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Bec english

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION This Handbook aims to provide the general public - parents, students, researchers, and otherstakeholders - an overview of the English program at the secondary level. Those in education, however,may use it as a reference for implementing the 2002 secondary education curriculum, or as a sourcedocument to inform policy and guide practice. For quick reference, the Handbook is outlined as follows: l The description defines the focus and the emphasis of the learning area as well as the language of instruction used. l The unit credit indicates the number of units assigned to a learning area computed on a 40-minute per unit credit basis and which shall be used to evaluate a student’s promotion to the next year level. l The time allotment specifies the number of minutes allocated to a learning area on a daily (or weekly, as the case may be) basis. l The expectancies refer to the general competencies that the learners are expected to demonstrate at the end of each year level. l The scope and sequence outlines the content, or the coverage of the learning area in terms of concepts or themes, as the case may be. l The suggested strategies are those that are typically employed to develop the content, build skills, and integrate learning. l The materials include those that have been approved for classroom use. The application of information and communication technology is encouraged, where available. l The grading system specifies how learning outcomes shall be evaluated and the aspects of student pertormance which shall be rated. l The learning competencies are the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that the students are expected to develop or acquire during the teaching-learning situations.
  3. 3. l Lastly, sample lesson plans are provided to illustrate the mode of integration, where appropriate, the application of life skills and higher order thinking skills, the valuing process and the differentiated activities to address the learning needs of students. The Handbook is designed as a practical guide and is not intended to structure the operationalizationof the curriculum or impose restrictions on how the curriculum shall be implemented. Decisions on howbest to teach and how learning outcomes can be achieved most successfully rest with the school principalsand teachers. They know the direction they need to take and how best to get there.
  4. 4. DESCRIPTION The secondary English language curriculum for 2002 seeks to develop citizenship and to addressthe communication needs (i.e. interpersonal, informative and aesthetic) of Filipino students for English,which is emerging as the international lingua franca. In line with developments in applied linguisticsand pedagogy, and in consonance with the government thrusts and globalization, this emerging Englishcurriculum adopts a communicative-interactive collaborative approach to learning as well as reflectionand introspection with the aim in view of developing autonomous language learners aware of and able tocope with global trends.THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Underlying the curriculum as its theoretical framework is the prevailing theory of language,theory of language acquisition and current pedagogical thrusts enriched by other inputs to thecurriculum such as global trends and the concomitant requirements for global citizenship. Where the theory of language is concerned, language is viewed as a means of communication inthe real world. Hence, the goal is to develop the four competencies-linguistic, sociolinguistic, discoursaland strategic with emphasis on cognitive academic language proficiency based on the students’ need forthe language. Both aforementioned theories of language and of language acquisition are in keeping with theprevailing pedagogical emphasis on constructivism which is learner-centered and which underscoresreflection and collaboration to develop autonomy. Through the years, government thrusts have served as an additional input to the curriculum.In the emerging secondary education English curriculum, however, other additional inputs have to beconsidered in consonance with paradigm shifts that have taken place. These additional inputs mark thedifference between this curriculum and what preceded it. • The advent of the information age necessitates computer literacy over and above functional literacy • Globalization and what it entails calls for a scrutiny of global trends and the concomitant requirements of global citizenship • Content-Based Instruction (CBI) underscores the need to develop higher order thinking skills which enables one to acquire academic as well as communicative competence • The focus on developing learner autonomy has resulted in strategy training in addition to skills development.
  5. 5. The schematic diagram, which follows, shows the inputs and outputs of the emerging secondaryEnglish curriculum. |Communication goals Higher order thinking skills Information Exchange Macro-language skills Affective Expression Competencies (communicative and academic) -à à -- -- -- -- -- -- --- --- --- --- --- CURRICULUM à à à à Global trendsGlobal citizenship Focus on Education (government thrust) Pillars of learning Theoretical Basis Theory of language Theory of language acquisition Current pedagogical thrusts As indicated in the diagram, the prevailing theory of language, language acquisition andpedagogical thrusts provide the theoretical basis for the curriculum. The boxes on the sides of the figuregive other inputs to the curriculum and the boxes on the top show what the expected outputs are.
  6. 6. The English language curriculum provides for the development of language and language-relatedskills in a meaningful purposeful and interesting manner. This is attained through the adoption of anintegrated approach in the teaching of language. Central to the framework of this curriculum is the need for language learning that is contextualized, contextualizedinteractive and integrated. This is achieved through the use of themes covering a wide range of topics to integrated.cater to the varied interests and maturity levels of students as they progress through their school years. Each of the themes, explored through meaningful tasks and activities, provides the context in whichgrammar and other language and language related skills are taught and learned. Themes also provide themeans for the integration of the various language components. This integration makes language morepurposeful, meaningful and thus more motivating for the students.UNIT CREDIT English in each year level shall be given 1.5 units each.TIME ALLOTMENT English is given a period of one hour daily.
  7. 7. EXPECTANCIES At the end of the Fourth Year the student is expected to have acquired skills of assessing, evaluatingand using relevant information to meet their various needs, thereby enabling them to adapt and respondflexibly to a rapidly changing world; and to have developed listening, speaking, reading, and writingskills and appreciation of literature resulting in a deeper understanding of the ideas, experiences andcultures of other people, customs and traditions as well as values. ñ At the end of the Third Year, the student is expected to utilize a variety of sentences and expositorymethods in persuasion and argumentations; break down complex sentences to get the message indifferent text types: journalistic, scientific, literary and technical; and single out the devices employed infiction works and non-fiction works (foreshadowing, flashbacks, figurative language, etc.) used by authorsfor intellectual, emotional and aesthetic purpose with emphasis on Philippine and British-Americanliterature. ñ At the end of the Second Year, the student is expected to exhibit skills in utilizing the prosodicfeatures in oral texts and signals and cues in written texts to follow the development of ideas; showunderstanding and appreciation of the different genres with emphasis on types contributed by Afro-Asian and Philippine countries; and to manipulate formal devices used to combine sentences to createcontinuous prose employing different rhetorical patterns. ñ At the end of the First Year, the student is expected to determine how sentences are used to performcommunicative acts, such as describing, defining, classifying, etc; make use of real world knowledge andexperience with emphasis on cross-cultural items; work at the denotative meanings of a text; identify andexplain different literary types with emphasis on Philippine literature; and show appreciation of art formsand familiarization with the more common mass media forms.
  8. 8. SCOPE AND SEQUENCEFIRST YEARQuarter 1 Getting in Touch with Self and Others 1. How do I see myself? 2. How does my family see me? 3. Through the eyes of my friends 4. I, as a member of the community 5. How informed and concerned am I about national and global issues? 6. Reaching out to others 7. Being open to contrary opinions 8. Do I step on the right of others? 9. My relationship with God Output: My profile: A thumbnail sketch (An autobiography, a collage or a self portrait)Quarter 2 I, as a Learner 1. I am a learner 2. Making sense of what I’ve learned 3. When communication bogs down 4. When memory fails me 5. Planning my learning activities 6. Becoming a resourceful learner 7. Working harmoniously with others 8. Reflecting on what I’ve done 9. Synthesizing my learning experiences Output: My portfolio as a learnerQuarter 3 My Relationship with Nature 1. Learning from nature 2. Bounties of nature 3. Taking care of nature 4. Coping with the wrath of nature 5. The 3Rs of waste management 6. Being a responsible steward of nature 7. Communing with nature 8. Nature in us 9. Drawing inspiration from nature Output: A campaign for change: treating nature right
  9. 9. Quarter 4 Science and Technology: Friend? or Foe? 1. Development in transportation 2. Development in communications 3. Medical breakthroughs 4. Food for all 5. Consumerism 6. Science and technology master or slave? 7. Our throw- away society 8. Experiencing information overload 9. Necessity: the mother of all inventions Output: Round table discussion on the topic: science and technology; friend or foe?SECOND YEARQuarter 1 Learning to Know 1. A wealth of knowledge 2. Learning to learn 3. Learning from experiences 4. Learning from others 5. Learning from events 6. Learning from information technology 7. An analytical learner 8. Reflecting on what I learned 9. Reflecting for an informative talk show Output: An informative talk show related to national and global issuesQuarter 2 Learning to Be 1. Being true to ourselves 2. Tracing our roots 3. Being a nationalist 4. Being an Asian citizen 5. Being an open- minded but discerning global citizen 6. Being a team player 7. Being concerned about people 8. Being concerned about nature 9. Being responsible for one’s decisions Output: A peace book/wall or board
  10. 10. Quarter 3 Learning to Become 1. Responding to differences of opinions and culture 2. Responding to personal problems 3. Responding to societal problems 4. Responding to uncertainties 5. Responding to changes 6. Responding to media 7. Taking risks 8. Listening to events 9. Time out for reflection Output: A showcase of growth, through colors, shapes, objects, sounds and languageQuarter 4 Learning to Do 1. Viewing problems and issues from different vantage points 2. Reading up on previous efforts 3. Noting trends 4. Drawing up plans 5. Trying things out 6. Analyzing results 7. Reflecting and evaluating processes 8. Creating new applications 9. Presenting and sharing results Output: A project proposal and end-of-project reportsTHIRD YEARQuarter 1 In the Realms of Thoughts 1. Seeing patterns 2. Perception versus reality 3. Reconciling contradictions 4. Breaking down walls 5. Up-down and up again: The S-curve 6. People change 7. What’s new? 8. Green housing ideas 9. Looking back, looking forward Output: Making ideas take shape through songs, painting, collage, etc.
