Iodine, iodolipids, Antioxidants, Cancer & Evolution.
Corso di aggiornamento per MMG della AUSL di Rimini Dr. Sebastiano Venturi Pennabilli AUSL-Rimini Iodine, Iodolipids, Antioxidants, Cancer & Evolution Rimini, 16 Febbraio 2013 Lo IODIOUn vecchio ma valido strumento terapeutico, per oltre unsecolo, nella TBC, arteriosclerosi, artropatie, linfatismo (deficitimmunitari), dermatiti, cataratta, BPCO, alcune tireopatie e comeestratto della tiroide nel cancro della mammella (Beatson,1896) e nel cancro gastrico (Diesing,1911).
“PIANETA DONNA” DONNA” 14 Febbraio 2013 IodioSecondo le ultime ricerche lo iodio avrebbe anche unaimportantissima attività antiossidante ma sono necessari ulterioristudi per comprendere esattamente il suo meccanismo dazione.Secondo queste “recenti” acquisizioni lo iodio sarebbe in grado diproteggere lorganismo dai danni dell‘ ipercolesterolemiae da molte malattie cardiovascolari : aterosclerosi ed ipertensione.Per i soggetti strettamente vegetariani o che non consumano pesce èconsigliata una supplementazione di 200 mcg di iodio al giorno
Dec. 25, 2012More Pregnant, Nursing Women Iodine Deficient, Some Experts Say A growing number of pregnant and nursing women in the U.S. have iodine deficiencies, according to a group of experts who wrote an opinion paper published in the Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA calling for potassium iodide to be included in all prenatal vitamins. Iodine deficiency causes low thyroid hormone levels in mothers and can lead to brain development disorders in babies.
JAMA ArticleReleased: 12/17/2012Critical Need for Iodineduring Pregnancy and Nursing
• • Diet and academic performance ... a national survey of schoolchildren in 2003-04 has confirmed the re-emergence of iodine deficiency. Professor of medicine at the University of Sydney, Cres Eastman • The Sydney Morning Herald January 9, 2013 Students may need more iodine
Tuesday 6 November 2012 HEALTH IS WEALTHIodine preventbreast cancer
7 agosto 2013(ANSA) - ROMA, 7 AGO - 2013.Una ricerca del Royal Free Hospital di Londra.Secondo gli studiosi, che hanno notato comela diminuzione iodio abbia portato a un aumentodei deficit cognitivi nei bimbi britannici,:quello che verrebbe a mancare allorganismo e una quantita importante diiodio, essenziale per la crescita. Una mancanza anche lieve di questoprezioso minerale in gravidanza, come dimostrano alcune precedentiricerche, influisce negativamente sul quoziente intellettivo deibambini.Infine, concludono gli studiosi del Royal Free Hospital, poco iodio potrebbeessere responsabile anche di tumori al seno
Interdisciplinary studies demonstrate that :Iodide constitutes the firstinorganic antioxidant in a livingsystem.- Venturi S, Venturi M. (1999). Iodide, thyroid and stomach carcinogenesis: evolutionary story of a primitive antioxidant? Eur J Endocrinol;140(4):371.- Packer, L. (2008). Oxidants and Antioxidants in Biology. XIV Biennial Meeting of theSociety for Free Radical Research International; October 18-22, 2008. Beijing (China).- Küpper, F.C., Carpenter, L.J., McFiggans, G.B., et al. (2008). "Iodide accumulationprovides kelp with an inorganic antioxidant impacting atmospheric chemistry".Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(19): 6954–8.
Le prime due reviews della letteratura medica internazionale su IODIO e CANCRO MAMMARIO.Oggi su GOOGLE: 2.520.000 paginecitano “Venturi S” : 1.390.000Venturi S.Is there a role for iodine in breast diseases? Breast. 2001 Oct;10(5):379-82.Venturi S, Donati FM, Venturi A, Venturi M, Grossi L, Guidi A.Role of iodine in evolution and carcinogenesis ofthyroid, breast and stomach. Adv Clin Path. 2000 Jan;4(1):11-7. Review.
