPSOH ‡ RPSDVVLRQ 6NLOOVIRUH[DPSOH ‡ 6HOI5HOLDQFH ‡ +XPLOLW ‡ UHDWLYH DQG ULWLFDO 7KLQNLQJ 6NLOOV $UHDVRI6WXG ‡ 5HVSHFW VSHFLDO HPSKDVLV
  31. 31. ‡ /DQJXDJH DQG RPPXQLFDWLRQ ‡ /RYH ‡ 3HUVRQDO 6NLOOV ‡ ,VODPLF 5HOLJLRXV (GXFDWLRQ ‡ -XVWLFH ‡ 6RFLDO 6NLOOV ‡ 9DOXHV 'HYHORSPHQW ‡ )UHHGRP ‡ .QRZOHGJH $FTXLVLWLRQ 6NLOOV ‡ 6FLHQFH DQG 7HFKQRORJ ‡ RXUDJH ‡ 6FLHQWLILF 6NLOOV ‡ 6RFLDO 6WXGLHV ‡ *HQHULF 6NLOOV ‡ 3KVLFDO DQG +HDOWK ‡ 3KVLFDO DQG 0HQWDO OHDQOLQHVV ‡ 0DWKHPDWLFDO 6NLOOV 'HYHORSPHQW ‡ +RQHVW ‡ (QYLURQPHQWDO 6NLOOV ‡ 9RFDWLRQDO DQG ‡ 'LOLJHQFH ‡ UHDWLYH 6NLOOV 3HUVRQDO $ZDUHQHVV ‡ RRSHUDWLRQ ‡ ,QIRUPDWLRQ 7HFKQRORJ 6NLOOV ‡ 3UDFWLFDO DQG UHDWLYH $UWV ‡ 0RGHUDWLRQ ‡ *UDWLWXGH ‡ 5DWLRQDOLW ‡ 3XEOLF 6SLULWHGQHVV /DQJXDJH 5HDGLQJ :ULWLQJ 2UDO RPPXQLFDWLRQ ‡ RUUHFW XVDJH ‡ (IIHFWLYH FRPPXQLFDWLRQ -XO 3DJH 6PDUW6FKRRO3URMHFW7HDP
  32. 32. 6PDUW6FKRRORQFHSWXDO%OXHSULQW 7HDFKLQJDQG/HDUQLQJRQFHSWV*XLGLQJ3ULQFLSOHV (OHPHQWVRI.QRZOHGJHWKDWVKDOOEHLQIXVHGLQWRWKH6PDUW6FKRROFXUULFXOXPLQDQLQWHJUDWHG PDQQHU ‡ RQWHQW.QRZOHGJH)DFWVRQFHSWV3ULQFLSOHVDQG *HQHUDOLVDWLRQV
  33. 33. .QRZOHGJHDQGNQRZKRZFRQFHUQLQJWKHIDFWVDQGURXWLQHSURFHGXUHVRID VXEMHFWPDWWHU ‡ 3UREOHP6ROYLQJ.QRZOHGJH .QRZOHGJHDQGNQRZKRZFRQFHUQLQJWKHVROXWLRQRIFKDUDFWHULVWLFSUREOHPVLQ WKHVXEMHFWPDWWHU ‡ (SLVWHPLF.QRZOHGJH .QRZOHGJHDQGNQRZKRZFRQFHUQLQJMXVWLILFDWLRQDQGH[SODQDWLRQLQWKH VXEMHFWPDWWHU ‡ ,QTXLU.QRZOHGJH .QRZOHGJHDQGNQRZKRZFRQFHUQLQJ WKHZDUHVXOWVDUHFKDOOHQJHGDQGQHZ NQRZOHGJHFRQVWUXFWHGLQWKHVXEMHFWPDWWHU -XO 3DJH 6PDUW6FKRRO3URMHFW7HDP
  34. 34. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles Examples of Values that shall be infused into the Smart School curriculum in an integrated manner: Love Moderation Compassion • love for the environment • moderation in feeling of self- • sympathetic • love for the country importance and consideration for • considerate • love for peace and harmony others • generous • moderation in speech and deed • understanding Freedom • forgiving • freedom as granted by the law Gratitude • freedom in the democratic system • thankful Self-Reliance • thoughtful • responsible Courage • act wisely • appreciative • able to act independently • self-motivated • defend the truth Rationality • self-confident • stand firmly by one’s own • prudence conviction • the ability to reason Respect • accept responsibility • having open and logical minds • show filial piety • courteous conduct and speech • respect elders, teachers, Physical and Mental Cleanliness • cleanliness of the self • the development of a healthy and friends, neighbours and constructive mind leaders • cleanliness of the environment • respect the king and country • courteous conduct and speech Public Spiritedness • respect the basic rights of • the development of a healthy and • collaboration others constructive mind • neighbourliness • respect the beliefs and Co-operation • sensitivity to social issues customs of the different • brotherhood Humility communities • shared responsibility • courtesy • respect the uniqueness of • co-operation • readiness in admitting one’s the person • tolerance mistake • abide by the law • common benefit • friendliness • observe punctuality • unity Honesty • show appreciation for Diligence • trustworthiness knowledge, experience and • Steadfastness • truthfulness contribution • Effort • sincerity • show appreciation for labour • Dedication • respect the pride of others Justice • Determination • fairness • Perseverance • equity 9 July, 1997 Page 32 Smart School Project Team
  35. 35. 6PDUW6FKRRORQFHSWXDO%OXHSULQW 7HDFKLQJDQG/HDUQLQJRQFHSWV*XLGLQJ3ULQFLSOHV ([DPSOHVRI6NLOOVWKDWVKDOOEHLQIXVHGLQWRWKH6PDUW6FKRROFXUULFXOXPLQDQLQWHJUDWHG PDQQHU 3HUVRQDO 6NLOOV 0DWKHPDWLFDO VNLOOV ‡ 6ROYLQJ PRUDO GLOHPPDV ‡ 0DWKHPDWLFDO VNLOOV WR FRSH ZLWK GHPDQGV RI HYHUGD OLIH ‡ 6SLULWXDO DZDUHQHVV HJ QXPEHUV WLPH PRQH
