“This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:        •...
Perspectives on Development• Psychologists as “parenting experts”  – John B. Watson     • Rigid feeding schedules     • Tr...
Nature versus Nurture• Idealists or Rationalists  – Plato, Descartes     • Some knowledge is inborn  – Jean-Jacques Rousse...
Nature versus Nurture• G. Stanley Hall  – Milestones were dictated by inborn    developmental plan     • Identify norms• J...
Internal and External Influences• Maturation  – Genetically programmed sequential patterns    of change    • Universal• Se...
Continuity-Discontinuity Issue• Continuity  – Quantitative change• Discontinuity  – Stages of development  – Qualitative c...
Internal and External Influences• Timing of Experience  – Experience may be needed to trigger genetic    programs  – Criti...
Internal and External Influences• Behavior Genetics  – Study of identical and fraternal twins  – Adopted children studies ...
Internal and External Influences• Gene-Environment Interaction  – Child’s genetic heritage may predict    something about ...
Internal and External Influences• Internal Models of Experience  – A set of core ideas about the world,    him/herself, re...
Aslin’s Model of Environmental                InfluenceAslin’s Model                      “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
The Ecological Perspective• Ecology – context in which each child develops  – Urie Bronfenbrenner     • Children are raise...
Patterson’s Model   “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
Vulnerability and Resilience• Vulnerabilities  – Difficult temperament, physical abnormality,    allergies, alcoholism• Pr...
Figure 1.3            Horowitz’s            Model“Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
Theories of Development• Psychoanalytic Theories  – Behavior is governed by unconscious as well    as conscious processes....
Psychoanalytic Theories• Eric Erikson  – Psychosocial stages     • Children are influenced by cultural demands that       ...
Cognitive-Developmental and         Information-Processing Theory• Jean Piaget  – Adaptation - the nature of the human    ...
Cognitive-Developmental and         Information-Processing Theory• Lev Vygotsky• Complex forms of thinking have their  ori...
Cognitive-Developmental and         Information-Processing Theory• Information Processing Theory  – Explains how the mind ...
Figure 1.4 InformationProcessing Research                   “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
Learning Theory• Classical Conditioning - Ivan Pavlov  – Influences emotional responses• Operant Conditioning – B.F. Skinn...
Learning Theory• Social Cognitive Theory – Albert Bandura  – Observational learning or modeling     • Can be used for lear...
Comparing Theories•   Assumptions    – Active or passive?    – Nature or nurture?    – Stability or change?•   Usefulness ...
Questions to Ponder?• Examine your own childhood  – What are three influential factors from your    childhood environment ...
Research Designs and         Methods• Four Goals for the scientific study of  human development  – Describe  – Predict  – ...
Age-Related Changes• Cross-Sectional Designs  – Cross-sectional research is very useful    because it is relatively quick ...
Age-Related Changes• Longitudinal Designs     Only by studying the same children over time     (that is, longitudinally), ...
Age-Related Changes• Sequential Designs – Allow for comparison of cohorts while incorporating   some degree of individual ...
Figure 1.5 A HypotheticalSequential Study of Attention Span                     “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
Identifying Relationships          Between Variables• Naturalistic          • Case Studies  Observations                  ...
Identifying Relationships          Between Variables• Correlations               • Positive correlation                   ...
Limits of CorrelationsThey do not reveal causal relationshipsThat is, one variable does not cause anotherto occur         ...
Experiments• Control Group  – Dependent variable• Experimental Group  – Independent variable• Quasi-experiments           ...
CROSS-CULTURAL       RESEARCH– Ethnography  • Extensive study of one culture– Direct comparison of two or more cultures   ...
Figure 1.6             “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
RESEARCH ETHICS• Protection of animal rights and human  subjects  – Protection from harm  – Informed consent  – Confidenti...
1            Prenatal Development                                                               And                       ...
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Chap01revised 1211869017232114-8-1

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  • The instructor may want to “google” a few sites live for the students to look at or may prepare a list ahead of class time to demonstrate both good and bad web expertice.
