English Food Handler Guide


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English Food Handler Guide

  1. 1. Your Food Handler Guide Mariana Fletcher Baxter BS, RS 940 300 6300 2310 West Hickory Denton Texas 76201 Copyright©2010 by Mariana Baxter
  2. 2. The Problem Foodborne illnesses are estimated to cause each year: 76,000,000 illnesses a year 323,000 hospitalizations 5,200 deaths 6.9 billion in economic loss 2
  3. 3. What Can We Do to Reduce FoodborneIllnesses and Outbreaks? • Improve food safety awareness • Change bad behavior and practices • Follow this Food Handler Guide 3
  4. 4. Definition of Foodborne outbreak is where two or more persons experiencing a similar illness after ingesting common food, or where an epidemiologic analysis implicates food as the source of an illness. 4
  5. 5. Cause of Foodborne Illness Drinking or eating foods contaminated by poisonous chemicals, pathogens, or other harmful substances can cause a foodborne illness. 5
  6. 6. A. The Big Five Pathogens That CauseFoodborne Outbreaks and Illnesses are: 1. Shigella 2. Salmonella Typhi 3. E. Coli 4. Hepatitis-A 5. Norovirus 6
  7. 7. 1. Shigella (bacteria) Shigella infection is caused via ingestion (fecal–oral) contamination, poor hygiene and is easily passed from person to person. Sources: salads, milk and dairy products, and unclean water. Incubation Period: 1-7 days. Symptoms: Diarrhea, fever, chills, and dehydration: Must be reported to manager. Work exclusion applied. 7
  8. 8. 2. Salmonella (bacteria) can be picked up by eating foods handled by an infected person or contaminated water. Symptoms of fever, constipation, headache and weakness show within 8 to 14 days. Shedding continues even after symptoms are gone. Must be reported to manager. Work exclusion applied. 8
  9. 9. 3. E. Coli (bacteria) Is associated by eating undercooked ground beef that has been contaminated at the processing plant & can be spread from person to person by not washing fecal soiled hands. Symptoms of cramping and bloody diarrhea develop in 2 to 10 days. Must be reported to manager. Work exclusion applied. 9
  10. 10. 4. Hepatitis -A (Virus) affects the liver and is spread by fecal- oral rout or by consuming contaminated water. Most infectious time is two weeks before symptoms show- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and yellowing of the skin. Symptoms may last several days. Work exclusion applied. Must be reported to manager. 10
  11. 11. 5.Norovirus After 24 to 48 hours of exposure, symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and low-grade fever. Norovirus is contagious and is spread by fecal-oral rout. Infected people can spread this virus for up to two weeks after symptoms are gone. Report this illness to your manager. Work exclusion applied. 11
  12. 12. Personal HealthReport any of the following symptoms to yourmanager either while at work or outside of work: 12
  13. 13. A. What does it mean to exclude a food employee?If a food employee needs to be excluded, they maynot enter any part of the establishment where foodand equipment is stored, prepared or served.  Exclude: if diagnosed with one of these highly infectious organisms: Salmonella Typhi, Norovirus, Shigella, E. coli, or Hepatitis A. If symptoms are present, the employee must wait until they resolve. The employee will also need written medical documentation and approval from the regulatory authority to return to work.  Exclude: if diagnosed with any other disease which is transmissible through food such as Salmonellosis, Giardiasis and Campylobacteriosis. If symptoms are present, the employee must wait until they resolve. The employee will also need written medical documentation and approval from the regulatory authority to return to work. 13
  14. 14. B. What does it mean to exclude a food employee?If a food employee needs to be excluded, they maynot enter any part of the establishment where foodand equipment is stored, prepared or served.  If employee is/was ill with Salmonella Typhi within the past 3 months, the employee will need written medical documentation and approval from the regulatory authority to return to work.  If employee was ill with Shigella spp., E. coli or any other disease that is transmissible through food in past months, the employee will need written medical documentation and approval from the regulatory authority to return to work.  If employee has become jaundiced within the past 7 or more days, the employee must be excluded for at least 7 days from the onset of jaundice. After 7 days the employee can work if he/she is free of all symptoms and if he/she has written medical documentation and approval from the regulatory authority to return to work. 14
  15. 15. A. Restricted from WorkWhat does it mean to restrict a food employee?“A restriction means that the food employee may not work with exposedfood, clean utensils and equipment, clean linens and unwrapped single-service and single-use articles.” Employee has persistent sneezing, coughing, runny nose which causes discharges from the eyes, nose or mouth (restrict): Employee can return to normal duties once the symptoms have stopped. 15
