Maria C. R. Harrington <ul><li>Founder & CEO Virtual Field Trips, LLC </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Professor of Information...
“ Can Simulated Ecological Environments of nature inspire independent exploration, an intrinsic desire to learn and acts o...
Field Work
Design Context & Partnerships <ul><li>User Needs, Goals & Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child’s Exploration, Discovery & ...
Immersive Virtual World & Informal Learning Simulation <ul><li>Used High-end Game Engine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualize 1...
Photorealistic Game Engine
Annotate with Facts
Annotate with Story
The Virtual Trillium Trail
Two Research Studies <ul><li>Study One: Real vs. Virtual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baseline Control (n=12) </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Study One: Real vs. Virtual <ul><li>Baseline Control (n=12) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A one-way, within-subject ANOVA, with re...
 
<ul><li>Total Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Real has more information than the Virtual, results in higher learning activity: <...
Main Effects: Environment <ul><li>Plant Only Objects </li></ul><ul><li>When Content in the Virtual is Identical to the Rea...
Main Effects: Order <ul><li>Second Field Trip,  </li></ul><ul><li>Real or Virtual, shows more Learning Activity </li></ul>...
<ul><li>The t-test for two independent groups (one-tail, post-hoc analysis) was carried out to help explain the results.  ...
Real to Virtual Transfer <ul><li>In the past, such an analysis was impossible for life-critical training -- combat militar...
Interaction <ul><li>Interaction was found (Total Map Annotations by Group)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The one-way, between-sub...
Salient Events <ul><li>Some probability distribution of events, like a “ Salamander Find ,” that occur only in the real en...
Conclusions: Real vs. Virtual <ul><li>Real is Superior Overall </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual match the Real for in-curriculum ...
Study Two: 2X2 ANOVA <ul><li>Study Two: Two Factor ANOVA as a Planed Orthogonal Contrast (POC) on Critical User Interface ...
 
Visual Fidelity
Navigational Freedom
<ul><li>Independent Variables  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Fidelity: Two Levels: Low (LF) and High (HF) </li></ul></ul><u...
Hypothesis
Knowledge Gained
Results: Knowledge Gained <ul><li>Navigational Freedom shows Trend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F (1,60)   = 2.71,  p  = 0.105 </...
Salient Events
Results: Salient Events <ul><li>Navigational Freedom shows strong Trend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F (1,60)   = 3.23,  p  = 0.0...
Emotional Reactions <ul><li>Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient show </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquiry to Learning (r =0.700...
Future Work
SEEE Tripartite Model <ul><li>Simulated Ecological Environments for Education (SEEE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual, the...
Child Computer Environment Interface <ul><li>Truth, </li></ul><ul><li>Fidelity, </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom, </li></ul><ul><...
The Virtual Trillium Trail <ul><li>is available here:  http://www.virtualtrilliumtrail.com/index.html </li></ul>
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Human Factors and Ergonomics 2011 Maria C. R. Harrington

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  • My main interests focus on the question: Can simulated ecological environments of nature inspire independent exploration, an intrinsic desire to learn and acts of creation for the child?
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics 2011 Maria C. R. Harrington

    1. 1. Maria C. R. Harrington <ul><li>Founder & CEO Virtual Field Trips, LLC </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Professor of Information Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Science Department, Slippery Rock University </li></ul><ul><li>Ph.D. in Information Science </li></ul><ul><li>School of Information Science, University of Pittsburgh </li></ul><ul><li>Bachelor of Science in Economics & Art, Carnegie Mellon </li></ul>
    2. 2. “ Can Simulated Ecological Environments of nature inspire independent exploration, an intrinsic desire to learn and acts of creation for the child?”