  • Aslin’s Model of Environmental Influence 1. No environmental effect 2. Maintenance 3. Facilitation 4. Attunement 5. Induction
  • Chap01revised 1211869017232114-8-1

    1. 1. “This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, pf any images; • any rental, lease, or lending of the program.” “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007”
    2. 2. Perspectives on Development• Psychologists as “parenting experts” – John B. Watson • Rigid feeding schedules • Traditional parenting makes children emotionally weak – Benjamin Spock • Urged open displays of affection • Avoid too much conflict over weaning and toilet training – The Internet Web site “Experts” “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    3. 3. Nature versus Nurture• Idealists or Rationalists – Plato, Descartes • Some knowledge is inborn – Jean-Jacques Rousseau • All human beings are naturally good • Seek experiences that help promote growth• Empiricists – John Locke • Tabula Rasa – All knowledge is created from experience – Environmental factors change development “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    4. 4. Nature versus Nurture• G. Stanley Hall – Milestones were dictated by inborn developmental plan • Identify norms• John Watson – Behaviorism • Children can be trained through manipulation of the environment • “Little Albert” “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    5. 5. Internal and External Influences• Maturation – Genetically programmed sequential patterns of change • Universal• Sequential • Relatively impervious to environmental influences “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    6. 6. Continuity-Discontinuity Issue• Continuity – Quantitative change• Discontinuity – Stages of development – Qualitative change “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    7. 7. Internal and External Influences• Timing of Experience – Experience may be needed to trigger genetic programs – Critical periods • Goslings – Sensitive periods • A time when a particular experience can be best incorporated into the maturational process “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    8. 8. Internal and External Influences• Behavior Genetics – Study of identical and fraternal twins – Adopted children studies – Heredity affects a broad range of behaviors • Height, body shape, tendency towards obesity • General intelligence • Spatial visual ability • Reading disability • Alcoholism, schizophrenia, depression • Temperament – emotionality, activity, sociability “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    9. 9. Internal and External Influences• Gene-Environment Interaction – Child’s genetic heritage may predict something about environment – Heritage may affect the way a child behaves with other people – Children’s interpretations of their experiences are influenced by genetic tendencies “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    10. 10. Internal and External Influences• Internal Models of Experience – A set of core ideas about the world, him/herself, relationships with others – through which all subsequent experiences are filtered• Aslin’s Model of Environmental Influence – 5 models of possible gene-environment interaction (see next slide) “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    11. 11. Aslin’s Model of Environmental InfluenceAslin’s Model “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    12. 12. The Ecological Perspective• Ecology – context in which each child develops – Urie Bronfenbrenner • Children are raised in a complex social ecology – Patterson’s research on origins of antisocial behavior • Parents using poor discipline • Rejection by peers • Academic difficulties • Deviant peer group – Culture is a large influence • Individualism versus collectivism “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    13. 13. Patterson’s Model “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    14. 14. Vulnerability and Resilience• Vulnerabilities – Difficult temperament, physical abnormality, allergies, alcoholism• Protective factors – High intelligence, good coordination, easy temperament• Facilitative environments encourage development• Children high in protective factors show resilience even in difficult environments “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    15. 15. Figure 1.3 Horowitz’s Model“Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    16. 16. Theories of Development• Psychoanalytic Theories – Behavior is governed by unconscious as well as conscious processes. – Sigmund Freud • Libido • Defense mechanisms • Personality Structure – Id, ego, superego • Psychosexual Stages – Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    17. 17. Psychoanalytic Theories• Eric Erikson – Psychosocial stages • Children are influenced by cultural demands that are age related • Children must interact in a positive way with the environment for a healthy personality to form – Trust versus Mistrust » Caregivers must be responsive and loving » Mistrust may lead to difficulty in forming intimate relationships as an adult “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    18. 18. Cognitive-Developmental and Information-Processing Theory• Jean Piaget – Adaptation - the nature of the human organism is to adapt to its environment • Assimilation • Accommodation • Equilibration – Stage theory of cognitive development • All children go through the same kinds of sequential discoveries about their world • Children must progress through 4 distinct stages “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    19. 