  36. 36. ‡ 6HOI UHOLDQFH ‡ 6NLOOV DW LQWHUSUHWLQJ LQIRUPDWLRQ SUHVHQWHG LQ PDWKHPDWLFDO ‡ $GDSWDELOLW WHUPV ‡ 5HVRXUFHIXOQHVV ‡ 6NLOOV LQ XVLQJ D FDOFXODWRU ‡ 5HVLOLHQFH ‡ 0HDVXUHPHQW VNLOOV (QYLURQPHQWDO VNLOOV ‡ 8QGHUVWDQGLQJ DQG LQWHUSUHWLQJ ‡ 5HFRJQLWLRQ RI RZQ ULJKWV DQG ‡ 6NLOOV LQ PHQWDO FDOFXODWLRQ SKVLFDO SKHQRPHQD UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV ‡ 6NLOOV LQ HVWLPDWLRQ ‡ ,QWHUDFWLQJ LQ KDUPRQ ZLWK WKH ‡ 5HFRJQLWLRQ RI RZQ WDOHQWV DQG ‡ 6SDWLDO VNLOOV DQG WKHLU DSSOLFDWLRQ HQYLURQPHQW ZHDNQHVVHV ‡ 6NLOOV UHODWLQJ WR UDWLR DQG SURSRUWLRQ ‡ $SSOLQJ IXQGDPHQWDO VFLHQWLILF ‡ 5HFRJQLWLRQ RI RSSRUWXQLWLHV ‡ 6NLOOV LQ DQDOVLV DQG LQWHUSUHWDWLRQ SULQFLSDOV ‡ ([SORUDWLRQ RI RZQ SRWHQWLDO RI VWDWLVWLFV ‡ 8QGHUVWDQGLQJ DQG HYDOXDWLQJ ‡ 6NLOOV LQ SODQQLQJ RZQ IXWXUH ‡ 6NLOOV LQ DSSOLQJ PDWKHPDWLFDO NQRZOHGJH VRFLDO LQVWLWXWLRQV ‡ 6NLOOV LQ FRSLQJ ZLWK SUHVVXUH IURP 7KLQNLQJ VNLOOV RWKHU KXPDQ EHLQJV ‡ /HDGHUVKLS VNLOOV ‡ ULWLFDO DQDOVLV DQG HYDOXDWLRQ UHDWLYH VNLOOV ‡ 'HFLVLRQ PDNLQJ ‡ $UWLVWLF VNLOOV DQG DSSUHFLDWLRQ 6RFLDO VNLOOV ‡ 3UREOHP VROYLQJ ‡ 0XVLFDO VNLOOV DQG DSSUHFLDWLRQ ‡ RPPXQLFDWLRQ ‡ UHDWLYH WKLQNLQJ VNLOOV ‡ 'UDPDWLF VNLOOV DQG DSSUHFLDWLRQ ‡ 5HDGLQJ OLVWHQLQJ VSHDNLQJ 6FLHQWLILF VNLOOV ‡ /LWHUDU VNLOOV DQG DSSUHFLDWLRQ ZULWLQJ QRQYHUEDO FUHDWLYH ‡ 2EVHUYLQJ LQIHUULQJ SUHGLFWLQJ ‡ .LQDHVWKHWLF VNLOOV DQG DSSUHFLDWLRQ ‡ ,QWHUSHUVRQDO ,QWHUSUHWLQJ ‡ 5HODWLQJ WR RWKHU KXPDQ EHLQJV ‡ 0DNLQJ RSHUDWLRQDO GHILQLWLRQV ‡ RRSHUDWLQJ ZLWK RWKHU KXPDQ EHLQJV ‡ 0DNLQJ KSRWKHVHV ,QIRUPDWLRQ WHFKQRORJ VNLOOV ‡ ([SHULPHQWLQJ ‡ 6NLOOV LQ VHOHFWLQJ DQG XVLQJ ,7 ‡ 5HFRJQLWLRQ RI WKH GHPDQGV RI WKH FRQWH[W RI DQ LQWHUDFWLRQ *HQHULF VNLOOV WRROV ‡ +RPH PDQDJHPHQW VNLOOV ‡ 5HFRJQLWLRQ DQG DQWLFLSDWLRQ RI ‡ 6DIHWILUVW DLG VNLOOV FRQVHTXHQFHV RI DFWLRQ ‡ +HDOWK PDQDJHPHQW ‡ 5HVSHFWLQJ ULJKWV RI RWKHUV ‡ /HLVXUH PDQDJHPHQW .QRZOHGJH DFTXLVLWLRQ VNLOOV ‡ LWL]HQVKLSVHUYLFH VNLOOV ‡ ,QIRUPDWLRQ VHHNLQJ RUJDQLVLQJ DQDOVLV ‡ 6NLOOV LQ FRSLQJ ZLWK EXUHDXFUDFLHV VQWKHVLV ‡ 9RFDWLRQRULHQWHG VNLOOV ‡ 6NLOOV LQ FRSLQJ ZLWK WKH PHGLD -XO 3DJH 6PDUW6FKRRO3URMHFW7HDP
  37. 37. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles Elements of Language that shall be infused into the Smart School curriculum in an integrated manner: Reading, Writing and Oral Communication • Integration of process and content from areas of study for reading and writing • Integration of talking and listening activities across all content areas • Communication with and understanding of written language • Construction of meaning with and from written text • Using and understanding spoken language in a variety of educational and social setting • Knowledge and analysis of topic, audience, task, and messages • Knowledge of varied cultural influences • Written language competency • Wide variety of genre 9 July, 1997 Page 34 Smart School Project Team
  38. 38. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles Curriculum Design for Smart Schools will incorporate elements of Vertical Integration: e pl am 3. Intended learning outcomes Each subject is divided into learning areas Ex explicitly stated for different levels of abilities, ensuring all Example of a Learning Area in the English Language students gain equal access to Intended Learning Outcomes Suggested Resources, Techniques, quality learning, and allowing for Activities self-paced learning across Level 1 (Mastery level) Listen to selected texts and Teach the use of signal words grades. respond to “Wh” questions The curriculum will reflect Retell a story viewed or read Listen to taped materials vertical integration to allow high Read and describe events in featuring two to three speakers narrative fliers to ‘surf’ through their Level 2 Use completion exercises schooling years, without being Listen and respond to a variety of kept apart from their peers, in texts Encourage student participation virtual express classes. Talk about ideas, information and in group activities to learn how to events in texts heard or read disagree politely Read and respond to a variety of texts Role playing Level 3 Simulation exercises Listen for cause-effect relationships Express personal views and comments constructively on others’ opinions and views Read a variety of texts and discuss ideas, information and events 9 July, 1997 Page 35 Smart School Project Team