Su “PIANETA DONNA” DONNA” 14 Febbraio 2013 IodioSecondo le ultime ricerche lo iodio avrebbe ancheunimportantissima attività antiossidante ma sono necessariulteriori studi per comprendere esattamente il suo meccanismodazione.Secondo queste recenti acquisizioni lo iodio sarebbe in grado diproteggere lorganismo dai danni dell‘ ipercolesterolemiae da molte malattie cardiovascolari : aterosclerosi ed ipertensione.Per i soggetti strettamente vegetariani o che non consumano pesce èconsigliata una supplementazione di 200 mcg di iodio al giorno
In 1883, Kocher observed that atherosclerosis,frequently appeared following thyroid extirpationand suggested that hypothyroidism may becausally associated with atherosclerosis.In 1930-50’s, potassium iodide has long been usedempirically in patients with arteriosclerosis andcardiovascular diseases by European physicians,and Turner reported the efficacy of iodine anddesiccated thyroid in preventing thedevelopment of atherosclerosis in rabbits.
L’atomo di iodio (costituito da 53 elettroni e 53 protoni + 74 neutroni) rappresenta una “cenere nucleare”. Infatti deriva da un processo di nucleo-sintesi avvenuto più di 10 miliardi di anni fa’ in una stella-supernova, che esplodendo lo ha disperso nel pulviscolo primordiale che, circa 5 miliardi di anni fa’, ha formato il nostro pianeta-Terra.
Storia del 54° elettrone dello ioduro• Ioduro 54 elettroni • Iodio 53 elettroni
Thermodynamic History of Life = H2O and of first Antioxidant = IODIDE and IODATE The the iodate anion, IO3− weight ofKIO3 = 214.00097 Il radicale idrossilico •OH, ha 1 elettrone in meno Formula weight: 18.015
The sea is rich in iodine, about 60 micrograms per liter, since most of theiodine was removed and washed away from the soil accumulated due torains and the glacial ages.
Lo iodio “difende” i doppi legami c=c dei PUFAs delle membranedallo OSSIGENO e li protegge dalla perossidazione lipidica,per cui si chiama "Numero di iodio“ il numero di doppi legami. The Canadian Government has recognized the importance of DHA omega-3: "DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid, supports the normal development of the brain, eyes and nerves." Importante nella evoluzione dell’ Homo Sapiens: Savana o Litorale?
Recently Aceves et al. (2005) reported that thepercentage of radiolabeled iodide in cellularhomogenate of breast tissue is40 % in lipid fraction,50 % in protein fractionand 8 % in nuclear fraction.Aceves also reported that in mammary glandhomogenates from virgin rats, the addition of iodinesignificantly decreases lipoperoxidation measuredby the thiobarbituric acid reaction and expressed asmalondialdehyde (MDA).
Human Evolution: Past, Present & Future: Anthropological, Medical & Nutritional Considerations. London, 8-10th May 2013 Iodine, PUFAs and Iodolipids in Health and Diseases: an evolutionary perspective (1) Sebastiano Venturi - Servizio di Igiene AUSL - Pennabilli (RN), Italy - Phone: 0541 928205 - E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org The structural, metabolic and synergic CHEMISTRY actions of iodine and polyunsaturated Iodide and T4 trigger the amphibian fatty acids (PUFAs) are of crucial metamorphosis that transforms Membrane chemistry About 3.5 billion years ago (BYA) in the importance for life evolution on the sea, primitive oxygenic and the vegetarian tadpole in an adult earth and for the “membrane lipid carnivorous frog, with better Phospholipids contain 2 fatty acids one saturated photosynthetic algae, the basis of the neurological, visuospatial, olfactory and one unsaturated (shown by the double bond) language” of the cells (2) (FIG.8) . marine food chain, accumulated iodine And cognitive abilities for hunting, linked to a glycerol. and selenium as protective trace- as seen in other predatory animals. Iodide (I-), acts in marine and elements of their fragile membrane Similarly happens in the neotenic terrestrial organisms as an electron- PUFAs against peroxidation. Fishes do amphibian salamanders, which,without donor through peroxidase enzymes not produce omega-3 fatty acids but introducing iodine, don’t transform in