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Bio vitamins Bio vitamins Presentation Transcript

  • sVITAMINS 1) FAT Soluble (ADEK) 2) WATER Soluble (BC) a) Vit. A a) Vit. B  COMPLEX b) Vit. D b) Vit. C  L-ASCORBIC c) Vit. E d) Vit. KCHARACTERISTICS of Vitamins; 1- Needed in VERY SMALL AMOUNT 2- Body CAN NOT FORM IT ( NO SYNTHESIS) 3- Present in FRESH FOOD 4- DO NOT Give Energy Important for ACTIVITY of Enzymes  CO-ENZYMES 5- Deficiency “Decrease”  cause Disease
  • s VIT.A 1) RETINOL “OH” ANTI-NIGHT- BLINDNESS FACTORNAME 2) RETINAL  ALDEHYADE 3) RET-IONIC ACID  COOH a) OILY Food  like vegetable oils ,buter ,nuts ,eggs b) PRECURSOR Substance  β-CaroTene “Yellow”  in Intestine  BACTERIAL ENZ.  VIT.A c) LiverSOURCES d) Butter e) Egg Yolk f) Milk g) Carrots ,Apricots ,Mango ,Tomatos ,…. 1- Important for 2- RETINAL; 3- RETINOL; 4- RETINOIC 5- β-CAROTENE GROWTH & ACID;BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTIONS MAINTENANCE of ”Importance” EPITHELIAL CELLS a. XERODEMIA Enter in RHOD-OPSIN Visual Pigment 1. STEROID Hormone 1) Glyco-Protein 1) ANTI-OXIDANT b. DRY SKIN for  DIM Light 2. Maintain Epithelial Tissue Synthesis 2) ANTI-CANCER Effect c. XERO-OPHTHAMIA & Mucous Secretion 2) Support Tissue 3. Maintain REPRODUCTION GROWTH RHOD-OPSIN Dim Light OPSIN “Protein” + Retinal Opsin +RetinalDISEASE/ DEFFICIENCY Bright light 1) NectaLopia 2) XeroPhthalmia 3) KeratoMalacia 4) XeroDermia 5) Dryness & Death NIGHT BLINDNESS EYE DRYNESS CORNEAL KERATINIZATION  Of RESPIRATORY LOSS OF VISION EPITHELIA
  • s NEEDED 5000 International Unit/dayRequirement OVER INCREASE of VIT.A  HEPATO-MEGALY & HEADACHE (HYPER VITAMINOSIS) Vit.DTWO FORMS; 1- D2  PLANTS 2- D3 ANIMALS  increase in vit.D3 cause diseasessNAME 1) Chole-Calci-Ferol “OH group” 2) ANTI-RICKETS FactorSOURCES 1) Body CHOLESTEROL  7-DEHYDRO-CHOLESTEROL  Sun Light / UV light  Vit.D3 2) ERGO-STEROL “Provit in PLANT”  Vit.D2 3) Fish Liver Oil ,Egg, Liver, MilkIMPORTANCE 1)  Ca in Blood  Normal level 9-10mgdl 2) Increase Ca ABSORPTION from INTESTINE Come from ; a) Food  Milk Produced b) Stored in / Bone 3) Ca RE-ABSORPTION by KIDNEY   Ca Loss in URINE 4) DEPOSITION OF Ca in BONE & TEETH  OSTEO-MALACIA 5) Ca RESORPTION from BONE to BLOOD  To Keep Blood Level NormalDEFICIENCY 1) RICKETS  in CHILDREN 2) OSTEO-MALACIA  in ADULTS/DISEASE Characteristics causes; Characteristics Causes 1- Boxy Skull 1-  Vit.D3 in Food 1. Brittle Bone 1.  Ca 2- Pigeon Chest 2-  Exposure to Sun Light 2. Easy Fracture 2.  Vit.D3 3- Contracted Pelvis 4- Bowed Legs 5- DELAYED a. TEETHING b. STANDING c. WALKING
  • sREQUIREMENT 1) Get Sun Everyday  30 Minute/day 2) Children Kept Indoors  Give Vit.D3 pills to avoid Rickets Disease 3) 200-400IUday Vit.ENAMES 1- TOCOPHEROL 2- ANTI-STERILITY Factor  in RatSOURCES 1. D-α-Toco-Pherol is the most“Active Form” 2. Oil in Plants  Nuts 3. Butter 4. Egg 5. Fish 6. liverIMPORTANCE 1) ANTI- STERILITY in Rats & Humans 2) Very Strong ANTI-OXIDANT 3) Keep Structure of Cell membrane  especially a. RBCs b. LIVER Cell 4) Prevent ATROPHY of Muscle &necrosis of liver cells 5) Vit.E+ Vit.C + Vit.A + GSH  REMOVE FREE RADICALS from Cell
  • sDEFICIENCY 1- RATS 2- TISSUE STERILITY a) NECROSIS OF LIVER CELLS b) HEMOLYSIS OF RBCs c) ATROPHY of Muscles Vit.K ((Anti-Hemorrhagic Vit))NAMES 1) ANTI-HEMORRHAGIC 2) NaphThoQuinoneTYPES a) K1 b) K2 c) K3SOURCES a) K1 FAT SOLUBLE b) K2  FAT SOLUBLE c) K3 WATER SOLUBLE ALL GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES Formed by BACTERIAL ENZ. Inside 1. Its SYNTHETIC INTESTINE Bacterial Flora 2. Called  MenaDione 3. DOES NOT EXIST in Food 4. NO NATURAL SOURCE 5. NOT FAT SOLUBLEFUNCTION 1) Synthesis of CLOTTING FACTORS in LIVER a. Pro-Thrombin b. Factors i. VII ii. IX iii. X
  • s 2) Formation of γ-Carboxy-Glutamate in Protein factors for clotting 3) CO-ENZYME Q a. Similar to Vit.K b. Enter in the strructur of the Respiratory Chain in MitochondriaDEFICIENCY 1- BLEEDING / HEMORRHAGE on Injury 2- PROLONGED BLEEDING TIME (5 minutes) 3- Hemorrhage  due to defect in Clotting Factor 4- Causes of Deficiency include: 1. STERILE INTESTINE in New Born Infants 2. prolonged treatment by Intestinal ANTI-SEPTICS 3. LIVER disease 4. MAL-ABSORPTION OF FAT& FAT SOLUBLE VIT.