    3. 3. Field Work
    4. 4. Design Context & Partnerships <ul><li>User Needs, Goals & Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child’s Exploration, Discovery & Inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher and Naturalist Guide Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical & Cognitive Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educational & Learning Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PA Ecology NCLB Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal Educational Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audubon Society of Western PA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary School Teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realistic Data & Visualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ESRI Visualized Terrain Datasets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSF Long-term Plant Population Datasets (Dr. Kalisz) ( http:// www.pitt.edu/~kalisz / ) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Immersive Virtual World & Informal Learning Simulation <ul><li>Used High-end Game Engine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualize 1 Square Mile of Data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Annotate Virtual World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cards for Facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio Sprites for Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Virtual Trillium Trail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working Prototype in 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebuilt with Garage Games Torque 3D in 2009 for a Commercial PC Release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iPad, Macintosh versions expected in 2012 </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Photorealistic Game Engine
    7. 7. Annotate with Facts
    8. 8. Annotate with Story
    9. 9. The Virtual Trillium Trail
    10. 10. Two Research Studies <ul><li>Study One: Real vs. Virtual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baseline Control (n=12) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A one-way, within-subject ANOVA, with repeated measurements, in counterbalanced order (n=12) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study Two: Two Factor ANOVA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor 1: Visual Fidelity (High & Low) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor 2: Navigational Freedom (High & Low) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One system with four condition states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planed Orthogonal Contrast on Critical User Interface Software Dimensions (n=64) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Study One: Real vs. Virtual <ul><li>Baseline Control (n=12) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A one-way, within-subject ANOVA, with repeated measures, in counterbalanced order (n=12) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two Groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group 1: Real-Virtual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group 2: Virtual-Real </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience the two Environments in opposite order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Count Learning Activity of “Salient Events” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic, Pre & Post tests after each on Facts, Concepts, Emotional Response, and a Creative Activity </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Total Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Real has more information than the Virtual, results in higher learning activity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H1a: μ Total Activity (Real) > μ Total Activity (Virtual) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real (M = 4.5, SD = 2.71) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual (M = 2.83, SD = 3.43) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F(1,11) = 4.68, p = 0.05 </li></ul></ul>Main Effects: Environment
    13. 14. Main Effects: Environment <ul><li>Plant Only Objects </li></ul><ul><li>When Content in the Virtual is Identical to the Real, there is no difference in learning activity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H2o: μ Plant-only Activity (Real) = μ Plant-only Activity (Virtual) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real (M = 2.75, SD = 1.96) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual (M = 2.83, SD = 3.43) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F(1,11) = 0.00, p = 0.95 </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Main Effects: Order <ul><li>Second Field Trip, </li></ul><ul><li>Real or Virtual, shows more Learning Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Practice Makes Perfect! </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>The t-test for two independent groups (one-tail, post-hoc analysis) was carried out to help explain the results. </li></ul><ul><li>H8a: Total Activity: μ Real(First) < μ Real(After Virtual) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real (First) (M = 2.8, SD = 2.6) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real (After Virtual) (M = 5.8, SD = 1.9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>t = -2.29, df = 10, p = 0.023 (one-tailed, α = 0.01) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prime the Real with the Virtual, as the mean value significantly increased. </li></ul>Virtual to Real Transfer
    16. 17. Real to Virtual Transfer <ul><li>In the past, such an analysis was impossible for life-critical training -- combat military training. </li></ul><ul><li>Educational and learning applications, the question is valid and viable. </li></ul><ul><li>H9a: Total Activity: μ Virtual(First) < μ Virtual(After Real) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual (First) (M = 0.0, SD = 0.0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual (After Real) (M = 3.8, SD = 2.4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>t = -3.88, df = 10, p = 0.00 (one-tailed, α = 0.01) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforce the Real with the Virtual, as the mean value significantly increased. </li></ul>
    17. 18. Interaction <ul><li>Interaction was found (Total Map Annotations by Group) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The one-way, between-subjects ANOVA produced evidence of interaction for the Total map Annotation learning activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H6a: Total Activity: Interaction Groups x Order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F(1, 5) = 30.69, p = 0.003. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus, some factor is effecting the variables in a non-constant way… </li></ul><ul><li>Something in the real world is having an interesting impact. </li></ul>