  11. 11. Quarter 2 Interactions 1. Informal interaction with people 2. Formal interaction with people 3. Interaction through technology 4. Interaction with nature 5. Interaction with ideas: A self-talk 6. Non-Verbal interactions 7. Reducing language barriers 8. Language of power 9. A Cross-cultural perspective Output: A phrase book of basic conversational expressionsQuarter 3 Quality, not Quantity 1. Uniqueness 2. Impact 3. Multi-Modal 4. Inter-connectedness integration 5. A work of art 6. A labor of love 7. Transcending time and space 8. Source of pride 9. Beyond the unexpected Output: Standards of quality: a primerQuarter 4 Making a Difference 1. People who make a difference 2. Earth-shaking events 3. Moving ideas 4. Inventions and discoveries that change the world 5. What If? 6. Both sides of the coin 7. Taking a stand 8. Refuting arguments 9. Where lies the truth? Output: Debate
  12. 12. FOURTH YEARQuarter 1 Education for Life 1. Learning to think 2. Expanding and refining knowledge 3. Applying for college admission or employment 4. Process and product 5. Language in the content areas 6. Developing a sense of responsibility 7. Service for others and willingness to share 8. Making my voice heard 9. Previewing and evaluating Output: Letters of application for college admission for employment opportunities, annotated bibliography and note cardsQuarter 2 Education for Justice 1. Sharing resources equitably 2. Tempering justice with mercy 3. In defense of life 4. Defending basic human rights 5. The culture of non-violence 6. Trial by publicity 7. Justice delayed is justice denied 8. In fairness to all 9. Speaking out in defense of others Output: Debate and letters to the editorQuarter 3 Education for Sustainable Development 1. Education: A lifelong process 2. Values for sustainable growth and development 3. Change is costly 4. Networking 5. Self--management 6. Concern for the environment 7. Recognizing and seizing opportunities 8. Using language to establish relationships 9. Constant self-assessment Output: Research paper. Draft for chapters 1-3
  13. 13. Quarter 4 Education for Global Citizenship 1. Stressing interconnectedness 2. Looking at problems in a global context 3. Accepting cultural differences 4. Working cooperatively and responsibly 5. Thinking in a critical and systematic way 6. Going “global” 7. Adjustments and readjustments 8. Language for survival in a global culture 9. Envisioning possible, preferred, and plural future scenarios Output: Research paper or a simple feasibility studySUGGESTED STRATEGIES AND MATERIALS • Process writing. The students’ written expression is held to be personal, sensitive and valued. writing The process suggested accepts that few, if any, writers get their writing correct at first try. They plan, review, seek other opinions, and revise many times. The steps of the process are variously described, one set is: gaining and considering impressions, writing, conferencing, sharing, editing, revising, and publication. • Simulation games offer a model of some situation (reality) and thus allow students to learn about that situation vicariously through competition, cooperation, empathy, research skills, critical thinking and decision-making. • Advance organizers designed to increase the efficiency of a student’s information processing capabilities and relate bodies of information by presenting introductory materials before the learning task and at a higher level of abstraction and inclusiveness than the task itself • Cloze involves deleting specific words (or parts of words) from a sentence extract or story. Students are then required to fill the gap with a word that fits, both syntactically and semantically. The value of cloze is that it can require students to use all their reading strategies to complete the text. • Cooperative learning in which students learn and use the skills necessary to be effective cooperatively with all group members contributing to get a task done and developing positive relationships at the end of the task. • Debate aims to develop confidence and competence in oral communication and requires participants to listen carefully, or analyze opposing points and arguments, to anticipate criticism, to summarize concisely and clearly, and support and rebut arguments. Materials; All SEDP, SEMP approved books
  14. 14. GRADING SYSTEM Herewith is the basis for grading in English as a subject and area/field of learning: • Periodical test 25% • Class Interaction 25% • Performance assessment 25% Ø Role play/simulation Ø Debate Ø Argumentation Ø Extemporaneous speech Ø Reporting Ø Group discussion • Theme writing 10% Ø Content Ø Mechanics Ø Organization • Written outputs 15% Ø Weekly outputs Ø Book Reports (I or 2 per grading period) ____________ 100%
  15. 15. LEARNING COMPETENCIES IN INTERACTIVE SECONDARY ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM 2002FIRST YEAR At the end of the first year, the student shall have developed the following competencies:LISTENING 1. Listen closely to determine what to do and what not to do in announcements, instructions or directions given orally 1.1 Listen to instructions given in connection with classroom procedure 1.1.1 Note down details in instructions or directions given orally 1.1.2 Carry out instructions given orally 1.2 Explore opportunities offered for speedy and economical access to information by listening to broadcasts and weather bulletins 1.2.1 Distinguish what to do and what not to do in emergency situations (fire, earthquake, etc.) 1.2.2 Listen closely to instructions and cautions pointed out 1.2.3 Listen for specific details and warnings in weather bulletins 2. Determine the content and feeling levels of utterances 2.1 Identify the speech event, interlocutors and objective of the speaker 2.2 Note the use of intonation to express feelings 2.3 Identify attitudes and feelings signaled by prosodic features (e.g. intonation and stress) 3. Adjust listening strategies (marginal, selective, attentive, critical) in relation to the main purposes of listening, one’s familiarity with the topic and level of difficulty of a text describing a process and narrating longer stories 3.1 Determine the type of listening suited to a given text 3.1.1 Use TQLR (Tune in-Question-Listen-Respond) as a strategy to make sense of listening texts 3.1.2 Employ selective strategies to find out answers to questions raised in a listening text
  16. 16. 3.2 Listen to informative texts specifically descriptions of processes 3.2.1 Listen to determine steps in a process 3.2.2 Transcode descriptions of a process using flowcharts 3.2.3 Listen to explanations of specific processes noting cause-effect relationships 3.3 Listen to narratives 3.3.1 Infer links and connections between ideas 3.3.2 Determine the information map suited to the type of narrative listened to 3.4 Listen to issues pertaining to the home and the family 3.4.1 Listen to class discussions on home and the family 3.4.2 Identify the place and the person speaking 3.4.3 Identify the stand of the speaker based on explicit statements made 4. Get information from rapid speech 4.1 Listen to process speech including pauses, errors, corrections 4.1.1 Get information from rapid and “distorted” speech 4.1.2 Restate a commentary on a basketball game 4.2 Make sense of broadcasts and telecasts 4.2.1 Listen to get information on current events and issues aired over the radio and television 5. Express appreciation for entertaining texts (anecdotes, jokes, fables, tales in sharing sessions) 5.1 Listen to simple narratives to develop appreciative listening skills 5.1.1 Point out the (situation-problem-attempted solution-result) discourse pattern in tales 5.1.2 Point out the distinctive features of tales, anecdotes, fables, etc. listened to 5.1.3 Identify cause-effect relationships in anecdotes and tales 5.2 Single out the punch lines in jokesSPEAKING 1. Speak in clear correct English appropriate to situations and adjust rate, volume, and choice of register to suit the audience 1.1 Observe correct pronunciation of critical vowel and consonant sounds 1.2 Use correct pronunciation, intonation and stress patterns, pausing, and blending 2. Give information and express needs, opinions, feelings and attitudes in explicit terms 2.1 Give short talks to entertain
  17. 17. 2.2 Give and convey information obtained over the telephone and from radio broadcasts 2.3 Use visual aids (e.g. graphs, charts, etc.) when conveying information on topics dealing with science and mathematics 3. Use English when offering things to classmates and teachers, and identify the functions of utterances taking into account the context of the situation (seeking information, giving directions, expressing approval/disapproval, etc.) 3.1 Use gambits when offering things to classmates, teachers, etc. 3.1.1 Respond to offers made (accept, turn-down or negotiate changes in offers made) 3.2 Give clear commands, requests and directions to get things done 3.2.1 Give instructions, prohibitions, warnings 4. Ask and answer different types of questions (yes-no, wh- questions, core and follow-up) using the basic sentence structures and sound patterns of English 5. Arrive at a consensus by citing proof statements 5.1 React to information shared in small group discussions 5.2 Agree/disagree with assertions and observations made in radio broadcasts and when sharing experiences on topics dealing with Science and Mathematics 6. Observe social and linguistic conventions in oral transactional discourse (e.g. interview, asking, and giving directions, etc.) 6.1 Interview classmates to get to know them better 6.2 Use communication strategies (e.g. paraphrase and translation) to make up for inadequacies in the language 6.3 Ask and give directions and instructions on specific processesREADING 1. Get information from the different parts of a book, current information from newspapers and data from general references in the library 1.1 Use the card catalogue to locate reference materials in the library 1.2 Use locational skills to derive data from general sources of information: encyclopedia, dictionary 1.3 Get information from the different parts of a book 1.4 Get current information from newspapers
