The Challenges of Preventing & Responding to Violence Against Women Crimes on Campus, VACLEA Conference 2011


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The Challenges of Preventing & Responding to Violence Against Women Crimes on Campus, VACLEA Conference 2011

  1. 1. The Challenges of Preventing & Responding toViolence Against Women Crimes On Campus VACLEA Summer Conference June 2011
  2. 2. Agenda •  Introduction •  Research •  Challenges & Opportunities •  Legal Landscape
  3. 3. Challenges Addressing VAW
  4. 4. Challenges Addressing VAW
  5. 5. Challenges Addressing VAW We MUST Avoid: “Compounding the lack of transparency, Yale maintains itsown campus police force, to which sex-crime victims areencouraged to report their complaints if they insist uponformal documentation. But victims often do not understandthat this actually tends to contain potentially embarrassingscandals, by preventing real – that is, accountable – lawenforcement from getting involved.”
  6. 6. Challenges Addressing VAW And THIS:
  7. 7. Challenges Addressing VAW •  Campuses have unique challenges due to climate, environment and culture ü  Significant concentration of young adults ü  Mutual support ü  Sometimes - conflicting goals! •  Collaboration, communication, coordination and capitalization are keys
  8. 8. Research National  Sexual  Victimization  of  College  Women  Survey   (2000)  
  9. 9. Prevalence of Sexual Assault 1 in 36 college women in any 7 month period; 90% of perpetrators are known to the victim Fisher, Cullen & Turner, 2000: The Sexual Victimization of College Women
  10. 10. Key Findings •  2.8% experienced a rape or attempted rape (previous 7 month period) •  Data suggests nearly 5% of college women are victimized in a calendar year (5,000 = 250) •  Over course of college career, 20 to 25% will experience rape or attempted rape [National  Sexual  Victimization  of  College  Women  Survey  (2000)]  
  11. 11. Key Findings •  3 in 10 women report being injured emotionally or psychologically from being stalked •  Victim reported threats or attempted harm in 15.3% of incidents •  Victim reported that the stalker forced or attempted sexual contact in 10.3% of incidents [National  Sexual  Victimization  of  College  Women  Survey  (2000)]  
  12. 12. Reported Stalking Incidents Overall, 83.1% of stalking incidents were NOT reported to police BUT…. 93.4% of victims confided in someone, most often a friend, that they were being stalked [National  Sexual  Victimization  of  College  Women  Survey  (2000)]  
  13. 13. Dr. David Lisak’s Research •  The Rape Paradox: ü  Millions of Victims ü  Approx. 5% of rapists are incarcerated or in treatment programs •  Where are all the rapists?
  14. 14. Lisak Study Methodology •  Summary of studies of 1,882 men ü  Duke University & University of Massachusetts (1986-2000) ü  Men were interviewed as part of the study… they were volunteer participants Research Published in Violence and Victims, Volume 17, Number 1 (February 2002)
  15. 15. Lisak Methodology “Have you ever had sexual intercourse with anadult when they didn’t want to because youused physical force (twisting their arm, holdingthem down, etc.) if they didn’t cooperate?”
  16. 16. Lisak Study Findings 1882 Men Assessed: 120 Rapists •  483 rapes & attempted rapes of women they knew •  63% had committed multiple rapes •  Average = 4/rapist •  Rapist patterns •  Percentage of population rapists (small)
  17. 17. Title IX – What Does It Require? Why a DCL? Title IX of the Education Amendments of1972 (“TitleIX”), 20 U.S.C. Sec.1681, et seq., prohibitsdiscrimination on the basis of sex in any federallyfunded education program or activity. ED is issuing theDCL to explain that the requirements of Title IX coversexual violence and to remind schools6 of theirresponsibilities to take immediate and effective stepsto respond to sexual violence in accordance with therequirements of Title IX.