and it is the most primitive inorganic only accumulate them by eating algae. terrestrial adult and live and reproduce in antioxidant in all iodide-concentrating the larval form of aquatic axotolt. cells from primitive marine algae to In amphibians metamorphosisn environ- Antioxidant mechanism of iodides: more recent vertebrates. mental iodine and T4stimulate the iodide acts as a primitive electron-donor, spectacular apoptosis (programmed cell through peroxidase. death) of the cells of the larval gills, tail and About 500 million years ago, thyroid fins trans -forming the aquatic tadpole into cells (which had their origin in the a “more advanced” terrestrial frog (6). primitive vertebrate foregut) migrated 2 I- I2 + 2 e- (electrons) = - 0.54 Volt Fig. 1 and they specialized in the uptake and 2 I- + Peroxidase + H2O2 + 2 Tyrosine storage of iodo-compounds in the 2 Iodo-Tyrosine + H2O + 2 e- “membrane lipid language” (FIG.8) Arachidonic Acid Pathway thyroid, a new follicular organ. and Leukotriene, Prostaglandin, Thromboxane Synthesis At the same time, ectodermic cells differentiated into neuronal cells and 2 e- + H2O 2 + 2 H+ ( of physiological Fig. 2 water-solution) 2 H 2O became the primitive nervous system and brain. (2, 3). and 2 I- + Peroxidase + H 2O 2 + Tyrosine, Histidine, Both these cells types synthesize Lipids, Carbons Iodo-Compounds + H2O + iodolipids, as a novel “words” of the 2 e- (antioxidants) chemical “lipid language” that developed among cell membranes as Iodocompounds: Iodotyrosine, Iodohistidine, Contrary to the amphibian metamorphosis, an adaptation to the terrestrial Iodolipids, Iodocarbons in mammals and humans the thyroidectomy and environment. The study of iodo-lipids iodine deficient hypothyroidism might be might be a new study area for considered as a sort of metabolic and IODIDE is the most ancient and the most phylogenetic regression to our antecedent research on apoptosis, carcinogenesis powerful natural antioxidant (4, 5). reptile stage. and degenerative diseases as well as on the so-called Packer L, 2008 ; Küpper F et al., 2008 ; Venturi S, 2011 Indeed, many symptoms of the hypothyroid DHA - iodolactone (5-iodo-4-hydroxy-7,10,13,16,19- humans seem to be reptile-like: dry, hairless, docosapentaenoic acid, gamma-lactone) and “littoral/waterside/(semi)aquatic In chemistry, the amount of unsaturation scaly, cold skin with a general slowdown of AA – iodolactone (6-iodo-5-hydroxy-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid, theory of human evolution ”. (double bonds) in PUFAs is called the metabolism, digestion, heart rate, nervous delta-iodolactone). iodine value or iodine number. reflexes, lethargy and hypothermia (6) (Fig. 2). Structure of some best known iodolipid molecules Fig.3. Iodine in Evolution Over three billion years ago in the primitive sea, blue-green algae were the first living Prokaryota to produce oxygen and halocarbons (such as CH3I) in the atmosphere, and also PUFAs in lipid membranes. About 500 million years ago, when the primitive brain evolved in marine animals, thyroid cells originated from the primitive fore-gut in vertebrates, migrated and specialized in uptake and storage of iodocompounds in a novel follicular “thyroidal” structure, as a reservoir for iodine. 350 Mya some vertebrates evolved into amphibians and reptiles when they colonized the I-deficient land. In vertebrates, thyroid hormones became active in the metamorphosis and thermogenesis as an adaptation to the terrestrial environment. (Venturi, 2000). Figs. 6, 7. Distribution of 131-iodine ( half-life: 8 days) in radioautographies of the body of the rats after subcutaneous injection of radioiodine. High I-concentration is evident in iodo-compounds and iodo-lipids of choroid plexus, retina, hypothalamus, gastric mucosa and epidermis, where it is detectable up to 5 days after injection. (Courtesy of Path Biol. 1961 and Acta Radiol Ther Physics Biology, 1964 ) REFERENCES 1- Venturi S. (2013). Iodine, PUFAs and iodolipids in health and diseases: an evolutionary perspective. Accepted for publication in Nutrition & Health. 