  16. 16. B. Restricted from WorkWhat does it mean to restrict a food employee?“A restriction means that the food employee may not work withexposed food, clean utensils and equipment, clean linens andunwrapped single-service and single-use articles.” Experiencing diarrhea, vomiting, fever, sore throat with fever, open sore. The employee can work once symptoms have stopped. If employee is suspected being the source of a foodborne outbreak, written medical documentation and regulatory authority approval will be needed before resuming normal duties. If an open sore can be covered with a water tight covering, the employee can work as normal. 16
  17. 17. What is “written medicaldocumentation? Exclusion or Restriction Lifted Employees must have written proof that they’re free of diseases, which could be transmitted to others through food. This may be satisfied by providing copies of lab tests showing negative stool cultures; however, some times it will require a written note from a licensed doctor, nurse practitioner or physician’s assistant. This must be provided to the local Board of Health. They can tell you what documentation will be needed in order to have an exclusion or restriction lifted. 17
  18. 18. A. What Can Cause a Foodborne Outbreak? 1. Improper hand washing 2. Chemical or bacterial toxin 3. Improper cooling 4. Inadequate hot holding 5. Improper reheating of leftovers 6. Inadequate cooking time or temperature 18
  19. 19. B. What Can Cause a Foodborne Outbreak?  Ingestion of raw contaminated foods  Ill employees working with food  Improper cleaning and sanitizing  Improper thawing of frozen foods  Multistage food preparation with long time lapses between stages  Poor personal hygiene  Cross contamination  Foods from unsafe source 19
  20. 20. A. Hand Washingis the number one thing you can do to prevent the spreadof a foodborne illness? Only wash hands and arms at hand sink Use warm water Use hand cleanser Scrub all surfaces for 10 to 15 seconds 20
  21. 21. B. Only Wash Hands at the Hand Sink!  Wash back of hands  Wash arms  Wash between fingers  Wash wrists  Wash tips of fingers  Wash under fingernails  Dry hands with a clean towel or dryer o Always provide soap and towels at each hand sink, and do not block the hand sink. Do not store items in the sink basin. Do not use the sink for anything other than hand washing 21
  22. 22. A. When to Wash Your Hands Before/after preparing food Before and after eating food Before starting work During food prep When moving from one preparation to another Before putting on or changing gloves 22
  23. 23. B. When to wash your hands  After handling soiled dishes,  After using toilet money, or trash  After eating, chewing gum, or  After hands become tobacco contaminated  After handling raw meats  After tending to the sick or  After clean up activity treating wounds  After changing diapers  After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing  After using the toilet  After handling animals or their  After touching hair, body and face waste  After handling garbage, face and hair 23
  24. 24. Good HygienicPractices• Don’t eat or smoke in the kitchen• Use gloves, utensils, or deli tissue• Cover mouth when sneezing (wash hands)• Bandage cuts and sores• Keep hands away from face & body• Trim nails• Remove jewelry and nail polish (plain wedding band allowed)• Restrain hair• Bathe and shower daily• Keep aprons and clothing clean• No animals in the kitchen area 24
  25. 25. Drinking in The Kitchen AreaYou can drink in the kitchen area, but:Cups must be spill proof and have a straw.Cups must be stored in a way that does not contaminate food or food items.No bottles with screw top lids: no containers that require hands to open and close spout in-between sips.Hands and fingers must not become contaminated while drinking. 25
  26. 26. Service Dogs!Providing that service dogsare not a nuisance and do notcontaminate food, foodcontact surfaces, or fooditems, they are allowed in thedinning area and lobby of foodserving establishments.(not the kitchen area) 26
  27. 27. Bare Hand ContactWith Ready to Eat Foods• Customer base: • Active management establishment serves non oversight and corrective susceptible population action: procedure for• Employee training: managers corrective action employee verifies in writing • Involved foods and handling receipt of hand sanitation activities: list all ready to eat training (filed on-site) foods and food handling• Additional safeguard activities that involve bare measures: at least two hand contact additional safeguard control measures written into published hand sanitation procedure 27