  18. 18. 2. Use different reading styles to suit the text and one’s purpose for reading 2.1 Scan for specific information 2.2 Skim rapidly for major ideas using headings as guide 2.3 Read closely to find answers to specific questions, note sequence of events, etc.3. Use ideas and information gained from previous readings and personal experiences to better understand a text 3.1 Use background knowledge or schema as basis for conjectures and hypothesis made while reading a text 3.2 Recall ideas from previous readings to better understand a given text4. Explain non-linear visuals most commonly used in content texts 4.1 Transcode orally and in writing the information presented in diagrams, charts, table, graphs, etc. 4.2 Use illustrations to activate background knowledge and to get a pictorial representation of what is discussed in the text 4.3 Give the meaning of signs and symbols used (e.g. road sign, prohibited signs, etc.) and evaluate their effectiveness 4.4 Locate places and follow directions using a map 4.5 Transcode information in linear texts into information maps5. Conduct a covert dialogue with the writer as a basis for predictions and formulating hypothesis about a text 5.1 Interact with the writer by responding to statements made in the text and using this as basis for predictions and formulating hypothesis 5.2 Formulate and modify hypothesis based on information given in the text 5.3 Distinguish fact from opinion, fantasy from reality 5.4 React to assertions made in the text 5.5 Make predictions and anticipate outcomes6. Make generalizations and significant abstractions from different reading materials designed for information, pleasure and appreciation 6.1 Show improvement of one’s command of the language as a result of reading 6.2 Determine the concept or information map embedded in a text7. Use structural, lexical and contextual devices in deriving the meaning of unknown words and ambiguous and information-dense discourse 7.1 Identify the sense and reference of words in reading texts for a better understanding of a selection
  19. 19. 7.2 Show recognition of collocations and semantic relationships by arranging words in clines and clusters 7.3 Single out cohesive markers that signal relationshipsWRITING 1. Effectively express thoughts and feelings in writing book reports and correspondence for specific social purposes 1.1 Write personal letters • friendly • thank you • excuse • congratulatory • condolence 1.2 Make diary entries of significant events 1.3 Write summaries in book reports 2. Give personal information in school forms and write announcements of school events 2.1 Fill out forms needed for effective functioning in school • library card • enrollment/registration forms • information sheet • application form 2.2 Write announcements of school events 3. Produce different text types, narrative (diary entries), expository (process explanation, interviews, etc.) and descriptive (comparison and contrast) 3.1 Write well-constructed paragraphs utilizing the macro-discourse patterns (PSn) Problem-Solution or (TRI) Topic-Restriction-Illustration suited to the discourse type 3.2 Use appropriate rhetorical functions and techniques to express one’s ideas, needs, feelings and attitudes 3.3 Expand ideas in writing using cohesive devices and employing different rhetorical modes 3.4 Use key idea sentences, support sentences, transition devices and restatements in texts
  20. 20. 4. Present information in graphic and non-linear texts 4.1 Take down notes utilizing information maps • linear and cyclical flowcharts • two-level tree diagrams • three columnar grids 4.2 Use two-step word and phrasal outlines to organize ideas 4.3 Make a write-up of charts and graphs 5. Edit one’s composition following guidelines concerning content, format and mechanics 6. Acknowledge resources used 6.1 Use quotation marks to enclose direct quotations from resources 6.2 Use expressions like “according to …” to indicate citations madeLITERATURE 1. Discover Philippine literature as a means of having a better understanding of man and his environment 1.1 Express appreciation of one’s identity and cultural heritage 1.1.1 Show appreciation for worthwhile local traditions and practices expressed in Philippine literature and the values they represent 1.2 Show appreciation of literature specifically Philippine literature as a means of highlighting human rights in varied genres 1.3 Appreciate poetry and the essay expressive of the Filipino identity and pride as a nation 2. Discover through literature the need to work cooperatively and responsibility in today’s global village 2.1 Infer motives, attitudes and values of a character from what he does (action/manner), says and what others say about him 2.2 Anticipate events and outcomes from a series of details or acts 3. Show understanding and appreciation of various literary types/(with emphasis on Philippine literature) (i.e. legends, fables, myths, folktales) 3.1 Identify the elements of a literary form which distinguishes it from other literary forms; short story, poem, essay, drama/play 3.1.1 Explain the characteristics of fables, legends, myths, folktales 3.1.2 Single out events that form the plot of a short story 3.2 Distinguish between the language of science and the language of literature
  21. 21. 4. Determine the conflicts presented in literature (man vs. man, man vs. himself, man vs. institutions) and the need to resolve those conflicts in a non-violent way5. State whether a literary piece affirms, modifies or changes one’s value system6. Edit one’s composition following guidelines concerning content, format, and mechanics 6.1 Identify and explain poetic devices, use of local color, figurative language and sensory images in literary forms 6.2 Point out the author’s technique for characterization 6.3 Point out and express appreciation for sense image in poems
  22. 22. SECOND YEAR At the end of the second year, the student shall have developed the following competencies:LISTENING 1. Determine the social issues addressed in an informative talk, the objective of the speaker and his attitude on the issues 1.1 Listen for clues and links to show the speaker’s trend of thought 1.1.1 Describe the speaker’s attitude towards the subject 1.1.2 Arrive at conclusions regarding the attitude of the speaker toward his subject by noting clues and links to show the speaker’s stand and assumptions 1.2 Explore opportunities for speedy and economical access to information by listening to talks, informative, political, religious 2. Identify prosodic features, stress, and intonation features as carriers of meaning that may aid or interfere in the delivery of the message in stories and informative texts 2.1 Note prosodic features (e.g. stress, intonation, pauses) and rate of speech as carriers of meaning 2.2 Identify changes in meaning signaled by stress, intonation and juncture 2.3 Listen for points the speaker emphasizes as important signaled by contrastive sentence stress 3. Employ varied listening strategies (marginal, selective, attentive, critical) to suit the listening text and task 3.1 Supply gaps in listening texts caused by acoustic disturbance 3.1.1 Predict what is to follow considering the text type and macro discourse pattern 3.1.2 Use context to guess items not heard in a listening text 3.2 Listen to longer stories 3.2.1 Employ projective listening strategies when listening to stories 3.2.2 Predict outcomes from events described in stories as they unfold 3.2.3 Listen to determine if one’s predictions are borne out 3.2.4 Listen to events and note developments in narratives as they unfold 3.2.5 Note the dramatic effect of sudden twists in surprise endings 3.3 Listen to issues pertaining to the community 3.3.1 Identify the attitudes of the speaker on an issue 3.3.2 Determine if the speaker is neutral, for or against an issue