  • s RICKETS IN CHILDREN  Defect In Bone Of SkullHEAD PROLONGED Lead to BOXY-SKULLCHEST CAGE PIGEON CHEST During Inspiration Chest Comes OUTPELVIS CONTRACTED PELVICLEGS LEGS 1- BOWING Of Legs 2- DELAYED WALKINGTEETH DELAYED TEETHING OXIDANTSCOME FROM; Not good for Human 1- POLLUTION Lead to OXIDATION of IMPORTANT Constituent of 2- BACTERIA  BRAIN  CELL MEMBRANEDiscuss How Vit.E is Anti-Oxidant Oxidants  cause Oxidation of Important Compounds of CellOr As FATTY ACID in Cell Membrane  CauseHow Vit.E Protect Cell Component 1- AGING OF CELL 2- MALIGNANT changes in cells ANTI-OXIDANTS (Vit.E) Vit.E EASILY OXIDIZEd than CELL COMPONENT TYPE OF ANTI OXIDANT What Anti-Oxidant will do Lead to; 1- Prevent Oxidation of Membrane component 1- Vit.E  MOST 2- PROTECT Cell components from Being Oxidized  CELL IMPORTANT Oxidant will DESTROY Cell Component  FATTY ACID DEATH “NECROSIS” 2- Vit.C Anti-Oxidant can READILY be OXIDIZED 3- PROTECT cell from AGING 3- Vit.A Therefore they will PROTECT cell component from 4- Β-CAROTENE being oxidized 4- PROTECT cell from MALIGNANT changes( cancer) 5- SELENIUM Thus  That’s why Vit.E is the MOST IMPORTANT  ANTI-OXIDANT 1- PREVENT CELL AGING AGENT 2- PREVENT NECROSIS
  • s WATER SOLUBLE VITAMIN
  • s WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS VITAMIN CNAME 1- L-ASCORBIC ACID 2- ANTI- SCURVY VIT.SOURCES 1. All ANIMALs & PLANT can form Vit.C from Glucose EXCEPT MAN &GUINEA PIGS Human CAN NOT form Vit.C from Glucose  Because we don’t have the Specific Enzyme 2. CITREOUS FRUIT  Has to be taken FRESH  because it gets destroyed by LIGHT  therefore,fresh Juices are recommended 3 -GUAVA 4-GREEN PEPPER 5-mangoFUNCTIONS/IMPORTANCE 1) ANTI-OXIDANT / REDUCING AGENT  Important for ACTIVITY for Many Enzymes 2) Synthesis of COLLAGEN a. Protein in MATRIX of Connective tissue b. Give SUPPORT & PROTECTION to CT c. If there is NO normal collagen  HEMORRHAGE occur in connective tissue as in GUMS&under the SKIN 3) Synthesis of PROTEIN Vit.C Activate the Enzymes of CT Protein Synthesis promoting wound healing 4) ABSORPTION OF IRON from INTESTINE +++ ++ Fe (FERRIC)  Iron in Food  Convert in Intestine in Presence of Vit.C  Fe (FERROUS) 5)  IMMUNITY Vit.C important for Synthesis of COMPLEMENT PROTEIN
  • sDEFICIENCY/ DISEASE  SCURVY & Anemia due  IRON Manifestaions of Scurvy: 1- PITICHAE BLEEDING ON MINOR TRAUMA  Hemorrhage of Capillary  Due to ABSENCE OF COLLAGEN 2- GUM BLEEDING on Minor Trauma TEETH BRUSHING B-COMPLEX Group Vitamins a) B1 f) FOLIC ACID b) B2 g) Pantothenic Acid (PA)TYPE c) B3 h) BIOTIN d) B6 e) B12 1) Vit.B1 2) Vit.B2 3) Vit.B3 a) Thiamine a) Ribo-Flavine a) Nicotinic Acid  “Niacin” b) Anti-Beri-Beri Vit. b) Anti-CHEILOSIS b) Anti- PELLAGRA Vit.NAMES i. Angular Stomatitis a. Dermatitis ii. Fissured lips b. Diarrhea c. De-Mentia PELLAGRA  established by deficiency of Niacin & Tryptophan  For all of Them Vit.B2 Sources Vit.B3 Sources a) WHOLE GRAIN  most important   Milk Fluid WHEY  MAIZE “ CORN” b) Yeast o Very Deficient in Niacin c) Vegetable o Very Deficient in TryptoPhanSOURCES d) Liver  TryptoPhan  can be changed in LIVER to  Niacin e) Meat f) Fish
