NATIONWIDE NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE: A COMMUNITY STRUCTURE APPROACH Teegan Conti Maria Montroni Jenny Sm...
Introduction <ul><ul><li>2002 National Health Interview Survey:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over one third of adults i...
Research Questions <ul><li>Do cities with higher percents of college educated citizens offer more favorable coverage of CA...
Research Questions <ul><li>Will cities with a large 18-30 population  show more favorable coverage to CAM? </li></ul><ul><...
Framing in Newspapers <ul><li>Newspapers read by economic and political leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper readers active...
The Community Structure Approach Definition:  Structural approaches linking community context to reporting on critical eve...
Literature Review <ul><li>Extensive research on CAM in biology, psychology, and business databases.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ver...
Buffer Hypothesis <ul><li>According to Pollock & colleagues, the “buffer” hypothesis expects that the larger the proportio...
Healthcare Access Hypothesis <ul><li>Research (on topics such as physician-assisted suicide and stem-cell research) has sh...
Vulnerability Hypothesis <ul><li>Also termed the “unbuffered” or “guardian” hypothesis, it expects that the larger the per...
Stakeholder Hypothesis <ul><li>Previous research suggests that when a “stakeholder,” or large groups with a stake in a par...
Methodology <ul><li>Cross-section national sample of 21 newspapers. </li></ul><ul><li>The NewsBank database was used to co...
Prominence Score* * copyright John C. Pollock, 1994-2008 Direction 4 3 2 1 Placement Front page of first section Front pag...
Article Direction Articles coded favorable: Positive coverage of CAM; showed general support for various forms of alternat...
Media Vector f = sum of the prominence scores coded “favorable” u = sum of the prominence scores coded “unfavorable” n = s...
Results: Media Vector City, State Newspaper   Media Vector Kansas City, MO Kansas City Star 0.933 Manchester, NH New Hamps...
City, State Newspaper  Media Vector Chicago, IL  Chicago Sun-Times 0.2188 Orlando, FL Orlando Sentinel 0.2118 Tulsa, OK Tu...
Regional Media Vector Averages Scott’s Pi Average: 77.2135 Region Media Vector Midwest .3486 West .2520 Northeast .2051 So...
Pearson Correlation <ul><li>A Pearson Correlation exemplifies the relationship between a particular city characteristic an...
Results: Pearson Correlations * = Significant at the .05 level City Characteristic (%)  Pearson Correlation   Significance...
City Characteristic (%)   Pearson Correlation   Significance  Professionals  .211 .180 Catholics  -.212 .192 College Educa...
Results: Regression Model R R Square R Square Change F Change Sig. F Change Generation 25-44 .434 .188 .188 3.480 .082 Gen...
Regression: Top Predictors <ul><li>Generation 25-44 </li></ul><ul><li>Income over $100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Generation 45...
Results: Hypotheses <ul><li>Healthcare Access (confirmed):  The higher the percentage of municipal spending on healthcare ...
Implications for Further Research <ul><li>Examine frequency of newspaper coverage of CAM </li></ul><ul><li>Compare cross n...
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Contemporary and Alternative Medicine Powerpoint

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This presentation was created for Methods of Communication: Research and Analysis, taught by Dr. John C. Pollock, in the spring of 2008.

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Contemporary and Alternative Medicine Powerpoint

  1. 1. NATIONWIDE NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE: A COMMUNITY STRUCTURE APPROACH Teegan Conti Maria Montroni Jenny Smith
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><ul><li>2002 National Health Interview Survey: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over one third of adults in the United States are using some form of Complementary and Alternative medicine (CAM). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternative medicines, unlike many prescription drugs, have no specific target audience. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall goal is to attain a healthy lifestyle. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Research Questions <ul><li>Do cities with higher percents of college educated citizens offer more favorable coverage of CAM? </li></ul><ul><li>Will cities with high proportions of families with incomes upwards of $100,000 exhibit more favorable coverage of CAM? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Research Questions <ul><li>Will cities with a large 18-30 population show more favorable coverage to CAM? </li></ul><ul><li>Will cities with a higher percent of voting Republicans display less favorable coverage of CAM? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Framing in Newspapers <ul><li>Newspapers read by economic and political leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper readers active in their communities </li></ul><ul><li>Well suited for systematic coding and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to higher predictability and reliability in results </li></ul><ul><li>More community/regionally focused than internet; more in-depth than TV news </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Community Structure Approach Definition: Structural approaches linking community context to reporting on critical events have been pioneered by Tichener, Donohue, & Olien (1973-1980) McCleod & Hertog (1990, 1992, 1999), Demers & Viswanath (1999), & Hindman (1996, 1999). The “Community Structure Approach,” extensively tested in a nationwide sample by Pollock and colleagues (1977, 1978, 1994-2004) has consistently shown relations between structural characteristics of U.S. cities and newspaper coverage of political and social change. Alternative Approach: Complements explanations for news coverage based on such conventional factors as attitudes/personalities of journalists, newsroom diversity (ethnicity, gender) or newspaper ownership patterns.