  28. 28. A. You may not use bare hand Contactwith ready to eat foods if serving asusceptible population Ready to eat foods means food that is in a form that is edible without washing, cooking, or additional preparation: unpackaged and cooked potentially hazardous food; raw, washed, cut fruits and vegetables that are for consumption such as at the buffet and other foods from which rinds peels husks or shells are removed. Ready to eat foods that receives no further processing such as cooking to destroy microorganisms presents the highest risk of causing illness if it becomes contaminated. 28
  29. 29. B. How do I Know if I Serve a Highly SusceptiblePopulation? You May Not Use Bare Hand ContactWith Ready to Eat Foods. People who are most likely to experience foodborne disease are immunocompromised due to old age, very young age, or a medical condition. People which reside in a hospital or nursing home, or in a facility which provides custodial care to preschool age children such as a day care center. 29
  30. 30. C. Bare Hand Contact with Ready to eatFoods Acknowledgement of hand sanitation training. Employee must sign a form acknowledging they have received hand sanitizing training in:  Customer increase risk  Proper hand washing  When to wash hands  Proper fingernails  Prohibit of jewelry (plain wedding band ok)  Good hygienic practices  Employee health policy (exclusion/restriction) 30
  31. 31. D. Hand Washing With Supplemental Control:Manager Picks Two of the Following  Double hand washing  Nail Brush  Hand Sanitizer  Paid sick leave or  Other approved documented similar incentive policy to encourage employees not to work when sick. 31
  32. 32. E. Managers will monitor the activities oftheir employees and issue corrective action.Corrective action Record Keeping If your manager finds you not  For each infraction, following guidelines for bare management will document hand contact with ready to eat foods, he/she will ask you to the corrective action sign an acknowledgement of  Who committed the infraction hand sanitation training.  What the infraction was Will ask you to use employee  The date of infraction hand washing procedures  Where the infraction was Discard ready to eat foods you touched  What corrective action taken Retrain you Reassign, discipline or terminate chronically non compliant employees 32
  33. 33. F. Bare Hand Contact With Ready to Eat Foods  How to wash hands: All employees must observe the employee Hand Wash Procedure when washing their hands.  Where to wash hands: All employees must restrict hand washing to designated hand sinks.  Extraordinary Precautions: Employees required to touch ready to eat food with bare hands must complete and sign the acknowledgement of hand sanitation training form prior to duty  Monitoring: manager must monitor the activities of their employees and issue corrective action. 33
  34. 34. G. What are the Risks Involved With BareHand Contact With Ready to Eat Foods?Possible contamination of exposed, readyto eat food, by bacteria, viruses andparasitic pathogens, can be transferred toready to eat foods by infected employee’shands. Ready to eat foods must beprotected at all times. 34
  35. 35. A. Potentially Hazardous Foods (PHF)natural or synthetic food that needs to be held at 41 F orcolder or 135 F or hotter, because it is in a form capable ofsupporting: Rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic bacteria Growth and toxin production of Clostridium botulinum The growth of Salmonella Doing okay? Enteritidis in/on raw shelled eggs. 35
  36. 36. B1. PHF Do Not Include: “…air-cooled hard-boiled egg with shell intact, or a shell egg that is not hard-boiled, but has been treated to destroy all viable Salmonella, such as pasteurized in the shell eggs” “A food with a water activity value of 0.85 or less, such as jams or jellies”; “A food with a pH level of 4.6 or below when measured at 75 F, such as properly prepared sushi rice or pickles.” 36
  37. 37. B2. PHF Foods does not include: “A food, in an unopened hermetically sealed container, that is commercially processed to achieve and maintain commercial sterility under conditions of non refrigerated storage and distribution.” “A food for which laboratory evidence demonstrates that the rapid and progressive growth of pathogens cannot occur.” “ A food that does not support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms even though the food may contain an infectious or toxigenic microorganism or chemical or physical contaminant at a level sufficient to cause illness.” 37
  38. 38. C. Potentially Hazardous Foods Meat Eggs (not treated for salmonella) Milk Heat treated plant foods, rice, beans, vegetables (not including sushi rice) Tofu and soy protein Untreated garlic and oil mix Mushrooms Raw sprouts 38
  39. 39. Danger ZoneThe temperature range in whichfoodborne bacteria can grow rapidly isknown as the danger zone . Accordingto the 2005 FDA Food Code, thedanger zone is defined as 41 F - 135 F(5 C - 57 C). Potentially hazardousfood should not be stored attemperatures in this range in order toprevent foodborne illness, and food thatremains in this zone for more than fourhours, must be discarded. 39
