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Media texts in the classroom

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  • 1. Media Texts in the Classroom Dissecting Ideology and Stereotypes Lic. Mariana Ferrarelli 23rd ARTESOL Convention Buenos Aires May 6th – 7th, 2011
  • 2. Media Texts
    • Photography
    • Print advertisements
    • TV commercials
    • Films
    • Magazines
    • Newspapers
    Forms of COMMUNICATION A. Direct B. Indirect
  • 3. Forms of COMMUNICATION
    • A. Direct Face to face
    • Verbal
    • Non-verbal
    • (proxemics, kinesics, facial expressions, tone)
  • 4.
    • B. Indirect
    • MEDIATION
    • Process whereby one person (or group) handles and passes on perceptions and information to another. (Pope; 1998:63)
    • THE MEDIA
    Forms of COMMUNICATION Mediated One of the participants is absent (different time / place). ‘ Middle’ ‘a go-between’ Technology & Institutions
  • 5. THE MEDIA D. Hands-on analysis C. Relevance to EFL B. How? A. Why? MEDIA TEXTS
  • 6. THE MEDIA
    • A. WHY? - Theory
    • Frankfurt School
    • Birmingham School
    • J. Derrida
    • B. HOW? - Tools
    • I. Semiotics
    • Signifier & Signified
    • II. R. Barthes
    • Denotation & Connotation
    • The photographic message
    • Rhetoric of the image
  • 7. THE MEDIA
    • C. Relevance to EFL
    • Motivation
    • Genuine Communication
    • Critical Thinking Skills
    • D. Classroom Ideas
    • Magritte’s “This is not a pipe”
    • Analysis of print ads
  • 8.
    • Frankfurt School
    • Authoritarian regimes
    • MEDIA domination
    • W. Benjamin AURA
    • T. Adorno & M. Horkheimer Cultural Industry
    A. Why? - Theory
  • 9.
    • Birmingham School
    • MEDIA Power relations & struggles for hegemony.
    • Stuart Hall Ideological Effect
    • Erasing of the coding process
    • 3 Readings Dominant Reading
    • Oppositional Reading
    • Negotiated Reading
    A. Why? - Theory
  • 10.
    • Jacques Derrida
    • Deconstruction “To deconstruct is to take apart, to undo, in order to seek out and display the assumptions of a text” (…) “Deconstruction seeks to expose the blind spots of texts, the unacknowledged assumptions upon which they operate” (Barker; 47).
    • Open / Unpack texts
    • Dissect their assumptions
    • Explore what they say and what they omit
    A. Why? - Theory
  • 11. A. Why? – RECAP 1 Messages are constructed / coded in specific ways Representations not reality itself look like reality Every choice is political
  • 12. B. How? – I. Semiotics
    • Signifier & Signified
    • Signifier Acoustic/written/photographic material
    • Signified Mental image
    • Tree
    • Trunk – leaves - branches
  • 13. B. How? – II. Roland Barthes
    • Denotation & Connotation
    • Denotation Literal meaning
    • Connotation Cultural associations
    • four-legged wild animal
    • mane – claws – paws
    • (Denoted Signified)
    • power – wilderness – king
    • strength – domination
    • (Connoted Signified)
    Signified Photographic Signifier
  • 14. B. How? – II. Roland Barthes
    • The Photographic Message
    Power Sex Britishness Tenderness 1 Tenderness 2 Disney Corp.