  23. 23. 4. Process speech at different rates by making inferences from what was said 4.1 Use syntactic and lexical clues to supply items not heard in a listening text 4.1.1 Anticipate what is to follow considering the function of the statements made 4.2 Listen to determine conflicting information aired over the radio and television 5. Express appreciation for oral interpretations noting harmony, unison, and rhythm 5.1 Listen to appreciate the tune and narrative structure of ballads 5.2 Listen to appreciate harmony, unison, and rhythm in choric interpretationsSPEAKING 1. Give a short, informative talk using appropriate registers to suit the intended audience and variation in intonation and stress for emphasis and contrast 1.1 Make use of stress and intonation for emphasis and contrast 1.2 Express feelings and attitudes by utilizing contrastive stress and variations of tone and tempo 1.3 Use stress, intonation and juncture to signal changes in meaning 2. Give information and express needs, opinions, feelings and attitudes explicitly and implicitly in informative talk 2.1 Formulate response to questions noting the types of questions raised (yes-no, wh- questions alternative, modals, embedded) 2.2 Use the telephone to make inquiries 2.3 Give information obtained from mass media: newspapers, radio, television 2.4 Use audio-visual aids to highlight important points in an informative talk 3. Infer the function of utterance and respond accordingly taking into account the context of the situation and the tone used (asking information, making suggestions, expressing wants, dislikes, approval, disapproval 3.1 Respond orally to the ideas and needs expressed in face-to-face interviews in accordance with the intended meaning of the speaker 3.2 Include instructional information and constraints 4. Arrive at a consensus on community issues by assessing statements made 4.1 React to information obtained from talks 4.1.1 Agree/disagree with statements and observations made concerning community issues 4.2 Agree/disagree with statements, observations and responses made in political and religious talks when discussing issues affecting the community 4.3 Interview persons to get their opinions about social issues affecting the community
  24. 24. 5. Use appropriate turn-taking strategies (topic nomination, topic development, topic shift, turn-getting, etc.) in extended conversation 6. Use communication strategies (e.g. paraphrase, translations, and circumlocution) to repair break down in communicationREADING 1. Gather data using library resources consisting of general references, atlas, periodical index, and periodicals to locate information 1.1 Use the periodical index to locate information in periodicals 1.1.1 Determine the content and stand of a newspaper 1.2 Extract and organize information from different text types 2. Adjust and vary reading speed based on one’s purpose for reading and the type of materials read 2.1 Use different reading styles to suit the text and one’s purpose for reading 2.2 Scan rapidly for sequence signals or connectors as basis for determining the rhetorical organization of texts 3. Demonstrate the ability to activate background knowledge (e.g. use advance organizers, illustrations, comprehension, questions, titles, etc.) to better understand a text 3.1 Relate ideas from previous readings to a given text 4. Demonstrate the ability to interpret and if necessary reproduce in linear verbal forms and graphics relationships calling for inferential interpretations 4.1 Interpret and compare orally or in writing information presented in tables, charts, graphs, etc. 4.2 Choose the chart (flow chart, tree diagram or grid) most suited to illustrate thought relationships in a given text 4.3 Organize information into a concept map 5. Utilize varied reading strategies (covert dialogue with the writer and the sectional approach) to process information in a text 5.1 Note the function of statements made as the text unfolds and use it as the basis of predicting what is to follow 5.2 Suggest modifications to be made considering the context of the situation when the text was written 5.3 Distinguish between facts and opinion and note expressions that signal opinions (seems, as I see it)
  25. 25. 5.4 Identify propaganda strategies used in advertisements and other texts and consider these when formulating hypothesis concerning claims made 5.5 Abstract information from the text by noting both explicit and implicit signals used by the writer to serve as directions on how the text is to be interpreted 6. Develop the ability and the desire to read different text types for information, pleasure and appreciation 6.1 Derive from the written text varied ways of expressing an idea 7. Develop strategies to make sense of unfamiliar words, ambiguous sentence structures, and information-dense discourse 7.1 Arrange words in a cline to differentiate between shades of meaning 7.2 Guess the meaning of idiomatic expressions by noting keywords in expressions, context clues, collocations, clusters or related words, etc. 7.3 Get the meaning of complex sentence structures by deleting expansions to come up with the kernel sentenceWRITING 1. Communicate thoughts, feelings, one’s needs in letters, journal entries, book reviews, interview write-ups, etc. using appropriate styles (formal and informal) 1.1 Employ the interactional functions of language in pen-pal letters, letters of invitation, “yes” and “no” letters 1.2 Write reflections on learning experiences in diary and journal entries 1.3 Summarize and write reactions to books read (book reviews) or movies seen (movie review) 1.4 Prepare interview guides and make a write-up of an interview 2. Accomplish forms (school, evaluation, survey) and order slips and prepare posters and captions calling attention to drives 2.1 Fill out personal data sheets (school forms, bank forms, etc.) 2.2 Accomplish order slips, telecom forms 2.3 Call attention to school events and drives 2.3.1 Make captions for posters 2.3.2 Write slogans 2.3.3 Prepare advertisements for school drives
  26. 26. 3. Write different types of discourse: narration (personal experiences), exposition (book reviews) and description (apparatus, objects, etc.) 3.1 Write well-constructed texts employing alternative forms of the overall macro discourse patterns P-Sn Situation, Problem, Attempted Solution-Result-Evaluation TRI Topic-Restriction, Topic-Illustration, and Topic-Restriction-Illustration 3.2 Use appropriate modes of development to express one’s ideas, needs, feelings, and attitudes 3.3 Expand ideas using a variety of and cohesive devices to make the flow of thought from one sentence to another smooth and effortless 3.4 Write short personal narratives to support an assertion 4. Organize ideas in non-linear texts 4.1 Use information maps and other concept maps as aids in note taking • Linear, branching, cyclical flow-charts • Three-level tree diagrams • Grids 4.2 Use three-step word, phrasal and sentence outlines to organize ideas 4.3 Explain in writing the data presented in non-linear texts 5. Do self and peer-editing using a set of criteria 6. Use writing conventions to indicate acknowledgement of resourcesLITERATURE 1. Discover Philippine and Afro Asian literature as a means of expanding experiences and outlook and enhancing worthwhile universal human values 1.1 Express appreciation for worthwhile Asian traditions and the values they represent 1.2 Assess the Asian identity as presented in Asian literature 1.3 Assess one’s self in the light of what makes an Asian 1.4 Identify one’s self with other people through literature and note cultural differences so as to get to the heart of problems arising from them 2. Discover literature as a means of having a better understanding of man and the forces he has to contend with 2.1 Discover through literature the symbiotic relationship between man and his environment and the need of the former to protect the latter 2.2 Demonstrate a heightened sensitivity to the needs of others for a better understanding of man
  27. 27. 2.3 Discover through literature the links between one’s life and the lives of the people throughout the world 2.4 Highlight the need for a more just and equitable distribution of resources3. Show understanding and appreciation of the different genres with emphasis on types contributed by Asian countries (i.e. haiku, tanka etc.) 3.1 Point out the elements of plays and playlets 3.2 Determine the macro discourse patterns (PSNTRI) of essays and the micro discourse signals used to establish meaning relationships in the essay4. Point out the role of literature in enabling one to grow in personhood 4.1 Note the values underscored by the writer in literary pieces 4.2 Distinguish literature s a means of gaining vicarious experiences 4.3 Discriminate what is worthwhile from what is not through literature 4.3.1 Distinguish as a positive value the ability to look into oneself and to accept one’s strengths and weaknesses 4.3.2 Single out humility, resourcefulness and self-reliance5. Employ reading skills as an aid in comprehension and appreciation of a literary piece 5.1 Select appropriate details from a selection (i.e. contrasts, illustration, etc.) used by an essayist to attain his objective (to persuade, to inform, to call attention, etc.) 5.2 Point out how the choice of title space allotment, imagery, choice of words, figurative language, etc. contribute to the theme 5.2.1 Single out and explain figurative language used 5.2.2 Point out and express appreciation of sensory images in literary forms 5.3 Show relationship between the man idea and significant details 5.4 Draw conclusions and make inferences based on details/specific ideas 5.5 Determine the author’s tone and purpose for writing a literary selection 5.6 Paraphrase passages to demonstrate understanding