19. Cognitive-Developmental and Information-Processing Theory• Lev Vygotsky• Complex forms of thinking have their origins in social interactions – Scaffolding • Guiding the child’s learning by a skilled social partner through modeling and structure – Zone of Proximal Development • That range of tasks which are too hard to do for the child by themselves but that they can do with the help of a skilled social partner “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    20. 20. Cognitive-Developmental and Information-Processing Theory• Information Processing Theory – Explains how the mind manages information – Uses computer models to explain learning – Explicit theories about memory formation • Sensory memory • Short-term memory • Long-term memory - Identified both age-related and individual differences in information processing “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    21. 21. Figure 1.4 InformationProcessing Research “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    22. 22. Learning Theory• Classical Conditioning - Ivan Pavlov – Influences emotional responses• Operant Conditioning – B.F. Skinner – Operant conditioning • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Punishment “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    23. 23. Learning Theory• Social Cognitive Theory – Albert Bandura – Observational learning or modeling • Can be used for learning both abstract concepts and concrete skills – Intrinsic reinforcement • Internal reinforcers such as pride – Does not indicate developmental changes that accompany age “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    24. 24. Comparing Theories• Assumptions – Active or passive? – Nature or nurture? – Stability or change?• Usefulness – Generate predictions? – Heuristic value? – Practical value?• Eclectic Approach “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    25. 25. Questions to Ponder?• Examine your own childhood – What are three influential factors from your childhood environment that helped to shape who you are today? – What are three important biological or genetic traits that helped to shape who you are today? “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    26. 26. Research Designs and Methods• Four Goals for the scientific study of human development – Describe – Predict – Understand – Influence “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    27. 27. Age-Related Changes• Cross-Sectional Designs – Cross-sectional research is very useful because it is relatively quick to do – Can give indications of possible age differences or age changes – Cohort – age-related differences due to grouping by age “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    28. 28. Age-Related Changes• Longitudinal Designs Only by studying the same children over time (that is, longitudinally), can developmentalists identify consistencies (or changes) in behavior across age• Study of individuals or groups over a long period of time• Can identify individual differences and compare them to group differences “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    29. 29. Age-Related Changes• Sequential Designs – Allow for comparison of cohorts while incorporating some degree of individual differences. “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    30. 30. Figure 1.5 A HypotheticalSequential Study of Attention Span “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    31. 31. Identifying Relationships Between Variables• Naturalistic • Case Studies Observations – In-depth examinations – Observe people in of single individuals their normal environments – Extremely useful in making decisions – Observer bias about individuals – Have limited – Frequently the basis of generalizability important hypotheses about unusual developmental events “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    32. 32. Identifying Relationships Between Variables• Correlations • Positive correlation – High scores on one – Number ranging from variable are usually accompanied by high -1.00 to +1.00 scores on the other – Describes the strength • Negative correlation of a relationship between two variables – Two variables that move in opposite directions “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    33. 33. Limits of CorrelationsThey do not reveal causal relationshipsThat is, one variable does not cause anotherto occur “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    34. 34. Experiments• Control Group – Dependent variable• Experimental Group – Independent variable• Quasi-experiments “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    35. 35. CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH– Ethnography • Extensive study of one culture– Direct comparison of two or more cultures • Fernald & Morikawa (1993) – 30 Japanese mothers and infants were compared to 30 American mothers and infants “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    36. 36. Figure 1.6 “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    37. 37. RESEARCH ETHICS• Protection of animal rights and human subjects – Protection from harm – Informed consent – Confidentiality – Knowledge of results – Deception “Copyright © Allyn & Bacon
    38. 38. 1 Prenatal Development And End Show Birth“This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, pf any images; • any rental, lease, or lending of the program.” “Copyright @ Allyn & Bacon 2007”
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