  40. 40. Thawing:Keep Food from lingering in the danger zone byproper thawing. Keep foods inside refrigerator. Thaw foods under cold running water. Thaw foods using the microwave if cooking follows immediately. 40
  41. 41. A. Cooking TemperaturesFoods rich in protein, like meat, poultry, or seafood, aremore likely involved in foodborne illness outbreaks thannon-protein-rich foods for two reasons: “package of ground meat Protein-rich foods tend to be of animal origin, and the bacteria from the animals can be found in these foods.” “Animal foods are rich in proteins, which are an important nutrient source for some bacteria.” 41
  42. 42. B1. Cooking Temperatures (Ground Meat)  Meat may have harmful bacteria on the surface from the slaughter process, equipment from the processing plant, or from germs on hands, utensils, or kitchen surfaces. When meat is "ground up" at the supermarket and then handled at home, the surface bacteria may end up inside the meat. This is what makes ground beef at risk for E. coli O157:H7 contamination.  Proper cooking will kill harmful bacteria on the surface of a solid cut of meat, such as steak, because the surface gets direct heat, but harmful bacteria on the inside of the meat are less likely to be killed by cooking if proper internal temperatures are not reached. 42
  43. 43. B2. Cooking Temperatures (Ground Meat)  Thats why its important to be careful that the internal temperature of ground meat reaches a high enough temperature to kill bacteria that may be present in ground meat  All consumers should cook ground meat to at least 155 F for 15 seconds. Make sure the thermometer goes straight into the meat and does not come out the other side and touch the pan. 43
  44. 44. C. Cooking Temperatures (Pork)  People may contract trichinosis (a disease from the parasite Trichinella spiralis) from eating undercooked pork. Pork must be cooked to a safe internal temperature to eliminate disease-causing parasites and bacteria that can be present.  Pork must reach an internal temperature of 145 F, for 15 seconds. 44
  45. 45. D. Cooking Temperatures (Poultry) Bacteria can be found on raw or undercooked chicken.  Cook poultry to a minimum internal temperature of 165 F (74 C) (for 15 seconds). Consumers can cook poultry to a higher temperature if you want.  If whole poultry thats pre-stuffed but not cooked is left out at room temperature, the warm environment, along with the raw meat juices mixing with the stuffing, present an ideal environment for bacterial growth. 45
  46. 46. E. Cooking TemperaturesMinimum Internal Temperature Stuffing, stuffed products: 165F for 15 seconds Poultry: 165F for 15 seconds Ground or injected meats: 155F for 15 seconds Pork, seafood, eggs, beef cuts: 145F for 15 seconds 46
  47. 47. F. Internal Temperatures Frequently check temperatures, and report to manager when they are out of range. Use food thermometers; do not guess. Sanitize thermometer probes. Calibrate thermometers regularly. 47
  48. 48. Calibrate a Thermometer (cold)  Fill a container with crushed ice and water.  Container must have enough crushed ice to provide an environment of 32 F. You may need to pack more ice into the cup during the process.  When the mixture of the water has stabilized, insert the thermometer to be calibrated.  If your thermometer is not accurate within +/- 1 F of 32 F., adjust the hex nut on the thermometer accordingly. 48
  49. 49. Calibrate a Thermometer (Hot)  Place water in a container and heat it up.  When water in the container has reached a rolling boil, insert food thermometer into the container.  Be sure there is at least a two-inch clearance between the stem and the bottom and sides of the container.  If your thermometer is not accurate within +/- 1 F of 212 F., adjust hex nut on thermometer accordingly. 49
  50. 50. Reheating Foods  Rapidly reheat foods to 165 F or higher to kill any germs that may have multiplied when food passed through the danger zone. Hold hot foods at 135 F .  Do not reheat food using steam tables, slow cookers, or similar hot holding equipment. 50
  51. 51. Cooling Foods Down Safely Cool foods from 135 F to 70 F within two hours and then to 41 F within four hours; this gives you Six hours total. Cut foods into smaller portions and re-pan foods to 2 inch depths pans. Use Ice baths 51
  52. 52. Temperature For Food Safety SummaryGerms grow rapidly when perishable food is held atunsafe temperatures. Avoid illness by:  Keep foods from remaining in the danger zone  Cooking foods to safe temperatures  Keeping hot food above 135 F  Deep cold food below 41 F  Cooling foods to 70 F in 2 hours and to 41 F within four hours. (total of six hours)  Using a chefs food thermometer to check temperatures 52