  28. 28. THIRD YEAR At the end of the third year, the student shall have developed the following competencies:LISTENING 1. Show openness when listening to statements contrary to one’s beliefs 1.1 Take into account the context and situations that gave rise to statements contrary to one’s stand 1.1.1 Take note of cultural differences underlying contradictory views 1.2 Explore opportunities for obtaining varied views on a given issue by listening to debates and talk shows 1.2.1 Infer links and connections between ideas 2. Determine the claims, perspectives, assumptions, and the line of argumentation in oral presentations 2.1 Listen for important points signaled by pausing and a slow rate of speech 2.2 Identify explicit signals given by the speaker (e.g. “this is important…”) to underscore a point 2.3 Listen for clues to enable one to tune in to the topic discussed 3. Shift from one listening strategy to another depending on the text and one’s purpose for listening 1.1 Shift from marginal to attentive listening depending on the topic listened to 1.1.1 Employ listening strategies suited to the type of text 1.1.2 Use attentive listening with informative texts and critical listening with argumentative texts 1.1.3 Use TLQR (Tune-in to raise Questions, then Listen and Respond) when listening to informative and argumentative texts 1.2 Listen to argumentative discourse 1.2.1 Listen to single out reasons cited in argumentative texts 1.2.2 Determine the logic of arguments cited 1.2.3 Determine the stand of a speaker on a given issue 1.2.4 Determine the assumptions underlying the arguments of a speaker 1.2.5 Determine the effectiveness of closing statements in arguments 1.3 Listen to social, moral and economic issues affecting the nation 1.3.1 Listen to get the different sides to an issue in panel discussions 1.3.2 Identify the speaker’s stand on an issue by noting explicit and implicit signals (e.g. choice of words to highlight or downplay assertions made)
  29. 29. 4. Process speech at different rates when listening to informative and argumentative texts 1.1 Determine what was left out and highlighted in informative and argumentative talks 1.1.1 Listen to determine the worth of ideas based on a set of criteria 1.1.2 Listen to determine whether conclusions are logical or illogical 1.1.3 Determine inconsistencies 1.1.4 Pick out discrepancies in supporting ideas 1.1.5 Determine the information map suited to informative classificatory texts (tree diagrams), informative process texts (flow charts), and contrastive argumentative texts (grid) 4.2 Compare the stand and attitudes of newscasters and panel discussants 5. Express appreciation of award-winning protest and patriotic songs and radio plays 5.1 Listen to appreciate the sound effects and dramatic interpretations employed in radio plays 5.2 Listen to appreciate the melody, rhythm, and words of award winning songs used as musical themes in moviesSPEAKING 1. Give a persuasive talk on an issue adjusting one’s rate/volume of speaking and register to suit the topic, audience and setting in a communication situation 1.1 Use pausing and a slow rate of speech to signal important points in one’s talk 1.2 Use explicit signals (e.g. ”This is important…”) to underscore or highlight a point in one’s talk 2. Give information and express needs, opinions, feelings, and attitudes implicitly through analogy 2.1 Elicit and give information using different types of questions and seek clarification and verification of responses made 2.2 Present arguments in debates and argumentative texts 2.3 Give information obtained from varied sources: talks, periodicals, mass media 2.4 Use technological aids when conveying information (e.g. projectors) 3. Use form, function, and context to express one’s intended meaning 4. Arrive at a consensus by reconciling views 4.1 React critically to issues raised in talk shows and discussions of issues affecting the nation
  30. 30. 4.2 Agree/disagree with assertions made, justify one’s stand and suggest modifications in open forums following informative talks, panel discussions and debates on national issues 5. Use conversational gambits in face-to-face interactions to obtain information, express modified agreements, etc. 5.1 Conduct ambush interviews to determine opinion on issues affecting the nation 5.2 Use verbal (paraphrase, translation, circumlocution) as well as non-verbal communication strategies and communication check to forestall and repair breakdown in communication 6. Use verbal (paraphrase, translation, circumlocution) as well as non-verbal communication strategies in extended oral reportsREADING 1. Gather data using library resources, newspapers, other print materials (periodicals, brochures, pamphlets) and non-print resources like audio and video tapes 2. Adjust and vary reading styles to suit the text, one’s background knowledge of the topic discussed and one’s purpose for reading 1.1 Scan rapidly for sequence signals or connectors as basis for determining the macro discourse pattern and rhetorical organization of the texts 2.2 Suit one’s reading style to the different text types: informative, journalistic, and literary 3. Demonstrate the ability to use titles and sub-titles as a means of getting an overview of the text and linking it with previous knowledge of the topic 3.1 Assess a text in the light of previous readings 3.2 Assess advance organizers, titles, sub-titles, illustrations, etc. in the light of information given in a text 4. Demonstrate the ability to interpret and transcode information from linear to non-linear texts and vice versa 4.1 Interpret and match information presented in diagrams with corresponding reading texts
  31. 31. 1.1 Demonstrate the ability to use varied ways of organizing information (outlining, graphic representation, etc.) 1.1.1 Take down notes from a reading text using abbreviations, symbols, and diagrams2 Use varied approaches to make sense of and develop appreciation of different text types (covert dialogue with the writer, the sectional approach discourse analysis) 2.1 Use genre analysis as a means of determining the written conventions of different text types 2.2 Note the new data provided as the text unfolds and use them as basis for modifying expanding or affirming hypothesis made 2.3 Re-structure original hypothesis to incorporate new information and avoid sweeping generalizations 2.4 Note the use of emotion-laden terms to express opinions 2.5 React critically to what is read by judging the relevance and worth of ideas, soundness of the author’s reasoning, and the effectiveness of the presentation 2.5.1 Express emotional reactions to what is explicitly stated and implied in a text3 Choose from varied reading materials/designed to give information and pleasure, and to develop appreciation for reading 3.1 Utilize reading as a means of developing language skills 3.2 Express emotional reaction to what is explicitly stated and implied in the text4 Employ varied strategies to make sense of unknown words (word derivations, context clues, word analysis, etc.) and ambiguous sentences (e.g. processing kernel and embedded clauses) 4.1 Identify the derivation of words 4.2 Arrive at the meaning of words through context clues, word analysis (root words, affixes, compounds) 4.3 Use structural analysis on the word, sentence, and discourse levels to make sense of a text 4.4 Note the strategies employed (restatements, definition, synonyms, antonyms) to clarify meanings in a given selection 4.5 Identify the features of the written language that distinguish it from the spoken form (e.g. “according to”, “may we conclude”, “as previously stated”, “the following points to consider”, etc.) 4.6 Pick out cohesive devices/discourse markers which introduce conclude topics
  32. 32. WRITING 1. Express opinion in writing (e.g. stand on certain issues, complaints, etc.) and write summaries of survey reports on a given issue 1.1 Call attention in writing to good/objectionable practices in open letters, letters of commendation and complaint 1.2 Express in writing satisfaction or dissatisfaction over services, performances, etc. (e.g. plays, movies, etc.) in journal entries, reviews 1.3 Prepare survey forms and make a write-up of survey results 1.4 Write a library research paper on a national issue 2. Fill out forms in line with business promotions and give information concerning group undertakings and activities 2.1 Accomplish business promotion forms • warranty return forms • raffle contest forms 2.2 Prepare notices, agendas and minutes of meetings 2.3 Call attention to school events and drives 3. Demonstrate imagination in writing different text types: narratives both in text and script forms, description, definition, critiques of a movie or play 3.1 Write texts with the overall text structure (P-Sn or TRI) and generic structure in mind suited to the text type 3.2 Suit the rhetorical techniques and functions to the objective and purpose of the written discourse 3.3 Produce a unified text by using cohesive devices, coordination and subordination to enhance clarity of ideas, and the appropriate micro-discourse signals to establish meaning relationships 3.4 Provide examples and illustrations as well as non-examples to clarify definitions of abstract concepts 4. Use maps and other non-linear texts to present information 4.1 Use concept maps (linear, bubble, tree diagrams, grids) to show relationships between and among ideas abstracted from texts 4.2 Use different types of outline (word, phrasal, clausal) to organize ideas 4.3 Make a write-up of non-linear texts used to present information 5. Give and respond to feedback on how to revise compositions or refine ideas by citing details, giving explanations, examples where necessary 6. Use bibliographic and footnote entries to acknowledge citations made in a research paper