  39. 39. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles Curriculum Design for Smart Schools will also incorporate elements of Horizontal Integration: 4. The curriculum will reflect ALL SUBJECTS IN THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM horizontal integration which features multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary o m in t edge n d approaches. rm a , VERTICAL INTEGRATION o u des now a r fo ye A multidisciplinary e s he l r n tti ing c h approach is one in which l e a nd a list e a k two or three subject r areas are combined in a d e s a area s fo tc i n g tu single learning area that e Grade levels i n t val ing t i v focuses on a theme, o f ills, earn b j e c issue, problem, topic, or concept. sk ch l n g o e n ue d ea arni An interdisciplinary Le approach combines all subject areas to focus the full array of disciplines on a theme, issue, problem, topic, or concept. HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION 9 July, 1997 Page 36 Smart School Project Team
  40. 40. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles IT literacy will be emphasised, to prepare students for the challenges of the Information Age: 5. Integration of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes suitable for the Information Age IT Literacy is the ability to use IT tools and IT sources to: • collect, analyse, process and present information • support meaningful learning in a variety of contexts • prepare for working life The journey of the Smart School project might otherwise be a long and gradual one, but we can now use technology to take us there quickly and efficiently. 9 July, 1997 Page 37 Smart School Project Team
  41. 41. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles In addition, the Smart School co-curriculum programme will provide activities that reinforce classroom learning, as well as make schooling fun and interesting. Examples of such activities are: Subject-related Community service activities activities Cultural activities Social activities Recreational Religious activities activities Uniformed body Sports and games activities 9 July, 1997 Page 38 Smart School Project Team
  42. 42. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles Smart School pedagogy will be student-centred: Characteristics Benefits Curriculum • Appropriate mix of learning strategies to ensure mastery • Learning becomes more interesting, of basic competencies and motivating, stimulating promotion of holistic and meaningful development • The mind, spirit, and # Encouragement of body of the child is learning activities to involved in the learning Pedagogy promote creativity and experimentation with process • Basic skills to prepare content-independent children for greater subjects while challenges over time maintaining sufficient rigour in content- • A range of diversities dependent subjects in needs and Assessment # Overall, trend towards student-centred learning capabilities catered for activities with increase in age and maturity • Allowing for individual differences in learning styles Teaching-Learning to boost performance • The classroom atmosphere is Materials compatible with different teaching-learning strategies 9 July, 1997 Page 39 Smart School Project Team