    18. 19. Salient Events <ul><li>Some probability distribution of events, like a “ Salamander Find ,” that occur only in the real environment, and result in highly salient, personally meaningful memories. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Salient Events” are critical for learning and become design features </li></ul><ul><li>If recognized by a teacher, or software, become “Teachable Moments” </li></ul><ul><li>Episodic Memory anchors entire knowledge ontology </li></ul>Salient Event Teachable Moment
    19. 20. Conclusions: Real vs. Virtual <ul><li>Real is Superior Overall </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual match the Real for in-curriculum materials </li></ul><ul><li>Practice makes Perfect </li></ul><ul><li>“ Salient Events” as Environmental Driven Opportunities for Teachable Moments for Learning, Uniquely Personal, & UI Critical Design Features </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer in Both Directions </li></ul><ul><li>Prime & Reinforce with the Virtual </li></ul><ul><li>Use Real & Virtual Together for Maximized Learning </li></ul>
    20. 21. Study Two: 2X2 ANOVA <ul><li>Study Two: Two Factor ANOVA as a Planed Orthogonal Contrast (POC) on Critical User Interface Software Dimensions (n=64) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor 1: Visual Fidelity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low Fidelity set to Cartoon Quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High Fidelity set to Photorealistic Quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factor 2: Navigational Freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low Navigational Freedom set to a virtual path </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High Navigational Freedom allow 360 degree exploration at will </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>UI and Game Design Parameters? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Gained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salient Events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Reactions of Curiosity, Beauty, Awe & Wonder, Calm & Excitement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts of Creation & Sharing </li></ul></ul>
    21. 23. Visual Fidelity
    22. 24. Navigational Freedom
    23. 25. <ul><li>Independent Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Fidelity: Two Levels: Low (LF) and High (HF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigational Freedom: Two Levels: Low (LN) and High (HN) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Gained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salient Events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fact Cards Inquired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time in System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts of Creation </li></ul></ul>Study Two: 2X2 ANOVA Group LFLN n=16) Visual Fidelity Navigational Freedom Low Visual Fidelity (LF) High Visual Fidelity (HF) Low Navigational Freedom (LN) High Navigational Freedom (HN) Group LFHN n=16) Group HFHN n=16) Group HFLN n=16) Group LFLN n=16) Visual Fidelity Navigational Freedom Low Visual Fidelity (LF) High Visual Fidelity (HF) Low Navigational Freedom (LN) High Navigational Freedom (HN) Group LFHN n=16) Group HFHN n=16) Group HFLN n=16) Group LFLN n=16)
    24. 26. Hypothesis
    25. 27. Knowledge Gained
    26. 28. Results: Knowledge Gained <ul><li>Navigational Freedom shows Trend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F (1,60) = 2.71, p = 0.105 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual Fidelity is Strong and Significant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F (1,60) = 10.54, p = 0.0019 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Significant Evidence of Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F (1, 60) = 4.85, p = 0.0315 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highest Gains in Condition of High Visual Fidelity & High Navigational Freedom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(M=37.44, SD = 13.88) </li></ul></ul>
    27. 29. Salient Events
    28. 30. Results: Salient Events <ul><li>Navigational Freedom shows strong Trend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F (1,60) = 3.23, p = 0.0773 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual Fidelity is Strong and Significant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F (1,60) = 4.35, p = 0.00413 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F (1, 60) = 1.48, p = 0.2285 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highest Counts: Condition of High Visual Fidelity & High Navigational Freedom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(M=16.75, SD = 6.27) </li></ul></ul>
    29. 31. Emotional Reactions <ul><li>Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient show </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquiry to Learning (r =0.700**, p = 0.00) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awe & Wonder to Total Attitude, (r=0.727**, p =0.000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awe & Wonder to Knowledge Gained, (r = 0.273**, p =0.000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beauty to Awe & Wonder (r =0.506**, p=0.000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And many more on Exploration, Calm, Excitement, Curiosity, Desire to Share, Create, Presence, and Immersion </li></ul></ul>
    30. 32. Future Work
    31. 33. SEEE Tripartite Model <ul><li>Simulated Ecological Environments for Education (SEEE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual, theoretical, and empirical framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to explain information flows between the world and the human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markov Model? </li></ul></ul>http://etd.library.pitt.edu/ETD/available/etd-08072008-141657/unrestricted/MariaCRHarrington.pdf
    32. 34. Child Computer Environment Interface <ul><li>Truth, </li></ul><ul><li>Fidelity, </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom, </li></ul><ul><li>Beauty, </li></ul><ul><li>Awe & </li></ul><ul><li>Wonder </li></ul>
    33. 35. The Virtual Trillium Trail <ul><li>is available here: http://www.virtualtrilliumtrail.com/index.html </li></ul>
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