  • s Vit.B1 Vit.B2 Vit.B3 It’s a Co-Enzyme is called  Its Co-Enzymes is Called  Component of Co-Enzymes IMPORTANCE FUNCTION/ Thiamine Pyro Phosphate (TPP) 1) FAD = Flarine Adnine DiNucleotide 1) NAD (CO-I)  Nicotineamide Adenine  Important for CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM 2) FMN= Flarine MONO DiNucleotide Dinuclutide  they are HYDROGEN Carriers 2) NADP (CO-II) NAD-Phosphate 3) COEZYME-III= NMP THEY ARE ALL HYDROGEN CARRIER a) Anti- Beri-Beri Vitamin : TWO TYPES OF BERI -BERI . WET type EDEMA DRY Type  Nerve Manifestation NEURITIS Vit.B6, FOLIC ACID, Vit.B12 Vit.B6 FOLIC ACID (FA) Vit.B12  PyriDoxine ◘ FolaCin COBAL AMINENAME   PryiDoxine deficiencys ◘ MegaLoBlastic Anemia MegaLoBlastic AnemiaDISEASE Anemia NormoCytic Anemia  MacroCytic Anemia o Cell Number Number of Cells decrease o Regular Shape & Size LARGE Cell SIZE  Pyridoxal- Phosphate(P.L.P) ◘ Tetra-Hydro-Folsate (FH4) CobaMideCO-ENZYME  PROTEIN METABOLISM 1- DNA SYNTHESIS 1) MATURATION of NERVOUS STRUCTURE  EspeciallyIMPORTANCE 2- CELL DIVISION MYELIN SHEATH  Folic Acid & Vit.B12 WORK TOGETHER 2) DNA SYNTHESIS for SYNTHESIS of DNA & CELL DIVISION 3) CELL DIVISION
  • s  ALL FOOD Plant & Animal ◘ All GREEN VEGETABLE 1) ANIMAL product ONLY  meat, liver, Kidney, Milk, Egg, FishSOURCES ◘ Meat & Fish 2) NOT available in PLANT  Occur during administration of ◘ Deficiency of BOTH Folic Acid & Vit.B12  INTRINSIC FACTOR  STOMACH Disease IsoNiaZide Drug = cause MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA 1) PERNICIOUS Anemia (Anti-Tuberculosis ) ◘ But with Vit.12  NERVE DEGENERATION 2) NERVE DE-GENERATION ◘ CHEMO-THERAPY  will BLOCK theDEFICIENCY which INHIBITs PyriDoxine Action  VIT.B12  caused bys; Function of Folic Acid  1- Disease in STOMACH  that will cause  INTRINSIC ANTAGONIZE the Effect of Folic Acid FACTOR  which is Necessary for ABSORPTION OF VIT.B12 2- STRICT VEGETARIAN people 3- Old age with malabsorption 4- Deficient intake for long period-Vit.B-12 is stored in liverss PantoThenic Acid (PA) & BIOTIN PANTO-THENIC ACID (PA) BIOTINNAME o Part of Co-Enzyme A.SH  CO-CARBOXY-LASEIMPORTANCE o LIPID METABOLISM  Co-Enzyme for  Carboxylases that ADD CO2 to COMPOUNDS=carboxylationSOURCE o ALL KINDs of Food especially Yeast ,Milk  Available in ALL FOOD &Intestinal Bacterial Synthesis MEAT Liver
  • sDEFICIENCY o DOES NOT have a specific kind of deficiency  ALOPECIA  when  Biotin occur & DEPRESSION ,DERMATITS & muscle diseases .Its deficiency for long period causes pain. Anaemia( normocytic anaemia) & Burning  Usually its RARE for Disease to Occur Crampsm, Insomnia, Headache and G I T  But  Consumption of RAW EGG  Cause   BIOTIN ABSORPTION disturbances because a protein caled AVIDIN in raw eggs binds tightly to Biotin in o the intestine preventing its absorption