1. Inventions of XX-XXI century Great Britain produced many of the most influential scientists,mathematicians and inventors in modern history. With influential people, comeinfluential ideas, theories and inventions, some of which have the potential tochange the world forever. During XX-XXI century in the UK were devised a lot ofinventions. Their enumeration would take much time so today I would likemention the most significant and the most interesting.XX CENTURYThe first of the inventions that I would like to is the creation of nuclear physic byErnest Rutherford. When he was studying at Manchester University, Rutherforddiscovers that the atom is a small, heavy nucleus surrounded by orbital electrons.In 1901 Hubert Booth patents the first vacuum cleaner. His large machine is firstused in stores.1906-1930 FREDERICK HOPKINS DISCOVERS VITAMINSAs a young man Frederick Hopkins works for six months as an insurance clerkbefore he takes a course in chemistry, sits an examination, and does so well thatThomas Stevenson, an expert in poisoning, engages him as his assistant. Hopkinscontributes to several important legal cases, takes his London University degree inthe shortest possible time, and then studies medicine at Guys Hospital, London.Biochemistry is a new, underfunded field, but Hopkins pursues his research. In1929 Hopkins shares the Nobel Prize with Christiaan Eijkman for discoveringsubstances vital to life and maintaining health – vitamins.1914 BRITS INVENT AIRCRAFT CARRIERSMany people consider military inventions curse, and hardly the best workproduced by anybody. However, without them civilized people would die at thehands of barbarians.In 1914, the Brits launch HMS Ark Royal, the worlds first aircraft carrier. TheAmericans launch their first carrier in 1920. At the beginning of World War II,1924 -1928 JOHN LOGIE BAIRD BECOMES FIRST TO TELEVISE PICTURESHe is plagued by ill health, but John Logie Baird decides to create a television, adream of many scientists. Within two years Baird has built his first crude set.Two years later Baird demonstrates the worlds first television to fifty scientists inhis attic workshop. The next year, 1927, he demonstrates television over 438
2. miles of telephone line between London and Glasgow, and in 1928 he achievesthe first transatlantic television transmission between London and New York.The BBC begins using Bairds television in 1929, but Bairds television worksmechanically. He is exploring electronically supported television when he is edgedout by Marconi.In 1930 Baird demonstrates big-screen television in the London Coliseum,televises the first live TV transmission (of a horse race), develops colourtelevision, and is the first to demonstrate ultra-short wave transmission.1949 ZEBRA CROSSINGS FOR PEDESTRIANSZebra crossings are one of those inventions that has been adopted around theworld. The first zebra pedestrian crossings are traced back to the Belisha beaconsnamed after the Minister of Transport, Leslie Hore-Belisha, who introduced themin 1934.Pedestrians have right of way in the zebra crossing once they have put a foot onit. However, they do depend on motorists stopping and giving way.1960s PETER SCOTT PUTS CONSERVATION ON MAP, FOUNDS WWF, WORLD WILDLIFE FUND (NOWKNOWN AS WORLDWIDE FUND FOR NATURE)Peter Scott, Julian Huxley, Max Nicholson, and several others found WWF to helpsave wildlife and habitats. His father, Robert Falcon Scott, would have beenpleased. As he lay dying in Antarctica, he hoped his young son would beinterested in natural history.Peter Scott is particularly interested in wildfowl. He paints them, writes aboutthem, and establishes trusts to preserve their habitat. The first man knighted forhis contributions to protecting nature, he originates the Red Data Books, whichidentify endangered species, and are an essential tool for conservationists.Today WWF is an international organisation with hundreds of thousands ofmembers. It sponsors projects around the world to conserve beach, forest, andwetlands and to create living relationships for the people and the animals whoshare these lands. WWF was led for years by Sir Peter and later by HRH PrincePhilip, Duke of Edinburgh.1989 TIM BERNERS-LEE INVENTS THE LIBERATING, CIVILISATION-ALTERING WORLD WIDE WEBIn the 1960s, the United States “saw universal networking as a potential unifyinghuman revolution” and implemented a “highly robust and survivable” physicalnetwork based on packet switching. The Internet was born as an open andorganic enterprise that established interconnection and routing policies, andwelcomed expanding networks of users. It required just one other thing for
