Colonialism and colonies


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Colonialism and colonies

  1. 1. Colonialism and colonies
  2. 2. <ul><li>Colonialism and Colonies , is one country’s domination of another country or people—usually achieved through aggressive, often military, actions—and the territory acquired in this manner </li></ul>
  3. 3. Motives for Colonization <ul><li>In general, strong countries dominated weaker ones to promote their own national self-interest, out of economic, religious, cultural, or other reasons. It has been said that the three primary motives for establishing colonies were gold, God, and glory, but the main incentives were usually economic. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Economic Motives <ul><li>The colonizing country could control important markets for its exports (such as cotton products) and deny these markets to its competitors. Colonies were also important as sources of raw materials (such as raw cotton) and as opportunities for investment. A country often also increased its wealth by conquering another civilization and taking its riches or by exploiting the mineral wealth of another land. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Strategic and political motives <ul><li>Sometimes colonies were important for strategic reasons—for example, the Cape of Good Hope, on the southern tip of Africa, guarded European sailors’ southern route to Asia. Also, some countries occupied colonies in order to protect previous investments. In Egypt, a nationalist uprising in 1882 threatened British investments in the Canal of Suez. They occupied Egypt to control the situation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Religious and cultural motives <ul><li>European countries also wanted to spread their religious beliefs and cultures that they believed are superior to natives ones. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Berlin Conference of 1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. Called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck, the first Chancellor of Germany.It caused the elimination of most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The ‘General Act’ fixed the following points: <ul><li>The Free State of the Congo was confirmed as private property of the Congo Society, property of Léopold II (King of Belgium) </li></ul><ul><li>The 14 signatory powers would have free trade throughout the Congo basin. </li></ul><ul><li>The Niger and Congo Rivers were made free for ship traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>A Principle of Effectivity was introduced to stop powers setting up colonies in name only. </li></ul><ul><li>The possession of any portion of the African coast gave right to occupy the inland but must be notified to the other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Africa was divided between the main powers of Europe. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The British Empire
  10. 10. Consequences of Colonialism <ul><li>The implications of colonial rule on the colonies are considerable, and there was a large impact on local economics, culture and political systems. The manner in which decolonization took place also led to problems. Many geographers see a colonial past as probably the most important initial condition for underdevelopment. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Deprivation of resources and exploitation of native labour force. </li></ul><ul><li>African imports were banned by the metropolitan powers of Europe, but they flood the colonial market with cheap European goods to destroy the local industries. </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery is probably the worst legacy of colonialism. It is estimated that between 1601 and 1870, 15,200,000 left Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Racism .The natives of the country were made to feel inferior. </li></ul>