2- Crawford, M. A. (2010). The language of lipids. In: Cunnane S, Stewart K, Eds. Human Brain Evolution, The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources. Wiley-Blackwell, NJ, 2010, 13-28. 3- Cunnane, S. (2010). Brain-Selective Nutrients. In: Cunnane S, Stewart K, Eds. Human Brain Evolution,Figs. 4, 5. Sequence of 123-iodide total-body scintiscans of a woman after intravenous The Influence of Freshwater and Marine Food Resources, Wiley-Blackwell , NJ, 2010: 33-61. 4- Küpper, F.C., Carpenter, L.J., McFiggans, G.B., et al. (2008). "Iodide accumulation provides kelp with aninjection of 123-iodide (half-life: 13 hours); (from left) respectively at 30 minutes, and at 6, 20 and 48 hours. inorganic antioxidant impacting atmospheric chemistry". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105 (19): 6954–8.The highest and rapid concentration of radio-iodide is evident in stomach, salivary glands, peri-encephalic liquor, 5- Packer, L. (2008). Oxidants and Antioxidants in Biology. XIV Biennial Meeting of the Society for Freechoroid plexus and oral mucosa. In the thyroid, the iodide-concentration is more progressive, as in a reservoir Radical Research International; October 18-22, 2008. Beijing (China).*[ from 1% (after 30 minutes) to 5.8 % (after 48 hours) of the total injected dose ]. (Venturi, 2011; Ahn, 2011). 6- Venturi, S. (2011). Evolutionary Significance of Iodine. Current Chem. Biol., 5 ,3 :155-162.
Sequence of I-123 total-body scintiscans of a woman after intravenous injection of I-123 (half-life: 13 hours); (from left) respectively at 30 minutes, and at 6, 20 and 48 hours.It is evident the highest and rapid concentration of radio-iodide (in white) in gastricmucosa of the stomach, salivary glands, peri-encephalic liquor and oral mucosa. Ingastric mucosa of the stomach, 131-I (half-life: 8 days) persists in scintiscans for morethan 72 hours. In the thyroid I-concentration is more progressive, as in a reservoir [from1% (after 30 minutes) to 5.8 % (after 48 hours) of the total injected dose].(Venturi, 2000)
Scintiscans that show (white, at left), the significant presence in peri-encephalic liquorin human brain of 123-radio-iodine at 30 minutes after intravenous injection.
• Secondo S. Cunnane (2005) lo iodio è stato il nutriente cerebrale più importante, assieme ai PUFA, nella evoluzione del cervello umano.• Secondo J. Dobson (1998) la minore efficienza del NIS e l’ habitat nell’ entroterra carente di iodio avrebbero favorito ca. 35.000 anni fa’ la scomparsa dell’ Uomo di Neanderthal (che ha caratteristiche osse dei cretini-iportiroidei).• Secondo L. Cordain (2005) il rapido sviluppo della agricoltura ca. 10.000 anni fa’ e la conseguente dieta ricca di amidi e carboidrati avrebbero favorito lo sviluppo delle malattie cronico-degenerative attuali su base carenziale. Le malattie degenerative sarebbero state più rare negli uomini raccoglitori-cacciatori-pescatori che possedevano un genoma già adattato alla dieta carnivora e pescivora da alcuni milioni di anni.
Assunzione giornaliera di iodio, secondo la Food and Nutrition Board, Istitutodi Medicina, U.S.A. 2001. Si noti che un apporto di iodio ottimale per la mammella di 6,0mg è stato riportato da Kessler in Breast J. 2004, 10:328-36
Living organisms were confined to the sea-water for more than 3 billion years.When about 500 million years ago plants and animals began to transfer from thesea to estuaries, rivers and land, environmental deficiency of antioxidant minerals(and iodine) was a challenge to the evolution of terrestrial life.
Algae contain the highest amount of iodine (1-3 % of dry weight)and were the first living cells to produce oxygen in theatmosphere.About 80% of the Earths oxygen is now produced by marineplanktonic algae.Brown algae accumulate iodine more than 30,000-70,000 timesthe concentration of this element in seawater.Algal phytoplankton is the basis of marine food-chain andacts as a biological accumulator of iodides, selenium (andn-3 fatty acids).Therefore, we suggested that algal cells required a protectiveantioxidant action, in which iodides, seem to have had thisspecific role.