  7. 7. Literature Review <ul><li>Extensive research on CAM in biology, psychology, and business databases. </li></ul><ul><li>Very little research on CAM in field of communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ComAbstracts and Communication & Mass Media Complete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search term “Alternative Medicine” combined with “media,” and “‘news coverage” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yielded five articles total in CMMC, zero articles in ComAbstracts. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Buffer Hypothesis <ul><li>According to Pollock & colleagues, the “buffer” hypothesis expects that the larger the proportion of privileged groups in a city, (privilege defined as portion of those in a city with college educations, family incomes of $100,000 or more, or professional/technical occupational status), the more favorable the coverage of CAM. </li></ul><ul><li>H 1 : The higher the percentage of college educated citizens in a city, the more favorable the coverage of CAM (Lifestyle Market Analyst, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 : The higher the percentage of families with incomes of $100,000 or more in a city, the more favorable the coverage of CAM (Lifestyle Market Analyst, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>H 3 : The higher the percentage of people with professional or technical status in a city, the more favorable the coverage of CAM (Lifestyle Market Analyst, 2007). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Healthcare Access Hypothesis <ul><li>Research (on topics such as physician-assisted suicide and stem-cell research) has shown a positive relationship between the proportion of physicians in a given community or percentage of municipal spending on healthcare and favorable newspaper coverage on advances in medicine, science and healthcare (Pollock & Yulis, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>H 4: The higher the percentage of municipal spending on healthcare in a city, the more favorable the coverage of CAM (Lifestyle Market Analyst, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>H 5 : The higher the percentage of physicians/100,000, the more favorable the coverage of CAM (County and City Extra, 2007). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vulnerability Hypothesis <ul><li>Also termed the “unbuffered” or “guardian” hypothesis, it expects that the larger the percent of people in a city living under the poverty level, or unemployed, the more newspapers will reflect the interests of these groups (Pollock, 2007, p. 56). </li></ul><ul><li>Previous research using the community structure approach indicates a correlation between the portion of city residents below the poverty level and favorable coverage of a Patients’ Bill of Rights (Pollock, 2007, p. 256). </li></ul><ul><li>H 13 : The higher the percentage below the poverty level, the more favorable the coverage of CAM (Lifestyle Market Analyst, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>H 14 : The higher the percentage unemployed, the more favorable the coverage of CAM (County and City Extra, 1999). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stakeholder Hypothesis <ul><li>Previous research suggests that when a “stakeholder,” or large groups with a stake in a particular social or political issue, emerges in a given community, newspapers tend to increase coverage of that issue. (Mcleod & Hertog, 1999). This finding is supported by studies of same sex marriage (Pollock & Dantas, 1998) and physician assisted suicide (Pollock & Yulis, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholders for CAM can be grouped into the following categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Position in the life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Age/Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Belief System </li></ul><ul><li>Political Partisanship </li></ul>
  12. 12. Methodology <ul><li>Cross-section national sample of 21 newspapers. </li></ul><ul><li>The NewsBank database was used to collect articles of 150 words or more from the sample period January 1, 2002, to January 1, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>All articles were coded for Prominence and Directional coverage. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Prominence Score* * copyright John C. Pollock, 1994-2008 Direction 4 3 2 1 Placement Front page of first section Front page of inside section Inside page of first section Other Headline Size (# of words) 10+ 8-9 6-7 5 or fewer Article length (# of words) 1,000 + 750-999 500-749 499 or fewer Photos/Graphics 2 or more 1
  14. 14. Article Direction Articles coded favorable: Positive coverage of CAM; showed general support for various forms of alternative medicine Articles coded unfavorable: Negative coverage of CAM; opposed various forms of alternative medicine Articles coded balanced/neutral: Presented both sides of the argument objectively; reported general information regarding CAM