  • 15. B. How? – II. Roland Barthes
    • The Rhetoric of the Image
    • Denoted message Literal level
    • Perceptual identification
    • Connoted message Symbolic level
    • Conceptual interpretation
  • 16. B. How? – RECAP 2 Denoted Signified Connoted Signified Shiny hair+white teeth+perfect skin Beauty Femininity Sex appeal Smile+body posture Happiness Success Eye contact w/ Viewer Inclusion / Idea of ‘us’ Straight angle Equality Colour Warmth / Harmony / Balance
  • 17. C. Relevance to EFL
    • Motivation interests – age/gender
    • Real purpose genuine communication
    • Critical Thinking Skills
    • Active citizens
    • Independent thinking
  • 18. D. Hands-on Analysis - Intro Magritte’s painting
  • 19. D. Hands-on Analysis - Intro
  • 20. D. Hands-on Analysis - 1 Young white people Slim bodies Happy faces Bright colours Bodies floating Denoted Signified Connoted Signified Beauty A relaxed way of life - freedom Coolness Friendliness Wealth Eye contact with viewer Idea of ‘us’ Join us Lighting – bright light Happiness - playfulness
  • 21. D. Hands-on Analysis - 2 Complete family Family togetherness No eye contact ‘ They’ are having fun Bright light +Yellow Warmth – sunny day - happiness Body postures / facial expressions More happiness Orange juice + fresh fruit A healthy lifestyle – well being Denoted Signified Connoted Signified
  • 22. D. Hands-on Analysis - 3 Denoted Signified Connoted Signified Warm colours (foreground) Warmth – coziness (inside) Cold colours (background) Harshness (outside) Body posture – facial expressions Romance – love making No eye contact Viewer peeping through window Lighting: shadows – soft light Sense of intimacy
  • 23. D. Hands-on Analysis - 4 Denoted Signified Connoted Signified Neutral colours Scientific objectivity Needle + white marks on woman’s face It’s like undergoing plastic surgery Lots of verbal language Leaflet - medicine Eye contact Inclusion: ‘I know how you feel when you look at yourself in the mirror but… … you can be like me!’ Anti age Cream Eternal youth Beauty Happiness & Success
  • 24. D. Hands-on Analysis - 5 Denoted Signified Connoted Signified RED Love Passion Apple Temptation Eve – Sin - SEX Body posture – facial expression She’s loving it! Waiting for her male partner Eye contact 1. Female Viewer: you can be as sexy as I am 2. Male Viewer: you can have me if you buy HER Caro Cuore
  • 25. D. Hands-on Analysis - Ideas
    • Students can…
    • Produce their own communication pieces (print ads, magazine covers, TV commercials)
    • Debate on how gender roles are stereotyped in a given cartoon, fairy tale, TV programme
    • Compare how the same event (a demonstration against the government) is portrayed by different media corporations
    • Engage in a writing activity and discuss how advertising affects our behaviour
    (Speaking) (Reading, Speaking, Listening) (Writing)
  • 26. D. Hands-on Analysis - Ideas Article Rubric: Write an article for an international student magazine discussing how advertising influences people’s decisions and behaviour in today’s globalised society. Paragraph Plan: Intro ‘Have you ever…?’ Main body: P1 We forget ads are just representations of reality We associate a car/trainers with masculinity/coolness P2 Ads appeal to our emotions We want to fit in/be accepted by our family and friends Conclusion: Advertising is influential We need to be alert to distinguish between the product we want and the values transmitted in the ads
  • 27.
    • Adorno,T and Horkheimer, M (2002), Dialectic of Enlightenment, Stanford University Press
    • Althusser, L (1971), Essays on ideology , New Left Books.
    • Barker, C (2004), The SAGE Dictionary of Cultural Studies, Sage Publications.
    • Barthes, R (1987), Mythologies, New York: Hill & Wang.
    • Barthes, R ( 1967), Elements of Semiology (trans. Annette Lavers & Colin Smith), London, Jonathan Cape.
    • Benjamin, W (2010), The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, CreateSpace
    • Chandler, D (1995), The Act of Writing: A Media Theory Approach , Aberystwyth: University of Wales.
    • Chandler, D (1998),Semiotics for Beginners , (trans. Vanessa Hogan Vega & Iván Rodrigo Mendizábal). Quito, Ecuador: Ediciones Abya-Yala/Escuela de Comunicación Social de la Universidad Politéchnica Salesiana
    • Derrida, J (1998) Of Grammatology . Baltimore: the Johns Hopkins University Press.
    • Foucault, M (2002), The Archaelogy of Knowledge , Cornwall, Routledge Classics.
    • Foucault, M (1970) The Order of Things . London: Tavistock
    • Hall, S (1980), 'Encoding/decoding‘, In Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (Ed.): Culture, Media, Language: Working Papers in Cultural Studies, 1972-79 London: Hutchinson, pp. 128-38
    • Pope, R; (1998): The English Studies Book, Routledge.
    • Van Leeuwen, T. & Kress, G. (2008), Reading Images. The grammar of visual design , Routledge
    Acknowledgements 1: Resources
  • 28.
    • Nora Lazzati
    • Maite Llorente
    • Silvia Utges
    • My students from 4th Year at Lomas High School
    Acknowledgements 2: People
  • 29. Contact Info
    • [email_address]
    Denoted Signified Connoted Signified Monkey Bananas Tree Nature Freshness Relaxed lifestyle Tail wagging Fiendliness