When about 500-300 Mya some living plants and animals beganto transfer from the sea to rivers and land,in marine-fishes, plants and animals the terrestrial diet becamedeficient in many essential marine minerals, including iodine,selenium, etc.Terrestrial plants, in replacement of marine antioxidants,optimized the production of other new endogenousantioxidants such as ascorbic acid, polyfenols, carotenoids,flavonoids, tocoferols etc., some of which became “essentialvitamins” in the diet of terrestrial animals and humans (asvitamins C, A, E, etc.)Chordates (the primitive vertebrates) began to usethe “new” thyroidal follicles, as reservoir of antioxidant iodine.
In “Evolution of Dietary Antioxidant Defences” (2007) we have recently suggested that it possible differentiate 3 chronologic stages:1) The primitive antioxidants, which are active in seawater from more than 3.5 billion years.2) The middle-aged antioxidants ( as ascorbic acid, and some carotenoids, flavonoids, tocoferols etc.), which are active, firstly, in estuary-waters from about 500 million years ago.3) The more recent antioxidants ( as some pigmented polyfenols, carotenoids, flavonoids,etc.), which appeared, firstly, in fruits and flowers of Angiosperm Plants from about 200-50 million years ago.
In “Evolution of Terrestrial Antioxidants” we have recently suggested that it possible differentiate 3 chronologic stages.
500 million years ago, new endogenous antioxidantsappeared in plants as ascorbic acid, polyfenols, carotenoids,flavonoids, etc.A few of these appeared more recently, about 200-50 millionyears ago in fruits and flowers of angiosperm plants.In the wide range of antioxidants, we hypothesise an “evolutionary hierarchy”,where the most ancient antioxidants might be more essentialthan the modern ones in the developing stages of animal andhuman organisms.(Venturi, 2007)
Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C.JAMA. 2007 Feb 28;297(8):842-57.Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary andsecondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis. The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group, Copenhagen Trial UnitCONTEXT: Antioxidant supplements are used for prevention of several diseases.OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of antioxidant supplements on mortality in randomized primaryand secondary prevention trials.CONCLUSIONS:Treatment with beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin Emay increase mortality.The potential roles of vitamin C and selenium on mortalityneed further study.
In terrestrial ( and fresh-water) animalsa new kind of diseases appeared:mal-nutritional diseases,as goiter, Keshans disease,and probably cancer, atherosclerosis, etc.
In iodine-deficient mainland, the two types of animal and plant cellshave followed two different and opposite paths :the animal cell has used the " thyroid follicle " as reservoir of iodine:
On the contrary, plant cells eliminated iodine from its own metabolism and used"anti-iodine" substances as cyanide, thiocyanate and cyanogenic glycosides (-CN), such aspesticides for defense against animal cells of parasites and herbivores:(Meccanismi biochimici dei vegetali terrestri, che hanno eliminato lo iodio dal loro metabolismo ed usano sostanzegozzigene ad azione “anti-iodio” come di difesa antiparassitaria (cianuri e glicosidi cianogenici) contro la CELLULAANIMALE )
Evolution of iodine from non-hormonal to hormonal functionswas made in 3 steps:1) Formation of the thyroidal-follicle as reservoir of iodine.2) Utilization of the thyroxine as an iodide transporter.3) The new hormonal action was made possible by the formation of T3-Receptors (proteins and genes) in the cells of vertebrates.Firstly, about 500 Mya, in marine chordates, the primitive T3-Rswith a metamorphosing action appeared.Then, about 250-200 Mya, in the birds and mammalians, othersmore recent T3-Rs with metabolic and thermogenetic actionswere formed.
Cultured freshwater salmons showing nutritionally induced spinalcurvature (scoliosis and lordosis) by vitamin C deficiency.If these fishes are housed in iodine-rich sea-water with algae and marinephytoplankton, symptoms of vitamin C deficiency improved , probablybecause of the presence of other antioxidants in sea-water.
Cancerous Lesions in South River FishSkin cancer. These catfish from the South River have the highest skin tumorrate and second highest liver tumor rate."