  53. 53. A. Cross Contamination Germs can be spread from one food to another through improper storage and mishandling: indirect bacterial contamination of food by contact with an infected raw food or non food source such as clothes, cutting boards or knives. 53
  54. 54. B. Cross Contamination  Separate raw meats such  Never place cooked as poultry and seafood foods on a surface that from other foods. previously held raw  Recognize ready to eat meats. foods from raw  Clean and sanitize unprepared foods. equipment and utensils  Use separate surfaces when changing food and equipment for raw products. meats and fruits and  Store foods in a container vegetables. or wrap them 54
  55. 55. A. Cleaning versus Sanitizing• Sanitizing kills germs.• Cleaning removes solids and oils on surfaces by use of surfactants. 55
  56. 56. B. Washing at the 3 compartment sink  Wash, rinse, sanitize, and air dry.  Scrape off leftovers from dishes.  Fill first compartment sink up with hot soapy water to wash dishes.  Fill second compartment sink with clean warm water; Rinse dishes.  Fill third compartment sink; sanitize with warm sanitizing solution.  Air dry. 56
  57. 57. Washing Dishes at the Dishwasher Presoak items on which food has dried and hardened. Rinse off food residue before racking. Inspect cleaned articles for food deposits. Check dishwasher sanitizer and temperatures at every shift; If you use heat as your sanitizer, the final rinse cycle must reach 180 F. If you use chemicals, use your test trip to make sure your sanitizer is calibrated correctly. Clean dishwasher frequently Air dry dishes 57
  58. 58. C. Washing equipment with cloths Equipment too large to put into the 3 compartment sink: wash, rinse, sanitize and air dry all removable parts. With your three buckets of warm soapy water, fresh warm water, and warm sanitizer solution, use a cloth to wash, rinse and sanitize the equipment in place. Let parts and equipment air dry. 58
  59. 59. D. Use Separate Cloths For Ready to eat food surfaces Raw food surfaces Non food surfaces Store cloth in sanitizer solution Rinse cloths clean before returning it to sanitizer solution. 59
  60. 60. E. Sanitizers  Quaternary Ammonia: 150 to 200ppm  Chlorine: 50 to 100ppm  Iodine: 12.0 to 25ppm  Use test strips to test the concentration.  Measure out concentration  Use water mark in 3 compartment sink or bucket  Use warm water (70 F 90 F)  Never add soap or other chemicals to sanitizer 60
  61. 61. Illness From ChemicalsImproper use and storage of chemicals can cause injury andillness (example) • Chlorine Bleach • Quaternary Ammonia • Home-style chemicals • Pest Control Chemicals • Degreasers 61
  62. 62. Properly Stored Cleaning Supplies Keep all chemicals stored in a way that does not contaminate food or food contact items such as utensils, pans, plates napkins, countertop. All chemicals must be in their original containers that are properly labeled, or transferred to a designated container that is properly labeled. Do not use home-style chemicals; only use chemicals that are approved for the commercial kitchen. High concentrations of chemicals such as degreasers and bleach can cause an illness or injury. 62
  63. 63. A. Rotating Food and Supplies• Never mix new foods with old foods• Using first in first out rotation• Do not exceed 7 days• Using date labels for tracking 63
  64. 64. B. Rotating Food and SuppliesUsing date labels for trackingMark labels with date receivedMark labels with date prepared/ openedMark labels with use by dateEspecially for highly perishable foodsDo not exceed 7 days 64
  65. 65. Do not exceed 7 days  When you open or prepare a product, you have 7 days to use it up or discard.  If you freeze the product, time stops.  After 5 days in the refrigerator, if you then freeze it for 10 days, and then you thaw it out, you still have 2 days to use the product or discard it. (5+2=7)  Use date labels to track the use by date. 65
  66. 66. Now you’re ready to take your exam. It’s a very simpleReferences exam, so jump on in. • Texas Food Establishment Rules http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/foodestablishments/pdf/TFERFIMSept ember282006.pdf • FDA: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/RetailFoodProtection/FoodC ode/FoodCode2009/ • CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/ • Texas Department of State Health Services http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/ 66
  67. 67. After graduating from TexasWomans University, with aBachelor of Science, in HealthStudies, Mrs. Baxter went to workfor the U.S. Food and DrugAdministration (FDA); as aFederal Agent, she conductedaudits, inspections, andinvestigations. For the past fewyears, she has been a HealthInspector for the Tarrant CountyPublic Health Department. The 8cities in her charge keep her onthe go. Her family invented theFletcher’s Corny Dog . With nochildren, she has been married toDavid Baxter for 13 years. Shehas a family dog named Gromit.