Greek Mythology The Greeks were politheistic. That means that they had many gods. They lived in a polis, which we now call a city. In each polis, people had their own god who protected them.
Characteristics of Greek Gods They lived on Mount Olympus. They were immortal. That means that they could live forever. They looked like humans. They ate, loved and fought amongst themselves like human beings.
Checkpoint: Exercises Give a noun from the following definitions: “Religion that has many gods”. “Tale about gods”. “Son of a god and a human being”. Search the internet for a picture of a cyclops and a picture of a centaur.
Main Greek Gods: Zeus He is the most important god. He is the god of the sky and lightening. He can transform into lightening,a bald eagle and an oak tree. He had a lot of children from many women.
Hera She is Zeus' wife. She is the goddess of women and marriage. She is related to the cow and the peacock.
Hephaestus He is Zeus and Hera's son. He is the god of fire. He is related to blacksmiths. He is represented as being very ugly and lame.
Athena She was born from Zeus' head. She is the goddess of knowledge, strategy and fair warfare. She is the patroness of Athens. She is related to the olive-tree.
Apollo He is Zeus' son with Leto. He is the god of light and sun, in addition to music and the arts. He has a twin sister, Artemisa.
Artemis She is Zeus and Leto's daughter and Apollo's twin sister. She is the goddess of hunting and chastity. She is represented with a bow and arrows.
Ares He is Zeus and Hera's son. He is the god of war. He is the opposite of his half-sister, Atenea, because he represents violence.
Aphrodite She was born in the sea. She is the goddess of love and beauty. She is associated with the sea, dolphins, apples and roses among other things.
Hestia She is the eldest daughter of the Titans Chronos and Rhea. She is the goddess of the home. She rarely left Mount Olympus and didn't talk with any gods.
Hermes He is Zeus and Maya's son. He is the messenger god. He is related to travelers, sports and commerce.
Demeter She is Zeus' elder sister. She is the goddess of agriculture. Moreover, she protected the instituton of marriage and the circle of life and death.
Poseidon He is the son of the Titans Chronos and Rhea and Zeus' brother. He is the god of the sea.
Hades He is the son of the Titans Chronos and Rhea and Zeus' brother. He is the god of Hell.
Dionysus He is Zeus' son. He is the god of wine and feasts.
Check point: exercises What God would you worship? Why? Do you think that the Greeks were religious people? Why? Why not?
The Heroes They were sons of gods but also human beings. They were mortals, but very powerful. They were considered the founders of cities. Some of their names were Achilles, Ulysses and Hercules.
Other fantastic creatures Cyclops: They were monsters with only one eye. The most famous is Polyphemus, who was defeated by Hercules. Centaurs: They were half horses, half human beings. They were very strong and fought in many battles.
Religious Celebrations The temple was the house of the gods. The offerings that pepople gave were food and things that the gods used. The oracles were messengers from the gods to the people. People wanted to know the gods' opinions because the gods could help or hurt human beings. The Delphic Oracle was the most famous oracle. The phrophets were the people who interpreted the messages from the oracles.
Places of worship The Houses: Each family had a little altar dedicated to Hestia (the goddess of the home) and to their dead family members. The City: Priests and magistrates directed the celebrations and everybody participed in the offers, processions and animal sacrifices. The sanctuaries: They organized theatre plays and sports. The most famous was the Olympic games.
The Olympic Games They were celebrated in the city of Olympia. They were in Zeus' honour and were celebrated every four years. People from all of the Greek cities competed. When they were at war, it was declared a truce in order to go to the games.
The Olympic Games The Games lasted seven days: The First: Was dedicated to religious worship. The following five days: People competed in different sports: races, discussions, javelin throws, long jumps,etc... The last day: They gave out the prizes and gave thanks to Zeus. Every man could come to these feasts; even strangers and slaves. However, women were not allowed to enter.
QUADRIGA RACES It was a carriage drawn by four horses. RACES Greek athletes competed naked.
Check point: Exercises #1 Which of the following was NOT a child of Zeus? Hercules Ares Jason Perseus #2 What is the name of Hestia's mother? Hera Rhea Gaea Demeter
#3 Who was Polyphemus? a shepherd a cyclops son of Poseidon all of the above Pick your favorite hero. Write and answer at least 5 different “Wh” questions and some “yes” and “no” questions about your hero.