  18. 18. Title IX – What Does It Require? •  Once you know or reasonably should know of possible sexual violence, take immediate action; •  If sexual violence has occurred, take prompt and effective steps to end it, prevent its recurrence, and address effects; •  Take steps to protect the complainant; •  Provide grievance procedures for students to file complaints; •  Use the preponderance of evidence standard; and, •  Notify both parties of the outcome of a complaint
  19. 19. Challenge #1 – Denial •  Societal ü  There’s rape and then “there’s rape-rape” ü  If fear is in the room… •  Institutional ü  Why the sudden interest and attention? ü  1 in 5 college students robbed… •  Individual ü  Respecting boundaries ü  Knowing what’s rape
  20. 20. Challenge #1 – Denial Societal
  21. 21. Challenge #1 – Denial OPPORTUNITIES •  Do it with “Data” •  Consistent messages about VAW within both contexts •  Reinforce support for survivors •  Reinforce accountability for offenders •  Train entire campus •  Bystander Intervention
  22. 22. Challenge #1 – Denial Bystander Intervention •  Evidence-based programming •  Strong results from work in the military •  Some institutional policies can promote social norm of appropriate intervention •  Each campus community member must see themselves as a “bystander”
  23. 23. Challenge #2 – Touch Points Many “touch points” offeropportunities and challenges
  24. 24. Challenge #2 – Touch Points •  Campus Public Safety (sworn/non-sworn) •  Student Affairs (Dean, Residence Life, RAs) •  Health Services •  Counseling Center •  Women’s Center (advocates) •  Academic Dean’s Offices & Faculty •  Off-campus resources
  25. 25. Challenge #2 – Touch Points CHALLENGES -  Poor collaboration leads to cross purposes and poor support for survivors -  Complex and confusing reporting policies complicates the process OPPORTUNITIES -  Strong collaboration (before incidents are reported) ensures survivor’s interest remain top priority -  Advocates embedded in PD; appropriate protocols
  26. 26. Challenge #3 - Coordination Coordination – inside andoutside the institution – often creates tension
  27. 27. Challenge #3 - Coordination •  Poor coordination creates barriers to reporting ü  Fear of not being believed/taken seriously ü  Fear of being retaliated against ü  Fear of losing social supports ü  Fear of “getting in trouble” for multiple policy violations ü  Difficulties in understanding/identifying what happened ü  Lack of clear structure for support and/or reporting
  28. 28. Challenge #3 - Coordination •  Campus public safety •  Local police •  Student Affairs •  Prosecution
  29. 29. Challenge #3 - Coordination •  What are community expectations? (several constituents) •  Do local police handle cases? If so, which? What protocols exist to determine? •  Do campus police handle? What protocols exist to determine? •  “Administrative” Investigations/Inquiries
  30. 30. Challenge #3 - Coordination CHALLENGES •  Are public safety officers trained to appropriate level? •  Are they representing survivor, institution, or “the people?” •  Deans want to move forward (Title IX) •  Prosecutors want to build best possible case SUCCESSES •  Pre-coordination & REAL Relationships •  Close coordination when incident reported
  31. 31. Challenge #3 - Coordination SUCCESSES •  Clear, easy-to-access policies which direct students to specific resources •  Training of all students, faculty and staff regarding policies and processes •  Written notification of rights and reporting options, structures
  32. 32. Challenge #4 – Support Services Existence and coordination of support services
  33. 33. Challenge #4 – Support Services CHALLENGES •  Not all campuses have victim support services; survivors may rely on community resources •  Local providers may not understand campus processes or culture; could lead to poor advice or worst, further danger for the survivor
  34. 34. Challenge #4 – Support Services SUCCESSES •  On and off campus advocates work closely together; ü  Some jurisdictions, advocates serve both community and campus (capitalization) •  Close coordination and communication ü  Positive working relationships with all providers both on and off campus ü  Local support services understand campus culture and processes ü  Regular meetings to practice a coordinated response
  35. 35. Challenge #4 – Support Services SUCCESSES •  Specialized training in VAW, trauma, policies, processes and resources •  Confidentiality •  24/7, free and inclusive services •  Centralized coordination of services
  36. 36. Challenge #4 – Support Services SUCCESSES •  Clear and consistent referral processes •  No “passing the buck” •  Follow-up, follow-up, follow-up
  37. 37. Challenge #5 – Lack of Knowledge Campus may not adequatelyunderstand and/or acknowledgethe nature and dynamic of VAW crimes
  38. 38. Challenge #5 – Lack of Knowledge CHALLENGES •  Lack of knowledge in Student Affairs and Police/Security Departments •  Correlation between violence against women crimes •  Failure to acknowledge the prevalence of relationship violence •  Judicial Board Training
  39. 39. Challenge #5 – Lack of Knowledge SUCCESSES •  Fully informed campus constituents •  VAWA Grants require joint training •  Presence of viable crime prevention and security awareness programs (e.g.: Men Against Rape programs)
  40. 40. Legal Landscape •  Clery Act (educational programming; notifications; crime prevention; support; discipline) •  Campus Sex Crimes Prevention Act (2000) •  Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act (SaVE Act) (pending legislation) •  Case Law & Clery Act program reviews
  41. 41. Opportunities for Success •  Collaboration •  Communication •  Coordination •  Capitalization
  42. 42. Resources • violence_against_women • •  Stalking Resource Center ( •  US DOJ Office on Violence Against Women •  International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) – Law Enforcement Leadership Institute on Violence Against Women •  Dr. David Lisak, UMASS Boston
  43. 43. Contact Steven J. Healy 866-817-5817