October 7, 1999“U.S.A. Committee of the House andSenate regarding Marine Research”encourages basic research through the study of theimmune system of these marine animals and theexamination of bioactive molecules from shark, skate,and ray cells and tissues that have the potential toinhibit disease processes in humans".In fact, iodine-deficient fresh-water fishes suffer of higherincidence of infective, parasitic, and in particular ofneoplastic, and atherosclerotic diseases than marine fishes.
Various tumors that developed spontaneously in freshwater fishes.(a,b) thymic lymphoma. (c,d) Adenocarcinoma found in the right gill (e,f) Retinoblastoma in the right eye (g,h) A germ cell tumor found in the anterior upper part of the peritoneal cavity. Arrowheads indicate tumors. Note the exophthalmos
Iodide and T4 trigger the amphibian metamorphosis that transformsthe vegetarian tadpole in an adult carnivorous frog, with better neurological,visuospatial, olfactory and cognitive abilities for hunting, as seen in other predatoryanimals.Similarly happens in the neotenic amphibian salamanders, which,withoutintroducing iodine, don’t transform in terrestrial adult and live and reproduce in the larvalform of aquatic axotolt. In amphibians metamorphosisn environ-mental iodine andT4stimulate the spectacular apoptosis (programmed cell death) of the cells of thelarval gills, tail and fins transforming the aquatic tadpole into a “more developed”terrestrial frog.
We reported that, on the contrary way to amphibianmetamorphosis, in the mammalshypothyroidism might be considered like a sort ofphylogenetical and metabolical regressionto a former stage of reptilian life.In fact, many disorders, similar to reptilian features,such as a dry, hair-less, scaly, cold skin and a generalslowdown of metabolism, digestion, heart rate, nervousreflexes with lethargic cerebration, hyperuricemia, andhypothermia afflict hypothyroid humans.
Contrary to the amphibian metamorphosis, in mammals and humans thethyroidectomy and iodine deficient hypothyroidism might be considered as a sort ofmetabolic and phylogenetic regression to our antecedent reptile stage.
World map of prevalence of iodine-deficient goitre (1920), before iodine-prophylaxis (Ip).Oblique lines show areas of iodine-deficient endemic goitre before Ip. andblue areas show chains of mountains: n shows the % of gastric cancer mortality fromall cancers (1977), and (n) shows the % of GC mortality in nations where a satisfactoryiodine intake was been reached. Some coastal regions of Japan and China have iodine-excess endemic goitre. (from WHO, 1960).
The thyroid gland is, embryogenetically and phylogenetically, derived from primitive stomach, in fact,Stomach and Thyroid share:1) Iodine-concentrating ability,2) cell polarity and apical microvilli,3) similar organ-specific antigens and associated autoimmune diseases,4) secretion of similar mucinous glycoproteins (thyroglobulin and mucin) and peptide hormones,5) the digesting and reabsorbing ability and,6) similar ability to form iodotyrosines by peroxidases.
Fig. 7. A sinistra, la mappa italiana della distribuzione provinciale per mortalità dacancro gastrico (1975-1977, da Cislaghi e al.) è pressoché sovrapponibile allamappa dei territori con gozzo a destra
Mucosa from hamster’s stomach. Autoradiographs showed selective concentrationof iodide in the cells of surface epithelium and gastric pits of the fundus andpyloric part of the stomach (in lower part).In upper part, the correspondent section stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin.Selective iodide-concentration was not observed in the fore-stomach gastric glands,duodenum, jejunum, ileum or colon.(Modified, reproduced with permission from Logothetopoulos and Myant, 1956; Courtesy of J. Physiol.)
Different national trends of gastric cancer mortality in relation to the beginning(arrows) of iodine prophylaxis (Ip.) and to the percentage of the population in whichIp. is used. Japan and most of Chile and Italy never used iodized salt.In the USA iodized salt has been used since 1920-30 and is the most iodine-concentrated (100 mg of potassium iodide per kg).Canada, Australia and New Zealand show similar trends to the USA, since they haveused similar iodized salt during the same period of time. (Venturi et al. 1993)
Gastric cancer mortality trend in Italy compared with the trends of the nearendemic provinces of Cuneo and Aosta (M+F, crude rates).Only Aosta had carried out iodine-prophylaxis since 1930-35, but it wasinterrupted in 1975. After some years, its trend started to reverse and increase.The same happened in Guatemala after 1976. ( From Venturi et al. 1993).