  33. 33. LITERATURE 1. Pick out worthwhile human experiences underscored in Philippine, English and American literature 1.1 Single out the Eastern and Western cultural values evident in our heritage as a result of historical development 1.1.1 Express appreciation for Filipino cultural values and its similarities to or differences from English-American values 1.2 Show appreciation for Western traditions, practices and the values they represent 1.2.1 Underscore the Western values of candid frankness and humor as presented in British and American literature 1.2.2 Stress the importance of task-orientedness and efficiency as values worth emulating 2. Discover literature as a means of understanding man and society (i.e. the bonds/links between man and society) as presented in Philippine, English and American literature 2.1 Sow a keener sense of values that last in spite of changes brought about by science and technology 2.2 React to experiences or actions of the characters in relation to real life situations 2.3 Express the belief that people can change their ways depending on their motivation and determination as shown in literature 2.4 React to the experiences of the characters in relation to real life situations 2.5 Analyze and explain how the environment influences the person’s character and actions 2.6 Deduce recurring themes underscored in literary pieces 3. Show understanding and appreciation of varied genres focusing on the contributions of British and America (i.e. sonnets, short stories, etc.) 3.1 Note the form and functions of different types and sub-types of texts 3.2 Differentiate comedy from tragedy, formal from informal essays 3.3 Trace the development of character and conflict in narratives and dramas, and discuss the devices used to achieve unity of effect 3.4 Determine the objective of the essayist and the means employed to attain them 4. State the effect of a literary piece on one’s value system 4.1 React to the values underlying responses to situations in literary pieces 4.2 Single out worthwhile human values 4.3 Point out one’s attitudes that contribute to a person’s values
  34. 34. 5. Single out the devices employed in fiction works and non-fiction works (foreshadowing, flashbacks, figurative language, etc.) used by the author for intellectual, emotional and aesthetic purposes 5.1 Account for the devices used by a writer to highlight significant points in a text 5.1.1 Interpret and explain figurative language used to achieve certain effects and assess it in the light of its contributions to the overall theme of the selection 5.1.2 Point out and express appreciation for the author’s choice of words 5.1.3 React to the figurative language used in the selection 5.2 Point out relationships of time, place, cause-effect, general concepts, examples, analogy, etc. used by the writer to underscore the theme of the selection 5.3 Point out the sequencing of details and account for such sequencing
  35. 35. FOURTH YEAR At the end of the fourth year, the student shall have developed the following competencies:LISTENING 1. Show courtesy while listening to the ideas and feelings of others 1.1 Listen attentively to what is uttered 1.2 Allow the speaker to expound on the topic before reacting to what is said 2. Derive information that can be used in everyday life from news reports, speeches, informative talks, panel discussions, etc. 2.1 Explore opportunities for obtaining comprehensive information and varying perspectives by listening to global television newscasts 2.2 Point out the effectiveness of the devices used by the speaker to attract and hold the attention of the listener 2.3 Identify the roles of discourse markers (e.g. conjunctions, gambits, adverbs) in signaling the functions of statements made 2.4 Identify implicit and explicit signals-verbal as well as non-verbal used by a speaker- to-highlight important points 2.4.1 Single out direct and indirect signals used by a speaker 2.5 Respond to intonation used to signal information structure 3. Assess the effectiveness of listening strategies employed considering the text types, the listening task and one’s purpose for listening 3.1 Match the strategy employed with the type of text, the objective of the listener and the level of difficulty of the text 3.1.1 Demonstrate flexibility in switching from one strategy to another in accordance with the situation and text type 3.1.2 Employ analytical listening in problem solving 3.1.3 Use varied approaches (e.g. selective listening TQLR, etc.) to process listening tasks 3.2 Listen to detailed reports, lecturettes and issues 3.2.1 Listen to take down notes from lecturettes or oral reports 3.2.2 Determine when to listen and when to take down notes in lecturettes or oral reports 3.2.3 Listen to determine what further elucidation is needed in a report or a lecture 3.2.4 Listen to supply items not heard in reports and lecturettes
  36. 36. 3.2.5 Use prosodic as well as lexical clues to distinguish important points in a lecture 3.2.6 Determine the content and functions of statements in a lecture 3.3 Listen to global issues 3.3.1 Listen to get different viewpoints on global issues in talk shows 3.3.2 Listen to get specific information from global television newscasts 4. Process speech at different rates when evaluating tasks and taking down notes 4.1 Assess the effectiveness of a material listened to with a view of determining the speaker’s purpose and assessing whether it was achieved or not 4.1.1 Give reactions to what was said 4.1.2 Analyze what was heard on the bases of a given set of criteria 4.1.3 Analyze and evaluate listening texts in point of accuracy, validity, adequacy and relevance 5. Show appreciation for songs, poems, plays, etc. 5.1 Listen to appreciate varies types of dramatic oral interpretations and songs with emphasis on protest songs 5.1.1 Note the prosodic pattern used in dramatic readings 5.1.2 Listen to chamber theater and reader’s theater presentations 5.1.3 Describes the emotional appeal of a piece 5.2 Give the theme/message of protest songsSPEAKING 1. Speak clearly and spontaneously adapting one’s speech to situations, circumstances and people addressed 1.1 Use accompanying non-verbal language clues (e.g. gestures) to highlight significant points in extended discourse 2. Use appropriate language, idioms, figurative language, analogy to express one’s feelings, thoughts and ideas 2.1 Ask and respond to questions raised in different situations e.g. interviews, open forums, giving directions, etc. 2.2 Express varied outlooks on a given issue 2.3 Give information obtained from the internet and other sources 2.4 Use interactive media as aids when conveying information 2.4.1 Analyze and use sales psychology that underlies advertisements on radio and television when conveying information 2.4.2 Use idioms in expressing one’s feelings and attitudes
  37. 37. 3. Employ alternative ways of expressing speech acts and functions 4. Arrive at a consensus by resorting to varied strategies, assessment, negotiation and accommodation 4.1 Analyze and react critically to ideas presented in speeches, news reports, discussed, etc. 4.2 Indicate affirmation of and/or objections to ideas expressed in discussion on global issues 4.2.1 Agree/disagree with panelists expressing varied outlooks on a given issue 5. Observe conversation strategies in face-to-face extended oral interactions 5.1 Interview business and educational establishments to determine their policies and social orientation 5.2 Use verbal and non-verbal communication strategies to forestall and repair communication breakdown 6. Analyze and react critically to ideas presented in speeches, news reports, discussions, etc.READING 1. Derive information from various text types (journalistic, literary, scientific, practical, technical, etc.) and sources using the card catalogue, vertical file index, microfiche, CD- ROM, Internet, etc. 1.1 Use locational skills to gather and synthesize information from general and first hand sources of information 1.2 Get information from websites through the Internet 1.3 Distinguish between primary and secondary sources of information 1.4 Extract accurately the required information from sources read and reject irrelevant information 2. Adjust and vary reading speed and style to suit the text, one’s background knowledge and purpose in reading, and the constraints of the material read 2.1 Employ different processing approaches (discourse analysis, genre analysis, SQ3R, P2RST) best suited to a given text 2.2 Scan for specific meanings and information 3. Demonstrate the ability to use previous experiences as a scaffold for processing information in a given text 3.1 Test new insights against previous learnings
