The Industrial Revolution


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  • The Industrial Revolution

    2. 2. <ul><li>The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transportation had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultura l conditions in Britain. The changes subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. The onset of the Industrial Revolution marked a major turning point in human society; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way. Starting in the latter part of the 18th century there began a transition in parts of Great Britain's previously manual labour and draft animal–based economy towards machine-based manufacturing. It started with the mechanization of the t extile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. The introduction of steam power fuelled primarily by coal, wider utilization of water wheels and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity. The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world. The impact of this change on society was enormous. </li></ul><ul><li>The First Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century, merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the 19th century with the internal combustion engine and electrical power generation. GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy. The Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies. Historians agree that the Industrial Revolution was one of the most important events in history. The most significant inventions had their origins in the Western world, primarily Europe and the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>(Taken from Wikipedia) </li></ul>
    3. 3. WHY FIRST IN GREAT BRITAIN? <ul><li>Changes in Farming </li></ul><ul><li>Development of trading in 18th century= access to raw materials and new markets </li></ul><ul><li>The development of farming and trade produces big incomes that could be invested in new activities such as the new industry </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepeneur’s mentality between both nobility and gentry that controlled Government and Parliament and was favoured by its laws </li></ul>
    4. 4. Which changed first, farming or industry? Farming, after Paul Bairoch The new farming Increased The yields The demand of iron The standard of living More money to invest Growth of iron industry Demand for cloth
    5. 5. Old and new farming <ul><li>Extensive agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Leave the land fallow </li></ul><ul><li>Low yields </li></ul><ul><li>Old tools </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclical famines </li></ul><ul><li>High mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Crop rotation </li></ul><ul><li>High yields </li></ul><ul><li>New tools </li></ul><ul><li>No famines </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul>
    6. 6. Old and new farming
    7. 7. The First Industrial Revolution 1760-1850 Characteristics
    8. 8. New machines <ul><li>First in the textile industry and especially in the cotton industry </li></ul><ul><li>The Steam engine. James Watt </li></ul><ul><li>The iron industry=developing of coal mining </li></ul><ul><li>The locomotive and the railway: the revolution of transport </li></ul>
    9. 9. New machines and factories
    10. 10. <ul><li>Factory system : each worker created a separate part of the total assembly of a product, thus increasing the efficiency of factories. Workers, paid by salary, and machines, were brought together in a central factory under the same roof instead of the old domestic system. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Social consequences <ul><li>Exploitation of workers, especially women and children, in factories and mines </li></ul><ul><li>High mortality rate in industrial areas </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of the industrial cities </li></ul><ul><li>Bad housing </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of Trade Unions </li></ul>
    12. 13. Transport Revolution, Consequences <ul><li>Increase in the demand for iron. </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation of goods, quicker, further and cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>People can also travel quicker, cheaper and further </li></ul>
    13. 14. The second industrial revolution 1850-1945 Characteristics
    14. 15. <ul><li>News energies: petroleum and hydroelectric power </li></ul><ul><li>New types of industries: electrical, chemical, steel… </li></ul><ul><li>New means of transport: automobile, electric trains and trams, aircrafts </li></ul><ul><li>New countries: USA, Germany and Japan </li></ul><ul><li>New forms of working: the ford system </li></ul><ul><li>New enterprises: trust </li></ul>
    15. 16. Demographical changes <ul><li>Farming provide more food= less mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Science development=improvements in health, such as vaccines=less mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Less mortality= population growth </li></ul><ul><li>Factories locate in cities=workers emigrate to cities that become greater and greater. London had 1 million inhabitants in 1811. </li></ul><ul><li>Migrations to other continents, especially from Europe to America </li></ul>
    16. 17. Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834). “ An Essay on the Principle of Population “
    17. 18. The Demographic Transition Model (DTM)