Fig. 7. A sinistra, la mappa italiana della distribuzione provinciale per mortalità dacancro gastrico (1975-1977, da Cislaghi e al.) è pressoché sovrapponibile allamappa dei territori con gozzo, a destra
In Italy gastric cancer is more frequent in farmers thanin fishermen, whose diet is richer in iodine.Comparing the years 1980 to 1995, we found thatItalians, whose gastric cancer mortality hasdecreased, have increased their yearly fishconsumption (from 8.7 to 14.4 kg per person),and decreased their consumptions of fruit(from 86.6 to 84.9 kg per person) and vegetables (from111.4 to 108.2 kg per person).
Gołkowski F, Szybiński Z, Rachtan J, Sokołowski A, Buziak-Bereza M, Trofimiuk M, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Przybylik-Mazurek E, Huszno B.Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, Krakow, Poland.Iodine prophylaxis:the protective factor against stomachcancer in iodine deficient areas.Eur J Nutr. 2007 Aug; 46(5):251-6.
Trend of Gastric Cancer Mortality per 100,000 in the city of Urbino (in blue)(M+F standardized rates), compared with Italian Gastric Cancer Mortalityafter iodine- prophylaxis started in 1984.
Goiter (thyroid hyperplasia) in fresh-water salmonWhen about 400 Mya some animals began to transfer from the sea to rivers and land,terrestrial diet became deficient in many marine trace-elements (as iodine, selenium, etc.). In terrestrial iodine-deficient fresh-waters some salmonids suffer of thyroid hypertrophy or related metabolic disorders.
Carenza iodica congenita nell’agnello nato da pecora carente di iodio (sopra), confrontato conl’agnello normale (sotto). Si notano danni (cerchiati) di alcuni organi iodio-captanti: l’epidermidecon assenza del vello, lesioni osteo-scheletriche, microcefalia con riduzione delle cellulenervose cerebrali ed inoltre importanti deficit immunitari. Questo quadro è assimilabile a quellodel cretinismo endemico nell’uomo. ( Da Hetzel, modificata )
Nutr Health. 2009;20(2):119-34. Iodine in Evolution of Salivary Glands and in Oral Health Sebastiano Venturi and Mattia VenturiSequence of 123-I total-body scintiscans of a thyroidectomized woman (for thyroid cancer) afterintravenous injection of 123-I; (from left) respectively at 1, 6 and 24 hours. The highest and rapidconcentration of radio-iodide in oral mucosa and salivary glands and in gastric mucosa of thestomach and urinary I-excretion is evident. Upper right: I-concentration in salivary glands and oralmucosa after 1 hour. Bottom right: I-concentration in salivary glands and oral mucosa after 24hours. ( From Venturi, 2000).
Iodine, thymus, and immunity. Venturi S, Venturi M. Nutrition. 2009 Sep;25(9):977-9.Distribution of I-131 (white) in the abdomen of a pregnant mouse 24h after intravenous injection.Two fetuses with a high concentration of I-131 in the thyroid gland, thymus, placenta, and gastric mucosa . The concentration is also high in the milk gland of the mother. (Reproduced with permission from Acta Radiologica.)
Sebastiano Venturi PennabilliLa carenza iodica in Romagna Rimini, 16 Febbraio 2013
Fig. 7. A sinistra, la mappa italiana della distribuzione provinciale per mortalità dacancro gastrico (1975-1977, da Cislaghi e al.) è pressoché sovrapponibile allamappa dei territori con gozzo, a destra
Dr. Sebastiano Venturi Corrispondenza tra territori geologici della EMILIA-ROMAGNA soggetti a maggiore dilavamento (anche dello iodio) e quindi con maggiore franosità edaree con maggiore ENDEMIA di GOZZO da carenza iodica (in viola e arancio)
La figura n. 4 mostra la correlazione in Romagna tra territori (USL) di montagna e dipianura affetti da gozzo endemico (in nero e grigio) comparati con la provincia costieradi Rimini, dove la mortalità per cancro gastrico (G.C.) era minore e c’era una più bassaprevalenza di gozzo (Venturi, 1985).