  38. 38. 3.2 Synthesize previous learnings with new insights 3.3 Note the effectiveness of textual aids like advance organizers, titles, sub-titles, non- linear illustrations, etc. in activating background relevant to the selection 4. Explain visual-verbal relationships illustrated in tables, graphs, information maps commonly used in context area texts 4.1 Transcode information from linear to non-linear texts and vice-versa 4.2 Explain illustrations and schematic diagrams in Science and Technology texts 5. Show familiarity with the argumentation and rhetorical conventions of a discipline 5.1 Note the functions of statement as they unfold 5.2 Consider the data that might disconfirm hypothesis 5.3 Examine opinions for bias 5.4 Determine the validity and adequacy of proof statements to support assertions 5.5 React critically to the devices employed by a writer to achieve his purpose 5.6 React to assertions and proof statements made in a text and how they are presented 6. Show discrimination in the choice of reading materials designed to give information and pleasure and to develop appreciation for reading 6.1 Utilize reading as a means of improving one’s language skills 7. Develop strategies for coping with unknown words and ambiguous sentence structures and discourse 7.1 Identify the derivation of words 7.2 Define words from context and through word analysis (prefix, roots, suffixes) 7.3 Use collocations of difficult words as aids in unlocking vocabulary 7.4 Arrive at the meaning of structurally complex and ambiguous sentences by kernel sentences as from modification structures and expansionsWRITING 1. Organize one’s thoughts and adopt then appropriate writing style in letters, resumes, critiques, etc. with the addresses-audience in mind 1.1 Write letters of application (job and/or admission to a university) and the accompanying documents (e.g. resume) 1.2 Use the interactional and transactional functions of language in letters of appeal, inquiry, etc. 1.3 Put down in writing in journal entries reflections and insights resulting from “growth-in-personhood” experiences
  39. 39. 1.4 Write a research paper on a global issue 1.4.1 Analyze, choose and synthesize information from varied resources 1.4.2 Employ varied strategies (condensing, deleting, combining, embedding) when summarizing materials read 2. Fill out application forms (school, job, bank, etc.) and write project proposals 2.1 Prepare school project proposals, on-going project evaluation and end-of-the-project reports 3. Produce different text types and sub-types (e.g. descriptions, essays, critique, reviews) 3.1 Organize information in texts bearing in the mind the overall macro-discourse pattern and generic structure suited to the objective of the written discourse 3.2 Utilize alternative forms that may be used with the different rhetorical functions and techniques (e.g. varied types of definitions; different micro-discourse signals for cause-effect) 3.3 Expand ideas in well-constructed paragraphs observing cohesion, coherence and the appropriate modes of paragraph development 4. Transcode information from linear to non-linear texts and vice-versa 4.1 Employ concept mapping (circle, bubble, bridge, linear, etc.) as aids in taking down notes and organizing ideas 4.2 Use outlines to sum up ideas taken from or to be expanded into texts 4.3 Use non-linear text outlines and notes as aids in the preparation of a research paper 4.4 Make a write-up of the visuals used in texts (visual-verbal relationship) 5. Give and respond to feedback on one’s paper in the revision process 6. Show respect for intellectual property rights by acknowledging citations made in reports and research • quotation marks or hanging indentions for direct quotes • internal footnoting • bibliographic entries of text cited from books and periodicalsLITERATURE 1. Show appreciation for the significant human experiences expressed in various types of literary genres in world literature 1.1 Identify the values reflected in various text types in world literature 1.2 Show value and respect for diversity evident in world literature 1.3 Point out how writers build a system of values through their selection of words and details and the way they shape reality
  40. 40. 2. Express the belief that people can make a difference as highlighted in literature 2.1 Abstract from literary works how local and global are inter-connected in our daily lives 2.2 Respond to the idea of “cultural imperialism” in the global scenarios presented in literature 2.3 Stress the universality of generosity and service to others as reflected in world literature 3. Show the difference in the generic structure of various literary types across cultures: for narratives, drama, essays, etc. 3.1 Differentiate between journalistic literary, scientific texts where situations and text structures are concerned 3.2 Point out the interdependence of plot, setting and characterization in narratives to achieve the author’s purpose 3.2.1 Note the time line in narratives: historical, flashback, juxtaposition 3.2.2 Describe the various types of conflict evident in the selection 3.2.3 Deduce the themes from narratives 3.3 Determine the information map used by an essayist in his essay 3.3.1 Determine the rhetorical functions and techniques used in essays 3.4 Pick out the elements that distinguish drama as a literary form and explain dramatic devices 4. Show a keener sense of value for what is worthwhile through exposure to literature 4.1 Discriminate between positive and negative values 4.2 Indicate commitment to social justice and equality as portrayed in world literature 4.3 Show concern for the environment for sustainable development 5. Discuss and react to the literary techniques and styles (e.g. choice of symbols, imagery, juxtaposition) adapted by an author to achieve his purpose 5.1 Single out imagery and poetic devices (e.g. figurative language, rhyme, etc.) used for unity of effect and express appreciation for its use 5.2 Identify flashback, foreshadowing, juxtaposition and their contribution to the text structure
  41. 41. SAMPLE LESSON PLANFIRST YEARQUARTER 3 MY RELATIONSHIP WITH NATUREWeek 6 Being a responsible steward of natureI. OBJECTIVES: After going through the activities in this weekly plan, the students will be able to do the following: 1. Determine the objective of a listening piece, who is referred to and what is talked about 2. Observe correct pronunciation of critical consonant sounds : /f/, /v/, /sh/, /ch/ and /dzh/ 3. Arrive at a consensus 4. Use prepositions to show location and direction 5. Arrange in a cluster words that go together 6 Give the meanings of idiomatic phrases 7. Note the change in the reactions of a character and single out the cause of the change 8. Use literature as a resource for developing a better understanding of man and his environment 9. Determine the macro discourse pattern (Problem-Solution) of a selection 10. Carry out instructions in sketching activities focusing on prepositions 11. Transcode information obtained from a listening text into a grid 12. Verbalize that for sustainable development we should not deplete our natural resources 13. Write a text on how one might help in the conservation of our natural resources 14. Express feelings about man’s treatment of nature.II. SUBJECT MATTER: Reading Selections 1. “The Destruction of Mother Earth” by Lolita M. Andrada 2. “The Bad Fisherman” Listening Texts and Instructional Aids 1. “What Kind of Stewards Are We?” 2. Information and semantic maps: grid, cluster 3. Sketching activity References 1. English 1 SEDP 2. English Arts I by Edna Alcala and Lourdes Ribo 3. The MST English Quarterly Vol. 1980 4. The MST English Quarterly 1970
  42. 42. III. PROCEDURE: A. Preparation 1. Pre-listening a. Recall of previous lessons to tie them up with the current week’s theme. 1. What have you learned about our relationship with nature so far? 2 .Who should take care of nature? 3. What will happen if we do not take care of her? b. Our lesson this week will center on how we can be “responsible stewards of nature” 2. Listening (Depending on the ability of the class you may choose to take up one text a day as the listening activity) a . Listen to three texts and write down in column 2 of the chart the objective of the speaker. Is it to call attention to a worthy cause or to a malpractice? Text no. Objectives Person/Company Problem Referred to 1. 2 3. b. Listen again and determine the person or company referred to. Enter your answer in column 3 of the chart. c.Listen to the text a third time and enter in the chart the problem talked about. 3. Post listening a. What helped you determine the problem that was talked about? b. How did you single out the person or company referred to? c. How did you determine if the objective of the speaker was to call attention to a worthy cause or a malpractice? 4. Speaking (Pronunciation – the sets may be spread out, one set a day for the five days of the week.) a. Critical sounds Here are words taken from the texts you listened to or will read this week. These words contain sounds difficult for Filipino learners of English because they may not be present in our language. Say these words after me paying attention to the sound given to the underlined letters.