  15. 15. Media Vector f = sum of the prominence scores coded “favorable” u = sum of the prominence scores coded “unfavorable” n = sum of the prominence scores coded “balanced/neutral” r = f + u + n If f > u (the sum of the favorable prominence scores is greater than the sum of the unfavorable prominence scores), the following formula is used: Favorable Media Vector (FMV): FMV = (f² - fu) (Answer lies between 0 and +1.00) r² If f < u (the sum of the unfavorable prominence scores is greater than the sum of the favorable scores), the following formula is used: Unfavorable Media Vector (UMV): UMV = (fu - u²) (Answer lies between 0 and -1.00) r² *Media Vector copyright John C. Pollock (2000-2008)
  16. 16. Results: Media Vector City, State Newspaper Media Vector Kansas City, MO Kansas City Star 0.933 Manchester, NH New Hampshire Union Leader 0.7287 Milwaukee, WI Milwaukee Journal Sentinel 0.4498 Denver, CO The Denver Post 0.4439 Portland, OR The Oregonian 0.4008 Phoenix, AZ Arizona Republic 0.3331 Albuquerque, NM Albuquerque Journal 0.333 Columbus, OH Columbus Dispatch 0.2655 Albany, NY The Times Union 0.2513 New Orleans, LA The New Orleans Time-Picayune 0.2206
  17. 17. City, State Newspaper Media Vector Chicago, IL Chicago Sun-Times 0.2188 Orlando, FL Orlando Sentinel 0.2118 Tulsa, OK Tulsa World 0.1712 St. Petersburg, FL St. Petersburg Times 0.1278 St. Louis, MI St. Louis Post-Dispatch 0.1263 Bismarck, ND The Bismarck Tribune 0.0984 San Francisco, CA San Francisco Chronicle 0.0495 Pittsburgh, PA Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 0.0272 Richmond, VA Richmond Times Dispatch -0.0042 Salt Lake City, UT The Deseret Morning News -0.0481 Boston, MA The Boston Globe -0.187
  18. 18. Regional Media Vector Averages Scott’s Pi Average: 77.2135 Region Media Vector Midwest .3486 West .2520 Northeast .2051 Southeast .1454
  19. 19. Pearson Correlation <ul><li>A Pearson Correlation exemplifies the relationship between a particular city characteristic and the media vector. For instance, if a Pearson Correlation is positive, that city characteristic correlates with a favorable outlook of Alternative Medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>Results are not considered relevant unless they prove to be significant at the .05 level or better. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Results: Pearson Correlations * = Significant at the .05 level City Characteristic (%) Pearson Correlation Significance Municipal Spending on Healthcare .407 .034* Family Income $100,000+ .399 .037* Unemployed .405 .043* Generation 25-44 -.393 .043* Generation 45-64 -.376 .051 Generation 18-24 -.355 .062 Children 11-14 .306 .095 Children 15-19 .251 .142 Physicians per 100,000 -.238 .150 Generation 65+ -.224 .171
  21. 21. City Characteristic (%) Pearson Correlation Significance Professionals .211 .180 Catholics -.212 .192 College Educated .193 .201 Children 5-10 .193 .208 Below Poverty .158 .252 Protestants -.149 .271 Children under 5 -.107 .327 Democratic .078 .369 Republican -.064 .391 Devotional Reading -.026 .458 Evangelicals .014 .477
  22. 22. Results: Regression Model R R Square R Square Change F Change Sig. F Change Generation 25-44 .434 .188 .188 3.480 .082 Generation 25-44, Income .620 .384 196 4.461 .053 Generation 25-44, Income, Generation 45 - 64 .758 .575 .190 5.814 .031
  23. 23. Regression: Top Predictors <ul><li>Generation 25-44 </li></ul><ul><li>Income over $100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Generation 45 - 64 </li></ul>
  24. 24. Results: Hypotheses <ul><li>Healthcare Access (confirmed): The higher the percentage of municipal spending on healthcare in a city, the more favorable the coverage of CAM. </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer (confirmed): The higher the percentage of families with incomes of $100,000 or more in a city, the more favorable the coverage of CAM. </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability (confirmed): The higher the percentage unemployed, the more favorable the coverage of CAM. </li></ul><ul><li>Age/Generation (confirmed): The higher the percentage of residents 25-44 in a community, the less favorable the coverage of CAM. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Implications for Further Research <ul><li>Examine frequency of newspaper coverage of CAM </li></ul><ul><li>Compare cross national newspaper coverage to national newspaper coverage of CAM </li></ul><ul><li>Compare international newspaper coverage to national newspaper coverage of CAM </li></ul><ul><li>Re-examine CAM coverage post Presidential election 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the coverage of CAM in other forms of media (TV, radio, Internet) </li></ul><ul><li>Specify categories of Alternative Medicine (yoga, acupuncture, herbal remedies, etc.) </li></ul>

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