Media texts in the classroom


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Media texts in the classroom

  1. 1. Media Texts in the Classroom Dissecting Ideology and Stereotypes Lic. Mariana Ferrarelli 23rd ARTESOL Convention Buenos Aires May 6th – 7th, 2011
  2. 2. Media Texts <ul><li>Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Print advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>TV commercials </li></ul><ul><li>Films </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul>Forms of COMMUNICATION A. Direct B. Indirect
  3. 3. Forms of COMMUNICATION <ul><li>A. Direct Face to face </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal </li></ul><ul><li>(proxemics, kinesics, facial expressions, tone) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>B. Indirect </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIATION </li></ul><ul><li>Process whereby one person (or group) handles and passes on perceptions and information to another. (Pope; 1998:63) </li></ul><ul><li>THE MEDIA </li></ul>Forms of COMMUNICATION Mediated One of the participants is absent (different time / place). ‘ Middle’ ‘a go-between’ Technology & Institutions
  5. 5. THE MEDIA D. Hands-on analysis C. Relevance to EFL B. How? A. Why? MEDIA TEXTS
  6. 6. THE MEDIA <ul><li>A. WHY? - Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Frankfurt School </li></ul><ul><li>Birmingham School </li></ul><ul><li>J. Derrida </li></ul><ul><li>B. HOW? - Tools </li></ul><ul><li>I. Semiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Signifier & Signified </li></ul><ul><li>II. R. Barthes </li></ul><ul><li>Denotation & Connotation </li></ul><ul><li>The photographic message </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetoric of the image </li></ul>
  7. 7. THE MEDIA <ul><li>C. Relevance to EFL </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Genuine Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking Skills </li></ul><ul><li>D. Classroom Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Magritte’s “This is not a pipe” </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of print ads </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Frankfurt School </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian regimes </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIA domination </li></ul><ul><li>W. Benjamin AURA </li></ul><ul><li>T. Adorno & M. Horkheimer Cultural Industry </li></ul>A. Why? - Theory
  9. 9. <ul><li>Birmingham School </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIA Power relations & struggles for hegemony. </li></ul><ul><li>Stuart Hall Ideological Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Erasing of the coding process </li></ul><ul><li>3 Readings Dominant Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Oppositional Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiated Reading </li></ul>A. Why? - Theory
  10. 10. <ul><li>Jacques Derrida </li></ul><ul><li>Deconstruction “To deconstruct is to take apart, to undo, in order to seek out and display the assumptions of a text” (…) “Deconstruction seeks to expose the blind spots of texts, the unacknowledged assumptions upon which they operate” (Barker; 47). </li></ul><ul><li>Open / Unpack texts </li></ul><ul><li>Dissect their assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Explore what they say and what they omit </li></ul>A. Why? - Theory
  11. 11. A. Why? – RECAP 1 Messages are constructed / coded in specific ways Representations not reality itself look like reality Every choice is political
  12. 12. B. How? – I. Semiotics <ul><li>Signifier & Signified </li></ul><ul><li>Signifier Acoustic/written/photographic material </li></ul><ul><li>Signified Mental image </li></ul><ul><li>Tree </li></ul><ul><li>Trunk – leaves - branches </li></ul>
  13. 13. B. How? – II. Roland Barthes <ul><li>Denotation & Connotation </li></ul><ul><li>Denotation Literal meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Connotation Cultural associations </li></ul><ul><li>four-legged wild animal </li></ul><ul><li>mane – claws – paws </li></ul><ul><li>(Denoted Signified) </li></ul><ul><li>power – wilderness – king </li></ul><ul><li>strength – domination </li></ul><ul><li>(Connoted Signified) </li></ul>Signified Photographic Signifier
  14. 14. B. How? – II. Roland Barthes <ul><li>The Photographic Message </li></ul>Power Sex Britishness Tenderness 1 Tenderness 2 Disney Corp.