  43. 43. - f-fish flowed suffocated ff ffocatedffound filings affected ff ffectedfforests fishermen testifiedffood Philippines lifts f ftsffortunately enough gh-v- (dzh) - ch -villagers judg dge childrenvillain jobs richverdict imagine g inchhahave oxygen oxyg muchriver endangered g launchedconservation bridg dge naturelivelihood general fortunately - sh –shot decision conservationwash nation destructionwashing attention popula populationfish preven preventionb. Blending and vocabulary (Phrase – strip activity and practice) 1. Here are phrases taken from the texts listened to and other texts you will read. Place the strips containing the phrases under the column that show the relationship signaled by the underlined preposition in the phrase. Does it signal position that is position, location or direction specifically movement. * To be written on the board Prepositions showing Prepositions indicating ____________________ _____________________ position (location) direction (movement) _____________________ _____________________
  44. 44. * To be distributed to small groups of students, one strip per group for them todecide whether the underlined preposition in their strip signals position or direction and toplace the strip in the proper column. in Bolinao, Pangasinan lifts upwards monekys fishpens in the area shot down by hunters fish in the pens washings from the mine plant life in the water flowed down in our country found its way into the nearby river in Mindoro pointed to the mine copper filings in the washings look at her fished in the river abuse suffered from the hands of the villain swoops down to our forest cast a glance at the plaintiff 2. Say the phrases after me. Be sure to blend the sounds joined by curve lines. fish in the pens lifts upward hands of the villain found the way into the river in our country cast a glance at the plaintiff
  45. 45. B. Presentation 2. Sketching Activity focusing on prepositions indicating position on location (in the form of a contest). a. A rectangle is sketched on the board to symbolize a box. b. These prepositions are written on strips of paper and distributed to some students. in inside high above on outside way below under beside (to the right) between next (to the left) in between by (not too close to it) adjacent to c. The students are to put a dot to show its location in relation to the rectangle. Feedback is given. Here are some possible representations. ● ● ● in or inside high above (also outside) beside (to the right) or by (not too close)
  46. 46. = = = next (to the left) or on or outside way below under by ( not too close) or adjacent to = between or in between2. Matching Activity focusing on prepositions indicating direction. These directions are written on strips and the sketches are placed on cards. This time the students are to look at the direction or movement indicated by the arrow in relation to the rectangle, the dot or another arrow. }} Expessions up outward upward down into downward → → inward out of along around from → alongside through away from side by side upon to towards over with under withoutSketches Note: The expected responses are given under the sketches.(up or upward upward) ( (down or downward) outwarsd or out of
  47. 47. inward or into through along, along alongside or side by side upon to or towards from or away from around over under with withoutC. Practice 1. On prepositions indicating location Here are a number of possible exercises a. Distribute scenic views (calendar, postcards, etc.) to small groups. Have each group give sentences indicating what is found in the scene using the prepositions indicating location. They are to mention what might be seen in the background, in the middle ground and in the foreground. b. Have the students pair off and take turns indicating landmarks close to their homes. They are to use prepositions indicating location. c. Let the class play a guessing game. One student thinks of a notable place or building in the community. The class take turns asking yes-no and wh questions to find out what might be found in the vicinity of that place or building. After they have gathered enough clues,they are to guess what that place or building is.
  48. 48. 2. On prepositions indicating direction a. Have the students come up with the prepositions to complete this text about “A Day at the Beach.” b. Divide the class into groups and have them prepare a paragraph similar to the one worked on using prepositions signaling direction. Here are some topics thay mught want to develop. 1) Malling 2) Camping in the wilds 3) Mountain climbingB. Enrichment 1. Taking up the reading selection a. Pre-reading 1) Here are words that are associated with each other because they have to do a court case. Arrange them in a cluster to show how they are related to one another. accused banged the gavel clerk of court decision of the court court testified against judge hear the verdict plaintiff the case was lost guilty
  49. 49. 2. Demonstrate these actions looked askance cleared his throat cast a glance banged the gavel looked at the accused, no pity in his eyes 3. Answer these questions a) Which of these two descriptions of a court case has a more negative meaning: sensitive case or sordid case? b) What does scoops mean in this sentence? The press have been pressuring him for scoops on the case c.) Do these sentences have similar, opposite or unrelated meanings: His case was lost His fate was sealed b) Who was Pilate? Which famours case did he preside over? What did he show when he “washed his hands off the case”? e) When do you say a sight is horrendous? Are pockmarks pleasant or unpleasant to look at? c) When do you say a person would not “budge an inch”? Will he give In, stay put, or avoid taking sides?b. Reading As you read the text, look for answers to these questions: 1. What case is talked about? 2. Who is the plaintiff? 3. Who is the accused? 4 .Who testified against the accused? 5. The first paragraph talks about the feelings of the judge before the trial and the second paragraph shows how he felt during the trial. What did he feel during the pre-trial? What about during the trial? Pick out the expressions that show how and why he felt that way. What brought about the change?
  50. 50. The Destruction of Mother Earth Lolita M. Andrada The judge looked at the gathering crowd in the court. It was a highly sensitive case he was handling. The press had been pressuring him for scoops on the case, but he wouldn’t budge an inch for fear of criticism from the general public. He wanted to play Pilate and wash his hands off the sordid case, but moral guilt had made him stay on. And now comes that day when the decision had to be made. The judge cast a glance at the bedraggled face of the plnaintiff. It was Mother Earth, her whole body sdtill bearing the pockmarks of destruction. The judge couldn’t bear to look at her nor recall the abuse that she suffered from the hands of the villain. Mother Earth was a horrendous sight. The Judge then looked at the accused, no pity in his eyes. With a grim face, the Judge banged the gavel to silence the crowd. The clerk of court then cleared his throat to read the decision of the courth. The accused was called to hear the verdict. Nations had testified against him and the accused knew even before that his case was lost. The accused was Man and as he stood there waiting for the decision, he knew that his fate was sealed. He would be judged “Guilty!”C. Post Reading 1) Processing the answer to the questions raised earlier. 2) In small groups, discuss your answers to these questiions. a) If you were the lawyer of the accused, what defense would you put up ? If I were the lawyer of the accused, I would say... I would point out that ... b) If you were the judge, would you have arrived at the same decision? How would you feel about his decision? I believe feel } that the judge was...
  51. 51. c) What sentence would you pass on man? Why? I think I would ----------- because ... d) What punishment would you mete out to him? Why? Personally As I see it } I would ___ because _____________ In bright classes, the students may role play a mock trial “Mother Earth VS. Man : Trialof the Century” 2. Taking up the literature selection A. Pre-reading 1. Recalling the listening activity to tie it up with the literature lesson. a) Recall the fish kill that took place in Bolinao, Pangasinan. b) What caused the loss of fish in that incident? c) Can we say that greed and dishonesty played a big role in the fish kill? Explain. 2. Vocabulary Get the meaning of the underlined word from the sentence given. What served as clues? a) Each banca was equipped with outriggers, bamboo poles that extended to their side in the form of a rectangle to keep the boat steady even in the roughest sea. b) Soon the nets were teeming with live fish. c) Lucio, seeing that it was hopeless to try to dissuade the villagers, went sadly back to his own hut. B. Reading the text The reading text may be assigned the day before.