  43. 43. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles Different learning experiences will be experienced in Smart Schools, using innovative methods of teaching, for example: involves specific learning goals • active learning process, where learner constructs meaning Process • continuous • personalised • alone, in pairs, or in small teams • with an expert (teacher or community member), a facilitator (teacher assistant, volunteer or student), non-human resources (hands-on Modes materials, computer-based resources, multimedia resources, or print materials) • at a site in the community, a computer-based multimedia simulation, a hands-on learning lab, a meeting room or library • authentic, often in real life environments, with real world challenges • interdisciplinary: * specific knowledge * general skills such as transfer of information across settings, Tasks negotiation and interpersonal skills, decision making skills • mastery of a task before progressing to next task • periodic performance mastery assessment • more responsibility to learner for directing and managing own learning 9 July, 1997 Page 40 Smart School Project Team
  44. 44. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles In Smart Schools, there will be an appropriate mix of learning strategies to ensure mastery of basic competencies and promotion of holistic development The possible roles of students and teachers in the classroom environment range from those completely teacher-centred to those entirely student-centred. These represent a spectrum of possibilities, but it is possible to define the alternatives across this spectrum. Outlined below are four basic choices across the spectrum: Teacher As Teacher As Teacher- Mentor and Coach or Student- Centred Model Facilitator Centred Establishment • Established • Established • Established • Established of Learning by Teacher by Teacher through by student Objectives discussion with between teacher’s student and suggestions teacher and input Differentiating Factors Determination • Determined • Suggested • Determined • Determined of by Teacher by teacher, by student by student Instructional open to with with Tasks discussion teacher’s teacher’s suggestions suggestions and input and input Selection of • Selected by • Suggested • Selected by • Selected by Resources for Teacher by teacher, student with student with Tasks open to teacher’s teacher’s discussion suggestions suggestions and input and input 9 July, 1997 Page 41 Smart School Project Team
  45. 45. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles Another important input to the classroom environment is the strategy used for the learning process. Some learning strategies for use in the classroom include: Learning Description Strategy Directive • Drill, practice, mastery learning, and direct instruction Strategies Observation • Learning by observing others performing a function or task Strategies Mediative • Direct assisting of students in learning how to apply knowledge to solve problems Strategies • A combination of reasoning, coaching, and open-ended discussions Generative • Help students learn how to behave in appropriate situations and use their different intelligences Strategies • Includes tools like brainstorming, synectics, lateral thinking, and creativity by design Collaborative Strategies • Help students use interpersonal skills to accomplish tasks Outside-Context • Activity-based learning, hands-on sessions, seminars, workshops, and do-it-yourself Learning Strategies programmes Metacognitive • Students learn through thinking about the learning process and how they did and how Learning Strategies they can improve 9 July, 1997 Page 42 Smart School Project Team