3. worldwide use: a way for all its users to communicate – www or the World WideWeb.The son of parents who met while working on computers, Tim Berners-Lee growsup playing unconventional games at the dinner table. At Oxford, he builds his ownworking electronic computer out of spare parts and a TV set.He hits on the idea of linking files on his computer, and writes a computerprogram he calls Enquire.But that is only the beginning. Working alone, Tim Berners-Lee takes the conceptof freely accessing knowledge and communicating around the world as far as theyhave ever been taken. He decides to open up his computer to everyone, andinvite them to link their material. In his vision there is no central manager, nocentral database, and no scaling problems. The world wide Web is open-endedand infinite. But for this to occur it has to have a language.So Tim weaves together a relatively easy-to-learn coding system — HTML(HyperText Mark-up Language). He designs an addressing scheme that gives eachWeb page a unique location or url (universal resource locator), and he hacks a setof rules called HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) that allow these documents tobe linked together on computers across the Internet. In less than a decade hisprogram will create a global mass medium.XXI CENTURY2000 - 2012 BRIT JONATHAN IVE DESIGNS FOR APPLE - iMacs, iPods, iPhones, iPads2005 MANCHESTER SCIENTISTS DISCOVER UNKNOWN MATTERA team of British and Russian scientists at the University of Manchester discover anew class of previously unknown materials which are one atom thick and exhibitproperties never seen before.The new materials are ultra-thin, but can be ultra-strong, highly-insulating orhighly-conductive. The discovery opens up fascinating possibilities – clothing thatinsulates but is lighter than gossamer; extremely light and strong computersmade from materials with only one atom.2005 YORKSHIRE CANCER RESEARCH MOVES TOWARD PROSTATE CANCER CUREWorking at the Yorkshire Cancer Research Unit (YCR) at the University of York,Norman Maitland and Anne Collins extract and grow prostate tumour stem cells.This is an exciting development in creating a therapy for eliminating cancer cells.Existing treatments typically reduce the number of cancer cells, but do noteradicate them. Now that tumour stem cells have been grown, specific therapiesfor killing them can be developed.
4. 2006 BRITS USE JUICE FROM MAGGOTS TO SPEED HEALING OF WOUNDSMaggots have been deliberately applied to wounds to get rid of dead tissue andkill bacteria by eating it. Now, according to The Telegraph, "Scientists fromBradford University have discovered an extra benefit: the secretions produced bythe maggots actually speed up the bodys healing process." They expect thatwithin three years they will have bandages infused with maggot juice to speed theregeneration of injured flesh.2006 BRITISH AND AMERICAN RESEARCHERS RESTORE SIGHT TO BLIND USING CELL TRANSPLANTSBritish and American researchers are using cell transplants to restore sight toblind mice, and hope “it may be possible for doctors to treat conditions that causeirreversible blindness, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic eyedamage” for hundreds of thousands who have lost their sight.The plan is to use stem cell-like retinal cells from the affected patient. Theresearch was published in the magazine Nature.2007 BRITISH RESEARCH TEAM GROWS HEART VALVE FROM STEM CELLSA British research team led by Sir Magdi Yacoub, a professor of cardiac surgery atImperial College London and one of the worlds leading heart surgeons, has grownpart of a human heart from stem cells for the first time. If trials scheduled forlater this year prove successful, replacement tissue could be used in transplantsfor hundreds of thousands of people suffering from heart disease within threeyears. Since the stem cells are not embryonic, and can be supplied by the personwho needs the heart, no immune-rejection problems occur.All these staff made our life easier and saved a lot of lives. Thank to Britishinventors we have such a thing as VITAMINS, PENICILLIN, THE JET PLANE, WORLDWIDE WEB, RADIO TELESCOPES, BIRTH CONTROL PILL and many other usefulthings.