  15. 15. B. How? – II. Roland Barthes <ul><li>The Rhetoric of the Image </li></ul><ul><li>Denoted message Literal level </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual identification </li></ul><ul><li>Connoted message Symbolic level </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual interpretation </li></ul>
  16. 16. B. How? – RECAP 2 Denoted Signified Connoted Signified Shiny hair+white teeth+perfect skin Beauty Femininity Sex appeal Smile+body posture Happiness Success Eye contact w/ Viewer Inclusion / Idea of ‘us’ Straight angle Equality Colour Warmth / Harmony / Balance
  17. 17. C. Relevance to EFL <ul><li>Motivation interests – age/gender </li></ul><ul><li>Real purpose genuine communication </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Active citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Independent thinking </li></ul>
  18. 18. D. Hands-on Analysis - Intro Magritte’s painting
  19. 19. D. Hands-on Analysis - Intro
  20. 20. D. Hands-on Analysis - 1 Young white people Slim bodies Happy faces Bright colours Bodies floating Denoted Signified Connoted Signified Beauty A relaxed way of life - freedom Coolness Friendliness Wealth Eye contact with viewer Idea of ‘us’ Join us Lighting – bright light Happiness - playfulness
  21. 21. D. Hands-on Analysis - 2 Complete family Family togetherness No eye contact ‘ They’ are having fun Bright light +Yellow Warmth – sunny day - happiness Body postures / facial expressions More happiness Orange juice + fresh fruit A healthy lifestyle – well being Denoted Signified Connoted Signified
  22. 22. D. Hands-on Analysis - 3 Denoted Signified Connoted Signified Warm colours (foreground) Warmth – coziness (inside) Cold colours (background) Harshness (outside) Body posture – facial expressions Romance – love making No eye contact Viewer peeping through window Lighting: shadows – soft light Sense of intimacy
  23. 23. D. Hands-on Analysis - 4 Denoted Signified Connoted Signified Neutral colours Scientific objectivity Needle + white marks on woman’s face It’s like undergoing plastic surgery Lots of verbal language Leaflet - medicine Eye contact Inclusion: ‘I know how you feel when you look at yourself in the mirror but… … you can be like me!’ Anti age Cream Eternal youth Beauty Happiness & Success
  24. 24. D. Hands-on Analysis - 5 Denoted Signified Connoted Signified RED Love Passion Apple Temptation Eve – Sin - SEX Body posture – facial expression She’s loving it! Waiting for her male partner Eye contact 1. Female Viewer: you can be as sexy as I am 2. Male Viewer: you can have me if you buy HER Caro Cuore
  25. 25. D. Hands-on Analysis - Ideas <ul><li>Students can… </li></ul><ul><li>Produce their own communication pieces (print ads, magazine covers, TV commercials) </li></ul><ul><li>Debate on how gender roles are stereotyped in a given cartoon, fairy tale, TV programme </li></ul><ul><li>Compare how the same event (a demonstration against the government) is portrayed by different media corporations </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in a writing activity and discuss how advertising affects our behaviour </li></ul>(Speaking) (Reading, Speaking, Listening) (Writing)
  26. 26. D. Hands-on Analysis - Ideas Article Rubric: Write an article for an international student magazine discussing how advertising influences people’s decisions and behaviour in today’s globalised society. Paragraph Plan: Intro ‘Have you ever…?’ Main body: P1 We forget ads are just representations of reality We associate a car/trainers with masculinity/coolness P2 Ads appeal to our emotions We want to fit in/be accepted by our family and friends Conclusion: Advertising is influential We need to be alert to distinguish between the product we want and the values transmitted in the ads
  27. 27. <ul><li>Adorno,T and Horkheimer, M (2002), Dialectic of Enlightenment, Stanford University Press </li></ul><ul><li>Althusser, L (1971), Essays on ideology , New Left Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Barker, C (2004), The SAGE Dictionary of Cultural Studies, Sage Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Barthes, R (1987), Mythologies, New York: Hill & Wang. </li></ul><ul><li>Barthes, R ( 1967), Elements of Semiology (trans. Annette Lavers & Colin Smith), London, Jonathan Cape. </li></ul><ul><li>Benjamin, W (2010), The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, CreateSpace </li></ul><ul><li>Chandler, D (1995), The Act of Writing: A Media Theory Approach , Aberystwyth: University of Wales. </li></ul><ul><li>Chandler, D (1998),Semiotics for Beginners , (trans. Vanessa Hogan Vega & Iván Rodrigo Mendizábal). Quito, Ecuador: Ediciones Abya-Yala/Escuela de Comunicación Social de la Universidad Politéchnica Salesiana </li></ul><ul><li>Derrida, J (1998) Of Grammatology . Baltimore: the Johns Hopkins University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Foucault, M (2002), The Archaelogy of Knowledge , Cornwall, Routledge Classics. </li></ul><ul><li>Foucault, M (1970) The Order of Things . London: Tavistock </li></ul><ul><li>Hall, S (1980), 'Encoding/decoding‘, In Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (Ed.): Culture, Media, Language: Working Papers in Cultural Studies, 1972-79 London: Hutchinson, pp. 128-38 </li></ul><ul><li>Pope, R; (1998): The English Studies Book, Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Van Leeuwen, T. & Kress, G. (2008), Reading Images. The grammar of visual design , Routledge </li></ul>Acknowledgements 1: Resources
  28. 28. <ul><li>Nora Lazzati </li></ul><ul><li>Maite Llorente </li></ul><ul><li>Silvia Utges </li></ul><ul><li>My students from 4th Year at Lomas High School </li></ul>Acknowledgements 2: People
  29. 29. Contact Info <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Denoted Signified Connoted Signified Monkey Bananas Tree Nature Freshness Relaxed lifestyle Tail wagging Fiendliness