Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology


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Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology

  1. 1. Biological Science B I O L O G Y
  2. 2. Dr. Maria Belen Ynzon Gusto DDM, BSED Major in Biological Science, MED Major in Chemistry (ongoing) Faculty at FQDMFSSHS Biology and Basic Physics
  3. 3. Science - Careful - Disciplined - Logical search for knowledge • all aspect of the universe and always subject to correction and improvement upon discovery of better evidence.
  4. 4. Scientific Method • Logical way to solve a problem or answer a question Steps 1. Observation 2. Formulation of hypothesis 3. Collecting data 4. Publishing results 5. Forming a theory 6. Developing a new hypothesis 7. Revising the theory
  5. 5. Fields of Science • Natural Science – deal with nature a. Physical Science – deals with the study of nonliving things ex. Chemistry, Physics. Astronomy b. Biological Sciences – deals with the study of living things ex. Biology, Botany, Zoology, Ornithology
  6. 6. Social Sciences – deal with human relations or the study of man in his group activities. Ex. History, Economics, Political Science
  7. 7. Pure and Applied Science Pure science – basic research done for the sake of knowledge itself. Applied science – makes practical use of this knowledge.
  8. 8. BIOLOGY -is the science of life -- it is the study of the structures, functions and relationships of living-things or organisms.
  9. 9. Living Things
  10. 10. Structure – refers to the way the body is organized. All forms of life are made up of the same basic structural unit that carries on the basic functions necessary for the maintenance and the perpetuation of life.
  11. 11. Characteristics of Life 1. Movement/Locomotion 2. Excretion 3. Reproduction 4. Respiration/Homeostasis 5. Irritability/Sensitivity/Adaptability 6. Nutrition 7. Growth
  12. 12. Brief History of Biology The early Greeks were the first known biologists - Biological investigations and everything in nature was controlled by different gods.
  13. 13. Natural Philosophers • Aristotle – the Father of Biology, was one of the greatest natural philosophers who lived in the Golden Age of Greece • Galen – a Roman physician, became the greatest authority of the human anatomy, obtained knowledge from the dissection of animals. • Andreas Vesalius • William Harvey – he study and trace the circulation of blood
  14. 14. Marie Francois Bichat-discovered that organs were composed of tissues. Carolous Linnaeus-binomial system of nomenclature Robert Hooke-discovered cell as the basic unit of structure of tissues Anton Van Leeuwenhoek-microscope Louis Pasteur
  15. 15. • Gregor Mendel • Charles Darwin • Alexander Fleming • James Watson and Francis Crick-DNA double helix model • Frederick Sanger and Walter Gilbert-DNA sequencing technology • Georges J.F Kohler and Cesar Milstein-use antibodies in medicine as diagnostic and therapeutic agents • Kary Mullis-polymerase chain reaction- diagnosis of genetic diseases
  16. 16. FIELDS OF BIOLOGY • Biology is the science of life. Two major divisions are: a. Botany-the study of plants or flora b. Zoology-the study of animals or fauna
  17. 17. Areas of specialization A. Morphology-study of structures and forms 1. Gross Morphology- study of external structures 2. Anatomy-study of internal structures as revealed by dissection a. Cytology-the study of the structure and functions of cells.
  18. 18. b. Histology-the study of tissues c. Organology-the study of organs 3. Physiology- the study and functions of parts of an organism 4. Ecology- the study of the relationship between the organism and its environment 5.Taxonomy- the study of the systemic classification and scientific naming of organisms 6. Genetics- the study of heredity and
  19. 19. 7. Embryology- the study of the growth and development of an organism within the fertilized egg 8. Evolution- the study of origin and differentiation of different kinds of organisms 9. Paleontology- the study of fossils of living things and their distribution in time 10. Pathology- the study of plant and animal diseases 11. Biochemistry- the study of chemical processes occurring within the living matter
  20. 20. 12. Entomology- the study of insects 13. Helminthology- the study of worms 14. Ichthyology- the study of fishes 15. Ornithology- the study of birds 16. Herpetology- the study of reptiles 17. Malacology- the study of mollusks 18. Protozoology- the study of protozoans 19. Conchology- the study of shells 20. Anthropology- the study of man 21. Mammalogy- the study of mammals 22. Phycology- the study of algae 23. Mycology- the study of fungi
  21. 21. 24. Pteridology- the study of ferns 25.Agrostology- the study of grasses 26. Bacteriology- the study of bacteria 27. Microbiology- the study of microscopic organisms 28. Lichenology- the study of lichens
  22. 22. Modern Biological Tools and Techniques 1. Microscopy – examine small objects 2. Cell and Tissue Culture – grow cells or tissues outside the living organism 3. Centrifugation – separates cells or cell organelles 4. Chromatography - purify biological molecules 5. Gel Electrophoresis – separate and visualize proteins or nucleic acids
  23. 23. 6. Spectrophotometry – determine the concentration of proteins or nucleic acids in a solution 7. Polymerase Chain Reaction – make copies of a given DNA fragment using an enzyme called DNA polymerase 8 DNA Sequencing – determine the sequence of nucleic acids present in a given gene of DNA fragment 9. Immunoassays – identify a particular disease or the presence of bacterial and viral infections ex. Pregnancy test
  24. 24. 10. DNA Cloning – used to produce large quantities of specific DNA fragments 11. Microarrays (Gene Chips) – used to identify genes involved in the different processes inside the cell
  25. 25. Summary: Biology – is the science that deals with the study of life processes of living organisms and the search for solutions to problems associated with them. Biologists – use the scientific method to solve biological problems Biology is divided into many branches and specialized fields that correlate and overlap with one another.
  26. 26. The study of Biology is important because it helps us to understand the hows and whys of living systems Living things exhibit unique characteristics that make them different from non-living things. Modern biology is the study of organized knowledge contributed by many biologists from different generations.
  27. 27. There is a wide variety of choices in terms of career options and opportunities in biology. The raid advancements in biology is the result of the development of modern tools and techniques to study biological problems. Twenty-first century biology is characterized by rapid developments in biotechnology and molecular biology.