  46. 46. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles Classroom Environments Compatible with Different Teaching Strategies Combining the roles within the classroom with the learning strategies available results in an overview of the different classroom environments. Some possible classroom environments are more realistic than others based on the fit between the roles of the teacher and student and the learning strategy. Teacher as Coach or Teacher-Centred Teacher as Mentor and Student-Centred Facilitator Model • Focus on basic skills Directive • Frequent “Drill and Repeat” Strategies exercises • Example of application of basic • Teacher or expert shows class a • Teacher or expert shows class a • Teacher or expert shows a concept Observational skills and theory concept concept • Students ask questions in interactive session Strategies • Students observe expert or • Students ask questions in • Students ask questions in • Students are examples to each teacher interactive session interactive session other • Clear lesson plan determined by • Discussion and Question-and- Mediative teacher • Discussion and Question-and- Answer with students Answer with students Strategies • Focus on applying basic skills, with some student-student interaction • Learning goals set by teacher • Learning goals set by teacher in discussion with students • Teacher sets problem or • Students and teachers jointly set • Students set priorities with Generative assignment • Students provided with options for goals • Students expected to develop teacher input • Students expected to set range of Strategies appropriate solutions problem-solving options options for solving problems with • Teacher assists execution • Teachers assists execution teacher’s help • Teacher sets learning objectives • Joint setting of learning goals • Students set learning objectives Collaborative and rules • Students expected to form groups and internally determine roles • Students are grouped, may also set own “roles” Strategies • Students are grouped, and teacher • Teacher can intervene to guide or • Teachers can support students to may also set the “roles” suggest find a co-operative working style • Teacher provides students with • Joint goal setting between • Students develop problems and Outside-Context goals, options for execution students and teachers • Students expected to take solutions jointly with teacher Learning Strategies • Field activities and labs arranged initiative in selecting field • Field activities and labs arranged by teacher exercises and lab options by students • Students are asked to discuss how Metacognitive they met goals in an assignment • Teacher should prompt students to • Students expected to reflect on own learning programmes and hold Learning Strategies • Use of “simulated recall” in reflect upon goals and activities dialogues with teachers classroom Poor Fit 9 July, 1997 Page 43 Smart School Project Team
  47. 47. Smart School Conceptual Blueprint Teaching and Learning Concepts : Guiding Principles Incorporating High Level Thinking Skills and Values in the Classroom Most values and thinking skills can be taught in a variety of subjects,from an early age. As students grow older and in subjects that allow for a greater variety for a classroom environments (not just teacher-centred, directive), advanced applications of values and skills should become part of the environment. Higher order thinking skills and greater emphasis on discussing and strengthening values should take place. Teacher as Coach or Teacher-Centred Teacher as Mentor and Student-Centred Facilitator Model Directive Strategies Observational Strategies Inc rea Mediative with sing Strategies incr stud eas ent ing con Generative Strategies age trol and mat Collaborative urit Strategies y Outside-Context Learning Strategies Metacognitive Learning Strategies Poor Fit 9 July, 1997 Page 44 Smart School Project Team

×