Nel 1984-85 il dott. Pietro Riva,allora primario di medicina nucleare nell’ospedale di Cesena, per contodell’Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, svolse una vasta indagineepidemiologica, su tutti gli scolari dell’entroterra romagnolo(Forlì, Cesena e Rimini) in cui rilevò una prevalenza digozzo nel 30-70% di bambinicon valori medi di ioduria di 57,5 microgrammi/litro.In particolare nell’entroterra riminesecomprendente anche il comune di Bellaria-Igea arina,su 2.396 bambini esaminati delle scuole elementari e medieil gozzo era presente nel 49,8%con punte di 71,4% nel comune di Saludecio.
Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo Studio della endemia di gozzo in Romagna _ (palpabile) _ Bambini delle scuole elementari e medie (numero) Dr. Pietro RIVA (IOR- Cesena). Anni: 1984-5 Valle del RUBICONE IODURIE medie (mcg/L)Valle del SENIO (504 )- GOZZO % 32,3 Mercato Saraceno 58,11Valle del RABBI (561)- GOZZO 63,3 Sarsina 55,8 Ranchio 37,2Valle del MONTONE (486)-GOZZO 24,5 S. Piero in Bagno 67,5 Verghereto 56,9Valle del SAVIO (1119)- GOZZO 44,5 Alfero 63,9 Longiano 101,2Valle del RUBICONE (927 )-GOZZO 37,4 Sogliano 74,9 Borghi 85,8Valle del BIDENTE (779 )- GOZZO 43,2 Roncofreddo 78,7Bassa-ValMarecchia (1797) – GOZZO 44,8 Valle del CONCA Mondaino 70,1 Montegridolofo 49,8Alta-ValMarecchia - GOZZO 55,0 Saludecio 40,8 Morciano 57,5 Montefiore Conca 68,4Valle del CONCA (599 )- GOZZO 60,6 Alta-ValMarecchia - 47,2Dati in rosso del Venturi – Anni 1980-82
In population of Montefeltro, a mountainous andiodine-deficient in Romagna-Marche regions of central Italy, in 1970’s, we have reported a significant high rates of :1. iodine-deficient endemic goiter2. cretinism and mental deficit3. gastric cancer mortality4. immune-deficiencies5. oral and dental pathologies6. cardio-vascular diseases
“I Dati della Regione Emilia-Romagna _2011 " per uso- FARMACIdisaggregati per Nucleo di Cure Primarie della AUSL di Rimini",sembrano confermare la correlazione tra carenza iodica e talune patologiedegenerative croniche ( malattie tiroidee, gastriche, cardiovascolari eneuropsichiche) delle quali,nella Alta Valmarecchia, noi, come "NCP Alta Valmarecchia", abbiamo iltriste primato nella media AUSL e nella media REGIONALE:N.C.P. “Alta Val Marecchia” RIMINI REGIONE E-RPat. cardio-vascolari: A. V.M- = 331 _ AUSL= 312 _ RER= 310Disordini gastrici : A. V.M- = 182 _ AUSL= 151 _ RER= 145Malattie psichiatriche: A. V.M- = 93 _ AUSL= 70 _ RER= 74Malattie della TIROIDE : A. V.M- = 71 _ AUSL= 55 _ RER= 63
7 agosto 2012Lo iodio è importante per combattere problemi di sviluppo cerebrale, infertilita ecancro.La ricerca del Royal Free Hospital di Londra afferma che : aumento deila diminuzione iodio abbia portato a undeficit cognitivi nei bimbi britannici,influendo negativamente sul quoziente intellettivo dei bambini.Infine, concludono gli studiosi del Royal Free Hospital, poco iodiopotrebbe essere responsabile anche dei tumori al seno.
IN CONCLUSIONE,spero che quando si parlerà di IODIO non si parlerà più solo di TIRODE, ma anche di altri non meno importanti organi! GIOPPINO: famosa ed emblematica maschera BERGAMASCA
BIBLIOGRAFIA in scholar.google.com/citations? SELECTED PUBLICATIONS inhttps://sites.google.com/site/iodinestudies/home